Psychology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Research Design
the experimenter's plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to groups, controlling for extraneous variables, and gathering data
At-Risk Participants
Any participants in a research study who may come under some sort of emotional or physical danger as a result of their participation in the study. The degree of risk may vary from severe to minimal or not at all.
Informing the participant (at the study's conclusion) of the true purpose and nature of the research study
A college/university committee that reviews all research proposals that faculty/students plan on conducting
Using other people's ideas, words, or work without giving them the proper credit
Ethnographic Inquiry
Research that seeks to learn about some aspect of a given culture by investigating how members of that culture perceive it
Narrative Study
The use of stories as a source of data with regarding to understanding a given phenomenon
The collection, analysis, and interpretation of data for the purpose of understanding past events
Grounded Theory
An approach to qualitative research theories of human action and thought based on data collected in the real world
Time/Situation Sampling
The process of observing either behavior as it occurs at different time periods or observing the same behavior in different situations
Interobserver Reliability
The extent to which different observers agree with each other with regard to the occurrence of a specific behavior or event
Ex Post Facto Study
A study in which a researcher investigates behavior and events after they have occurred
The extent to which a study actually measures what it intends to measure.
The extent to which a study is consistent across its measurement from one occasion to the next.
Random Sampling
A form of sampling a population in which all members of that population have an equal chance of participating in the study
the extent to which a researcher can manipulate the IV and eliminate or hold steady unwanted, confounding, or nuisance variables.
Extraneous Variables
Any variables in a study that might influence the measurement of the DVs
The ability to show that a hypothesis is false-that is the possibility that any given hypothesis, when tested, could be false
Operational Definition
Defining the IV, DV, and EVs according to the operations necessary to produce or measure them
Controlling EVs by removing them from the experimental study
A control procedure in which all participants experience the same value or level of the IV
A control procedure in which all groups in an experiment are equally exposed to the same levels of EVs
A procedure for controlling sequence or order effects
Sequence Effects
An effect that occurs when more than one treatment is used in an experiment.
Carryover Effects
A condition that result when the effects of one treatment affect how participants respond to a subsequent treatment
Demand Characteristics
Features of the experimental setting that inadvertently cause participants to respond in particular ways
An experiment in which neither participants nor the experimenter knows which treatment participants are receiving. A third party has this knowledge
Etic and Emic
A finding that generalizes across cultures
A finding that is limited to a specific culture
Cultural Response Set
The tendency for individuals of a specific culture to behave in certain ways
Internal Validity
A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks the question of whether your IV is the only possible explanation of the results shown for your DV
Practice Effect
Having previous or repeated experience with the DV may cause participants to score differently on subsequent measures of the DV
Statistical Regression
Individuals with high or low scores on a DV often responding with a score closer to the mean when measured again on that same DV
External Validity
Generalization of the extent to which the results of an experiment apply to the larger population from which the sample used in that experiment was drawn
Doing an experiment over again either by repeating it exactly as it was conducted the first time or by changing aspects of the setting, participants, or conditions
Principle of Parsimony
A method for assigning participants to groups so that each member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups used in an experiment
Random Assignment
A method for assigning participants to groups so that each member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups used in an experiment
Repeated Measures
Measuring or testing participants more than once with regard to the DV
Between-Groups Variability
Variability in DV scores that is due solely to the effects of the IV
Error Variability
Variability in DV scores that is due to factors other than the IV
A statistical test used to analyze data from an experimental design with one independent variable that has three or more groups (levels)
Completely Random ANOVA
A one-way ANOVA that involves independent groups of participants
Repeated Measures ANOVA
A one-way ANOVA that involves correlated groups of participants
Within-Groups Variability
Error variability or the variability in DV scores that is due to factors other than the IV
Factorial Design
An experimental design with more than one IV
Main Effect
The sole effect of one IV in a factorial design
the combined effect of more than one IV on the DV in a factorial design
Mixed assignment
A factorial design in which the group receiving one treatment is independent and the group receiving the other treatment are correlated
A-B-A-B Design
A single-case design consisting of a baseline, treatment, posttest, return to baseline, repeated treatment, and second posttest; best chance of isolating causation
Quasi-Experimental Design
A research design used when you cannot randomly assign your experimental participants to the groups but do manipulate an IV and measure a DV
Interrupted Time Series Design
A quasi-experimental design involving one group of participants that receive repeated pretreatment measures, a treatment, and repeated posttreatment measures
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