Chapter 1-3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes
Emergent properties
Properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on knowledge of the systems individual components
means to bring varied elements together to create a unified whole
Levels of Organization
Atoms - Molecules - Cells - Tissues - Organs - Organ systems - Organisms - Populations of One Species - Ecosystem of different Species - Biosphere
A Monkey Chases The OOOsing Population of Every Scrumptious Banana
The smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes.
Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)
Separates cells from their external environment
Tissues (Texere, to weave)
Form structural and functional units known as organs (Organon, tool), and groups integrate their functions to create organ systems.
Integumentary system
composed of the skin, forms a protective boundary that separates the body's internal environment from the external environment.
Musculoskeletal System
Provides support and body movement
Respiratory (pulmonary) System
exchanges gases
Digestive (Gastrointestinal) system
takes up nutrients and water and eliminates wastes
Urinary (renal) system
removes excess water and waste material
Reproductive System
produces eggs or sperm
Circulatory (cardiovascular) system
Distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels
Nervous & Endocrine systems
Coordinate body functions
10 Organ systems of the body
Circulatory, digestive, endocrine, immune, integumentary, musculoskeleton, nervous, reproductive, respirator, urinary
Cumming Dicks Engage In Intercourse Mostly Ninangs Reproduce Red Urine
Physiological system or event is the "why" of the event. Why does a certain response help an animal survive a particular situation?
Teleological approach
Thinking about a physiological event in terms of its adaptive significance
Immune System
Includes but not limited to the lymphatic systems, protecting internal environment from foreign substances by intercepting material that enters through the intestines and lungs or through a break in the skin.
the "how" of a system
Mechanistic approach
Examines process. For example the mechanistic answer to the questions :How to RBC transport O2? is O2 binds with hemoglobin molecules in the RBC
Translational Research
"bench to bedside" Uses the insights and results gained from basic biomedical research on mechanisms to develop treatments and strategies for preventing human diseases.
A concept in that instead of directly measuring the substance, we can follow the rate at which the substance disappears from the blood.
The elimination of material from the body, usually through the urine feces lungs or skin
Reflex control
Any long distance pathway that uses the nervous, endocrine, or both. DIFFERENCE: Cells at a distant site control the response.
Local control
Restricted to the tissue or cell involved. DIFFENCE: Cells in the vicinity of the change initiate the response.
Positive and Negative Feedback difference
NF: The response counteracts the stimulus, shutting off the response loop. PF: The response reinforces the stimulus, sending the variable farther from the setpoint
Positive Feedback example
Hormonal control of uterine contractions during childbirth. The increased stress of the cervix causes more oxytocin release, which causes more contractions, pushing the baby harder against the cervix. Cycle continues until the baby is delivered releasing the stetch on the cervix and stopping the positive feedback loop.
Negative Feedback example
In an aquarium, the heater warms the water (response) and removes the stimulus (low water temperature). With the loss of the stimulus for the pathway, the response loop shuts off.
Independent variable
Common type of biological experiment either removes or alters some variable that the investigator thinks is an essential part of the observed phenomenon.
When two or more atoms link by sharing electrons they make units
The transfer of electrons from one atom to another or the sharing of electrons by two atoms is a critical part of forming bonds, the link between atoms
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