Biology 1001 Midterm 2 Bauzon Flashcards

DNA
Terms Definitions
What is eugenics?
The sterilization of people who were genetically inferior. Put in place in 1924 by pres. Coolidge
Why is eugenics important
Because now we are able to determine the health of chromosomes and people can decide whether or not to keep babies with mutations
Why are liver cells, liver cells?
Because of the expression of different proteins
Difference between meiosis 1 and 2
In meiosis one there is duplication of chromosomes and in meiosis 2 there is no duplication, the chromosomes just split in half to make 23
Interphase
The replication of DNA before meiosis 1
Prophase
The nucleus dissolves so you can split the chromosomes, then the chromosomes condense (the condensation of chromosomes ) and are attached to microtubules ( little spindles that pull the chromosomes apart)
Metaphase
Lines the chromosomes up so they can move in different directions
Anaphase
Separation of chromosomes
Telophase
Reforming of the nucleus
What are complex genetic traits
Traits that are expressed by individuals who have a genetic and environmental component
3 examples of complex genetic traits
Cancer, cardio vascular disease, diabetes
Laws of segregation
Each pair of chromosomes splits independently of each other
Law of independent assortment
Members of the same chromosome get divided randomly, but equally
What are Watson and krick known for
They discovered the structure of DNA
What is Rosalind Franklin known for
She figured out that the bases (atcg) are on the inside and the phosphate and sugar groups are on the outside
What's the shargoff rule
A pairs with t and g pairs with c and durning mRNA the T turns into a U so A pairs with U.
What's the idea of crossing over
Crossing over is the breaking and rejoining of chromosomes, which is why we have variability even though we come from the same host
What are genotypes and phenotypes
Genotypes are A particular set if alleles carried by an individual. A phenotype is an observable trait
How are genes transported
Transport genes form parents to children to offspring by sharing DNA
What is DNA transcription
Takes place in the nucleus and its when DNA turns into RNA
Wat is mRNA transcription
DNA unwinds,RNA polymerase adds bases (AUGC) and out comes a single strand of RNA
mRNA translAtion?
Takes place in cytoplasm. Codons are read by tRNA, the hold amino acids in place, the Amino acids join and form polypeptides (chain of amino acids), then the amino acids began to fold.
What is DNA replication
The DNA unwinds, DNA polymerase comes in and uses one of the dna strands a copy starts adding bases to the copy until you get a second strand of DNA
When does DNA replication take place
Right before mitosis, in the nucleus
Where is DNA and RNA located
in the nucleus
Homozygous
If the alleles are the same (BB)
Heterozygous
If the alleles are different (Bb)
Dominant trait
Traits seen most often
Recessive
Trait seen less often
What's an allele
Two variations of the same gene
Why the structure of DNA is important
Allows of to express , replicate and repair
Gamete
Sex cell that carries 23 chromosomes, sperm or egg which makes them a haploid. Hap-half
Diploid
Full set of chromosomes 46
Haploid
Half set of chromosomes 23
The 3 amino acids
Always start with U. UAA UGA, and UAG
What is AUG
Methionine, which is the start of all sequences
What is XX and XY
XX is female and XY is male
What is sterlizAtion
The removal of the organs that produce sex cells.
What is cloning
The genetic copy of an individual. Younger version of self
What is somatic nuclear transfer?
When you take the DNA and nucleus out of an egg and someone else genetic info in
What is a chromosome
Genetic info mixed with protein
What is a gene
Specific genetic trait
Sister chromatids
2 identical copies of the same chromosome connected by a centromere
What holds DNA together
Hydrogen bonding
What connects the sister chromatids
A centromere
How many total chromosomes?pairs?
46total and a pair of 23
What's a nucleosome
Section of DNA thAts wrapped around proteins. It's the beads formed by histone proteins
Purpose of amniocentesis
Determine the health if babies chromosomes
What's wrong with XXY and XYY
They are mutations. There is a difference in segregation. They don't pull apart correctly or at all
X-linked and Y -linked traits
If a disease sits in the X chromosome the father can give it to daughter or mother can give it to both kids. If it sits on Y chromosome then son gets it from father
Autosomal recessive
When you have two recessive traits you get the disease
Autosomal dominant
If you have a dominant allele you get the disease. This happens over a period of generations
Pedigree
Chart showing pattern of inheritance of a trait through generations
Type 1 diabetes vs type 2
Type 1is either dominant or recessive, and they can't make insulin. Type 2 is a complex genetic trait and they resist insulin.
Joining of sperm and egg provides
Variability and variability ensures survival which allows for adaptation to changes in environment
Incomplete dominance
When the dominant allele isn't fully expressed
What is codominance
When both dominant and recessive alleles are expressed equally. In heterozygous people (Bb)
How many sperm cells to guys make?eggs?
Guys make 4 sperm at a time and women make 1 egg
What is fertilization
The fusion of 2 gametes to form a zygote
In a nutshell what is transcriptions and translation
Creation of individual proteins. DNA to RNA is transcription mRNA to protein is translation
By learning to manipulate DNA we can
Make drugs to block viruses that replicate
Dogma of molecular biology
The belief that DNA turns to RNA and RNA turns to protein
What's a codon, how is it formed
Codon is 3 nucleotides that read to be an amino acid. Every 3 nucleotides gets read and forms a codon
How many codons do proteins have
2. A stop and start codon
How do we get a linear chain of amino acids
Through transcription and translation
What's an Amino acid
Precursor to a protein
Where are proteins made
Ribosomes make proteins
DNA vs. RNA
DNA is dioxiribose, 2 stranded, ATCG sequence, RNA makes specific proteins, AUGC 5carbon sugar,
mRNA
Messenger RNA that serves as a template for ribosomes, they make a sequence of amino acids which makes proteins.
Converting a gene into RNA
Is called transcription
How we produce insulin
Insulin is used to control blood sugar. DNA unwinds, the gene is found, proteins Are made, and insulin is taken from the blood
How blood sugar works
Each time we eat our blood sugar goes up, so our bodies produce insulin to level it out
Why do poisons work
They prevent basic biological function
What does ricin do
It's a toxic substance in castor oil beans that prevents the two parts of a ribosome from coming together, which causes death because protein production stops
Ribosome subunits
The two parts of a ribosome that come together with mRNA to start a sequence.
DNA to RNA is
Transcription
mRNA to protein is
Translation
DNA replication allows
Allows us to clone ourselves,
What is somatic cell
Any living cell that isn't a reproductive cell
Therapeutic cloning
They take stem cells that have no identities from unborn fetuses thats usually replicated at the 64th cell, allows us to reproduce Body parts
Controversy of taking stem cells
People have many different views on what it means to be alive, some people think its wrong to harvest cells from an unborn fetus because they're cells are still alive
How to mutations happen
When proof reading and repair mechanisms fail
Angelina Jolie's boobs
She had a double mascectomy which removed both breast tissue because she has a family history of BRCA 1 and 2 mutation which causes breast and cervical cancer
BRCA 1and 2
DNA repair genes that remove bad bases
What do DNA repair mechanisms do
Correct mismatches in the bases and do reverse synthesis to repair mistakes
DNA synthesis
DNA can only be synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction while copying a parent strand running in a 3' to 5' direction
What is semi conservative replication
When two old strands are used as templates to create new ones. We keep an old strand and make a new one. We keep the old strand as a reference
What does birth control do
It prevents a pregnancy from developing. It doesn't prevent pregnancy
How are stem cells harvested
They're taken from aborted babies
What is hi fidelity
The sequence has to be correct, in the same order
What is cancer
Disease of overgrowth. Too many misfolded proteins. Complex genetic trait.
What is DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase is a protein that unwinds DNA and makes it straight, separates strands and adds based to create 2 new strands of DNA
Why we go through DNA replication
When we want to replicate cells. Called mitosis
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