Modern U.S. History Test 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NATO
Western nations formed NATO in response to Berlin Blockade, Pledging mutual defense to each other
1955, Warsaw Pact-Response to NATO
The Fall of Joe McCarthy
1954, McCarthy accused U.S. Army of harboring known communists
Senate investigation
"Have you no sense of decency"
Censure-stripped of all appointments
McCarthyism
1946, Joseph McCarthy (Tail-Gunner Joe) elected to senate after lying about his war record and his opponent
Unimpressive Senate Record
1950, wheeling speech
1950-54, Disloyalty Charges
Spies
High Profile spy cases created a sense that the government was infested with communists
1948, Alger Hiss
1950, Physicist Klaus Fuchs
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Impact of the Korean War
U.S. committed to worldwide containment
Election of President Dwight D. Eisenhower
The Cold War at home
Korea Remains Divided
Politics Fuels Hysteria
Republicans argued that Truman/Democrats were soft on communism, forcing Truman to "Get Tough"
Loyalty Review Board
HUAC- House un-American Activity Committee
Blacklist
The End of the War
Matthew Ridgeway led 8th Army to recapture Seoul, Driving North Koreans behind 38th parallel
Truman seeks peace
1951, MacArthur relieved
1953, Peace at the 38th parallel
China Enters the War
MacArthure continues to advance deep into North Korea, approaching Chinese border
Chinese takes sides
MacArthur's Nuclear War
Korean War Begins
June 1950 North Korea launched a surprise attack on South Korea (Captured Seoul)
United Nations responds
General Douglas MacArthur's Inchon invasion
Background on Korea
Korea was one country that was controlled by Japan until end of World War Two
Japanese Surrender and 38th Parallel
Communist Kim Il Sung
U.S. backed Syngman Rhee
The Marshall Plan
Program of direct economic aid to rebuild Western Europe
French/Italian Communism
10% of U.S. federal budget
Actual cost is less.
The Containment Policy
Military and economic aid provided to countries to prevent communist Expansion

Overall U.S. Strategy
George Kennan
Expand or collapse
The Truman Doctrine
States that the U.S. must assist free people attempting to resist communism
Greece and Turkey
The Fall of Western Europe
U.S. offers financial support
Origins of the Cold War
Economic Differences
USSR-Germany alliance
Delay in attacking Germany
Atomic Secrets
The fate of Eastern Europe
German World War Two reparations
Eastern Bloc
USSR absorbed surrounding countries to form the Eastern Bloc
1946, Winston Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech
Soviet Expansion
Incompatible with Democracy
U.S. Must respond
The Cold War
40 year period of intense hostility between the U.S. and the USSR
Economic/Political Influence
Arms Race; Proxy Wars; Space Race
The CIA
1947, the Central Intelligence Agency was created by the National Security Act
Primary Role? Gather information & Advise our policy Makers
Ike's "Influential" CIA
Covert operations
U-2
1960, Francis Gary Powers' U-2 spy plane was "shot" down 2 weeks before summit meeting
Soviets get lucky
A weather plane?
Embarrassing the U.S.
The Space Race
Oct. 1957, USSR launches Sputnik satellite beginning a super power space race
Nov 1957-Second Sputnik
Dec 1957-Vangaurd Rocket-U.S.
1958, U.S. succeeds
Impact? Cold war extended to space
The TPAJAX Project
CIA covert op to replace Iranian Prime Minister Mossadegh with U.S. backed military government
1951, Iranian Oil Fields
1953, The role of the CIA-help to hire and train Iranian Mobsters
Western Companies gain control
The CIA in Guatemala
1954, CIA supported a Guatemalan Coup against democratically elected Jacobo Arbenz
Land Reform
United Fruit Company
The CIA's Role
50 years of military dictatorship
Brinkmanship
President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles develop the Brinkmanship policy
The threat of Nukes
Air Force and nuclear weapons
USSR Response
Soviet Atomic Bomb
U.S. had 2 responses to soviet A-Bomb (1949) including development of the Super & NSC-68
Conventional and nuclear superiority
Guided policy for 20 years
Defense spending triples
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