Lean Quiz #1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What are the 3 base features lean?
1) Stability. 2)material pull, standardization, waste elimination 3) employee involvement
What are the 2 pillars?
1) kanban= heijunka and just in time 2) quality at the source = Jidoka and andon
What is the roof?
1) safety quality delivery cost morale 2) customer satisfaction
4 components of the Continuous Improvement Cycle
Plan -> do -> check -> act
How do we "push" the cycle to Perfection?
"Where there is no standard, there can be no Kaizen"
Taiichi Ohno
Who is Walter Andrew Shewart?
Father of statistical quality control. Came up with PCDA cycle for the control and continuous improvement of a product or process
What did Dr. Edward Deming do?
Implemented Shewart's ideas in Japan in 1950
"The Machine That Changed the World"
By MIT research. Coined the word lean from TPS.
Ford's KEYS to mass production
1)interchangeable parts 2) moving conveyor 3) specialized labor 4) vertical integration
Mass production PROs
1) Model T took 93 minutes 2) 50+ languages but still able to work 3)commercial success 4) employed 100,000
Weaknesses of mass production
1) limited goals.. Just get it made.. 2) end of line repair 3) low employee morale 4) dedicated machines 5) low variety 6) golden handcuffs
How does Alfred Sloan (GM) perfect mass production?
1) product variety 2) decentralization of management 3) division of professional labor 4) standardization of component parts
Weaknesses in GM
1) no labor improvement
Father of the Japanese industrial revolution. Founder of Toyoda Loom Works (Jidoka)
Sakichi Toyoda
Founder of Toyota Group, implemented Chain driven assembly line, and JIT
Kiichiro Toyoda
Implemented JIT and Jidoka.
Eiji Toyoda
Defined MUDA, refined JIT with Kanban. Refined Jidoka by adding Andon
Taiichi Ohno
Taiichi Ohno's consultant who developed SMED and Poke Yoke
Shigeo Shingo
After the 1949 collapse and Kiichiro Toyoda's resignation, what rules changed?
1) lifetime employment 2) wages tied to seniority rather than job function 3) bonus payments from company profit
Limits of Toyota
1) no capital 2) no foreigners 3) only a few presses
Why did they need to create SMED?
Takes 8 hours to change, needed to change every 3 hours.... Idle workers was not allowed
What is the Five Why method?
Used to quickly solve problem when Andon chord was pulled. Compares to Six Sigma. Wanted to reduce the 20% rework that Ford had.
What are the supplier tiers?
1st) work with designers 2nd) specialists who don't compete 3rd) competitive and never saw design... Kanban through tiers
"All we are doing is looking at the time line, from the moment the customer gives us an order to the point when we collect the cash. And we are reducing the time line by reducing the non-value adding wastes"
Taiichi Ohno
"All we are really trying to do in lean manufacturing is to get one process to make only what the next process needs when it needs it. We are trying to link all process-from final consumer back to raw material - in a smooth flow without detours that generates the shortest lead time, highest quality lowest cost."
Jim Womack
Jidoka tools
1) Andon 2) Poke yoke - mistake proofing 3) standardized work 4) PFMEA
JIT tools
1) value stream mapping 2) SMED 3) kanban 4) supermarkets 5) Heijunka - product mixing level
Kaizen tools
1) Work cell design 2) MUDA 3) 5s
What replaced supervisors?
Value stream managers.
What was the department structure?
Team structure with team leaders
Why do we need to design for manufacturing?
Design so that someone can't put the part together incorrectly.
Who casts the biggest "shadow"?
Product design engineer (70%)
What is a lean engineer?
Lean engineers do not represent a completely new body of knowledge, but a unique combination of several traditional and some new areas of knowledge.
"All we are trying to do in lean manufacturing is to get one process to make only what the next process needs when it needs it. We are trying to link all processes in a smooth flow without detours that generates the shortest lead time, highest quality, and lowest cost"
Jim Womack
"The collection of processes and people that produce a final product is called a Manufacturing System. A typical manufacturing system is characterized by a complex arrangement of physical elements characterized by measurable operating parameters"
Dr. Black
Manufacturing system control
Control involves focus and manipulation of each individual process step as well as the entire manufacturing system
The entire system exists to serve what?
Internal and external customers.
Determining profit traditionally
Profit = sales price - cost of production.... (Sales price is the variable)
Determining profit the lean way
Sales price = profit + cost of production... (Sales price is market driven and cost is the variable)
What's the best way to reduce production cost?
Controlling vertically means?
Designed to cascade goals from company vision to the lowest level of operators (Hoshin Kanri or policy Deployment)
Controlling horizontally means?
Consider the entire value stream across functional areas to truly optimize the entire system (value stream managers)
Project Shop
Product stays in position.
Job shop
Organized by machine type. Lot sizes are determined by EOQ normally. 75% of domestic manufacturing works this way
Flow shop
Traditional mass production. Time in each station is designed per take time.
Continuous processing
Products flow in large quantities and continuously
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