AVCA important Flashcards

Animal Chiropractic
Terms Definitions
If an animal has sciatic nerve damage can it still bear weight on the limb?
Yes. There will be loss of sensation below the stifle but can still bear weight
What innervates the extensors of the hoof? What will the horse present like with damage to this nerve?
Peroneal nerve. Damage results in an inability to actively extend the hoof and the hoof will rest on its dorsal surface. Learn to flip foot.
Damage to what nerve will cause sagging of the hock and inability to flex the distal joints?
Tibial nerve
If you have a sacral base posterior right, what does this imply?
There is an AS ilium on the right
What are the 4 classical signs of a brainstem disorder?
Cranial nerve deficits, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, Altered level of consciousness
Spinal cord lesions: UMN vs LMN
C1-c5- UMN to all 4 limbs; c6-T2 LMN to forelimbs and UMN to rear limbs; T3-L3 normal forelimbs and UMN to hind limbs; L4-S2 normal forelimbs and LMN rear limbs; S1-S3 partial LMN to rear limbs, absent perineal reflex and atonic bladder; caudal spinal segment-atonic tail
What are the 6 components of the animal chiropractic neuro exam?
Mental status, gait, coordination, motor function, peripheral sensation, cranial nerves
With LMN dysfunction what occurs with reflexes?
Deep tendon reflexes are decreased, pathological reflexes are absent, superficial reflexes are present
With UMN dysfunction what happens to reflexes?
Deep tendon reflexes are increased, pathological reflexes are present and superficial reflexes like cutaneous trunci reflexes are absent
Trigger point associated with gluteus medius muscle
Likely PI ilium
Trigger point at ilicostalis right in front of tuber coxae
AS ilium
Biceps tendon reflex
Back side of humerus. Should flex elbow. Reflex tests C6-C8
Triceps tendon reflex
Test above olecranon. Positive test is extension of elbow. Tests tricep and C7-T2
Extensor carpi radialis reflex
Percuss muscle belly at its widest point on the cranial lateral aspect of the proximal radius. Positive is extension of carpus. Reflex tests C7-T2
Withdrawal reflex
Pinch toe with forceps. Positive is withdrawal of limb. Pain if growls, looks back or growls
Crossed extensor reflex
If performing withdrawal and contra lateral leg extends when the test leg withdraws this indicates a lesion between the brain and C5
Patellar ligament
Percuss directly on patellar ligament. Positive response is brief extension of stifle joint. Tests L4-L5 spinal nerves
Gastrocnemius muscle
Place palm of supporting hand against cranial aspect of proximal tibia. Grasp mid-belly of gastrocnemius muscle between thumb and fingers. Percuss thumb. Positive test is brief extension of hock. (L6-S2)
Cranial tibial muscle
Percuss directly on muscle near tibial tuberosity. A positive test is brief flexion of hock L6-S2
Sciatic nerve reflex
Tests flexor muscles of the stifle and peripheral nerves from spinal segments L6-S2. Strike just behind greater trochanter of femur. Normal reflex is extension of the hip, stifle, and hock.
Perineal reflex
Tests sensory and motor branches of pudendal nerve S1-S3. Pinch skin near anus, normal reaction is contraction of anal sphincter. Flexion of tail tests distribution of spinal segments S1-Cd5.
Cranial nerve 3 palsy can cause
Strabismus, mydriasis, ptosis, diplopia (double vision) exphoria, eye deviates outward
Trigeminal neuritis
Flaccid jaw tone, drooling, can't prehend food, no sensory deficits, swallowing is intact ddx: rabies
Trigeminal neuralgia
Irritation of sensory branches of CN5, paroxysmal sharp pain along nerve, constant ache, pain triggered by temp, touch, sound. From compressive lesion, demylinating disease, infection or tumor
Trigeminal neuritis
Acute idiopathic onset, LMN,
Clavicle is reduced to a fibrous intersection in what muscle?
Brachiocephalicus
What are the most commonly fractured bones in the horse?
Proximal sesamoid bones followed by the metacarpus and carpal bones
Hoof growth
1 cm per month
Slope of the pelvis from tuber coxae to ischiatic tuberosity should be?
30 degrees with the horizon
Reciprocal fixation of the hock is due to?
Peroneus tertius and SDF
Subluxation may alter:
Proprioception, pain response, cognition, muscle function, reflex patterns, autonomics
Subluxation alters neural input affecting ___ cerebellum and ___ thalamus brain
Ipsilateral and contralateral
Brain requires what two things?
Activation(stimulation from gravity) and fuel (oxygen and glucose)
What is the only receptor that is both afferent and efferent?
Muscle spindle
What muscle will be tight on the side of atlas superiority?
Obliques capitus cranialis
Upper thoracic and lower cervical indications of subluxation:
Lowered head, athletes that jump short, trouble on decline or going down stairs
Lower thoracic and lumbar signs and symptoms of subluxation:
Difficulty or pain when laying down or getting up, lordosis, roach back, drag hind limbs- check tops of toes
PI ilium signs
Fixed SI joint; short leg on affected side in bipedal; rear leg lameness, puppy sitting, SI pain, will not want to flex hip and bring rear leg forward to affected side
AS ilium symptoms:
Fixes SI joint, animal that is hesitant to jump and resists rear leg extension
Sacral base will usually accompany fixed SI joints with rotation of sacrum being opposite of?
PI ilium
Sacral apex right or left symptoms
Sacral apex becomes fixed in lateral position, hold tail to affected side, exhibit pain when sacral apex pushed further into subluxation, pain on palpation, resistance to tail being lifted, chronic anal gland problems
Coccygeal symptoms
Resist lifting of tail, resist sitting on tail head, dropped tail, walk with tail tucked
Extremity symptoms:
Lameness, altered gait, hesitant or inability to jump, decreased range of motion, pain in affected limb, dog does not play like before, check toe nails
What subluxation can be associated with medial subluxated patella?
Internally rotated tibia or externally rotated tibia
Partial bending of the neck followed by backing usually points to a problem where?
Lower in the neck or upper thoracics
Flexion and extension of neck in the horse
45 in both ways for occiput and atlas, C1-C2 1-2 degrees, c2-C3 15-18 degrees, c3-C6 15 to 35 degrees, c6-c7 30-35 degrees
Axial rotation of neck in horse
Occiput to atlas-almost nonexistent, C1-C2 approximately 60% of total cervical rotation, C2-C7 decrease as facet joints change toward coronal
Lateral flexion of the neck in the horse
Occiput to atlas-most flexion of any unit in the neck; C1-C2 almost no flexion; C2-C7- increases as facet joints change towards coronal
Upper cervical subluxations symptoms
Pain at poll, head not vertical in work, heavy on bit, decreased flexion at poll, ear sensitivity, head shaking
Lower cervical symptoms in horse:
Decreased lateral flexion of neck, gait abnormalities, performance problems, decreased cervical flexion and extension, rear limb ataxia. Decreased forelimb extension
A common cause of denervation in the PNS is neuropathy or radiculopathy as a sequel to
Spondylosis
What are restrictive barriers to joint motion?
Pain, edema, muscle spasm, contracture, intra and periarticular adhesions, altered neural reflex (pain then decreased motion), articular artifacts (effusion in joint), Osseous anomalies
Contraindications to adjust
Fractures, malignancies, infection, acute muscle strain, acute ligamentous sprain, metabolic disease, surgical disease processes, chronic DJD
What are the 3 types of fixation?
Articular, ligamentous, muscular
The trigeminal nerve is sensory to the ____ and motor to the ____ muscles
Head; masticatory muscles
What are symptoms of Horner's syndrome?
Sweating, ptosis, enophthalmia, prolapsed third eyelid, meiosis
Tendon and withdrawal tests not performed on standing horse. What tests should be performed?
Cervicofacial, auricular, paniniculus, tail tone, perineal, loss of skin sensation, abnormal sweating, muscle atrophy
Engagement under saddle
Initiates movement at all gaits, rear legs under horse, flexion of back and pelvis, Ventral string muscles contract, lower neck rises, neck and poll flex
The horse's cerebrum is the size of
A walnut. They're brains have shrunk approximately 16% due to domestication
Left brain horse
Confident, dominant, pushy and demanding. Natural curiosity without fear and easy going.
Right brained horses
Self-preservation. Lack of confidence, fear, stress, distrust
Dorsal ramus of nerve root goes to
Back muscles
Ventral ramus of nerve root goes to
Limbs to innervates muscles you have conscious awareness of
Compression of a nerve
Vasculature is affected first, then nerve is ischemic, then myelin is affected. Large fibers affect proprioception
The C fibers are most sensitive to ___ and the large myelinated A fibers are most sensitive to ___
Ischemia, compression
Lengthening of a nerve will cause the following changes
Reduction in cross sectional area, increase tension within the nerve, compression of nerve fibers, reduction of micro circulation of the nerve
What is an adjustment?
An active maneuver that delivers a rapid thrust in a specific direction to a certain spinal segment or joint to restore its normal motion and position for that individual.
Usually the vertebrae above or below the restricted vertebrae will be ___ and ___
Hyper mobile and painful
PI ilium findings in the dog
Short leg in bipedal, resists hip flexion, shortened stride, short leg may splay out when sitting, tuber ischium may be anterior to normal position with shorter hamstring muscles
AS ilium findings in the dog
Apparent long leg in bipedal stance, animal resists extension of leg, motion in SI restricted, hesitant to jump
Pterygoid muscles
Lie medial to mandible, function to raise the mandible and draw it inward
What is the function of the temporalis muscle?
Elevate mandible
The cranial articular process of the cervical vertebrae facet faces?
Medial, cranial, dorsal- 45 degree angle
Sensitization
After injury and with persistent inflammation nociceptors undergo sensitization. The constant stimulation by inflammatory chemicals brings nociceptors closer to threshold so that light touch and normal movement are now able to stimulate nociceptors
Radiculopathy
Defined as disease of the nerve roots. Seen clinically as pain in the distribution of the nerve root as a result of compressive pathology
Dystonia
Neurologic movement disorder characterized by lasting muscle contractions
Dyskinesia
Distortion of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm
Clinical signs of wobblers disease
Ataxia, paresis, loss of proprioception, neck pain, cervical flexion, progressive in nature
Muscles that advance the shoulder or limb
Trapezius, brachiocephalicus, sternocephalicus, omotransversarius
Muscles that extend and flex shoulde
Supra and infrapinatus
Muscles that adduct and extend shoulder
Subscapularis
Muscles that flex shoulder and elbow
Coracobrachialis, biceps, brachialis
Muscles that flex shoulder
Deltoideus, teres major and minor
Muscles that extend elbow, carpus and digits
Triceps, extensor carpi radialis, ulneris lateralis, common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor
Muscles that flex carpus and digits
Flexor carpi radialis, SDF, DDF
Mammillary process-where is it?
In dogs 1/4 to 1/2 inch lateral to midline on lumbar vertebrae; cannot palpate in horse
Where is the supra spinous ligament absent in the horse?
From L6- sacrum to allow for increased flexion
What will a horse do with subluxations that affect the ilicostalis?
Grunt or cough during work out
Subluxation findings affecting muscles of the abdominal wall. External abdominal oblique
Not engaging rear, restricted lateral movement on opposite side, affects in azoturia in horses, muscular lordosis, tense and painful abdomen
Sub scapular nerve
C6,7
Axillary nerve
C6,7,8. Flexors of the shoulder. Supplies skin on cranial forearm and arm. Paralysis has little effect upon gait.
Musculocutaneous nerve
C6,7,8. Innervates skin of medial forearm. Affected animal cannot offer paw when asked to shake
Radial nerve
C6,7,8T1. Extensors of elbow, carpus, digit. Innervates skin on dorsum of paw and forearm. Damage to nerve proximal to origin of triceps-animal cannot bear weight. Distal injury dog learns to flip paw forward
Median nerve
C7,8T1. Innervates flexors of carpus and digits. Sensory to skin on ventral surface of paw. Carpus may become hyperextended when dog standing if damage to nerve
Ulnar nerve
C8, T1,2. Flexors of carpus and digits innervates. Sensory to caudal forearm and. Caudal and lateral paw. No effect on gait if paralyzed.
Brachial plexus in dog and horse
Dog-C6,7,8T1. Horse-C 6,7,8, T1,2
Suprascapular in horse
C6,7 innervates supra and infraspinatus. Paralysis causes sweeny
Equine musculocutaneous
C7,8. Biceps and brachialis muscle. Skin of cranial and medial aspect of forearm and carpus. Lose elbow flexors if paralyzed and little effect on gait
Equine axillary nerve
C7,8. Flexors of shoulder. Skin of lateral aspect of forearm and arm. Injury uncommon
Equine radial nerve
C8T1. Extensors of all joints distal to shoulder. Innervates skin lateral forearm.
Equine Median nerve
C8T1,2. Flexors of carpus and digits. Loss is flexor muscles if damaged but usually compensated by ulnar nerve
Equine ulnar nerve
T1,2. Flexors of carpus and digits
Lumbar nerves- # in horse vs dog
7 in dogs and 6 in horses
Sciatic nerve
L6,7S1,2
Femoral nerve
L4,5,6. Supplies iliopsoas and quadriceps. Dysfunction and animal cannot bear weight
Obturator
L4,5,6. Loss of adductor muscles and dog cannot adduct rear legs
Femoral nerve in horses
L4,5,6. Innervates quadriceps. Damage uncommon but horse will be unable to fix stifle and cannot bear weight
Acute phase following trauma-palpable skin changes
Hyperemic, boggy or edematous, warm, moist, sticky
Chronic phase post trauma-palpable skin changes
Ischemic, firm or flat, cool, dry,slippery
Hypersensitivity
Altered perception of pain ie-small stimulus causes greater than expected perception of pain
Hyperalgesia
An enhanced pain sensation to a noxious stimuli
The inflammation hypothesis-SHLRP
Swelling, heat, loss of function, redness, pain
Paresthesia
Sensation of numbness or tingling
Willowby AS ilium
Inward arc of one leg, long rear leg, lumbar problem, hock pain, foot flare on outside of that foot
PI ilium according to willowby
Outward arc of one leg, short leg, stifle problems, sacroiliac pain (sometimes)
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