logic chapter 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
logic
logic is the business of evaluating Arguments, sorting good ones from bad ones.
premise indicators
since, because, given that
conclusion indicators
therefore, hence, thus, then so
argument
a series of sentences
sentence
something that can be true or false
questions
sentences that are neither true nor false. questions dont count as sentences. answers count as sentences.
imperatives
often end in commands such as 'wake up!'
exclamations
'ouch!' doesnt add anything
2 ways argument can go wrong
1. one or more premises is false or 2. the premises is too weak to support the conclusion. and thus means somethings wrong with the logical form. two true premises do not guarantee true conclusion.
dedcutive validity
if it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false.
valid
argument impossible for the premises to be true, at the same time that the conclusion is false.
deductively valid argument
does not need a true premises or a true conclusion.
validity
isnt about truth in argument, its about FORM.
Inductive arguments
generalize from many cases to one case. no matter how good, are not deductivly valid.
truth values
the truthness or falseness in a sentence.
logical truth
formal arguments care about what is true if premises are true.
contengent
is neither tautology nor a contradiction it may be either true or false. its contengent.
tautology
logically true or wether the simpler statements are factually true or false. either it is raining, or it is not.
contradicition
Logically false, or contradiction. it is both raining or not raining.
Logical equivalence
two sentences with the same truth value. if one sentence is true they both are. if one sentence is false, they both are. when both are true=Logical Equivalece
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