AP European History Unit 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Duchy of Milan and Kingdom of Naples
Two of the five major competitive states in Italy
Republic of Florence
Another of the five major competitive states in Italy. The most striking example of social division and anarchy during the Renaissance.
Republic of Venice
Another of the five competitive states in Italy. It's a port city ruled by a merchant oligarchy.
Papal States
Home to Rome and the military base of the Catholic Church. It is another of the five competitive states in Italy.
Popolo
Italian for people.
Ciompi Revolt
An uprising of the poor in Florence. They gained power over Florence for four years.
Cosimio de Medici
Wealthiest Florentine and a natural statesman who controlled the city behind the scenes
Signoria
A council that governed Florence. It governed with the Medici's.
Lorenza de Medici
Grandson of Cosimio, and he ruled Florence in an almost totalitarian fashion
Condottieri
Military brokers who furnished mercenary forces to the Italian states during the Renaissance.
Humanism
Philosophy stressing the importance of human kind, individualism, and secular values. It advocated the studia humanitatis which is a liberal arts program which enhanced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics.
Petrarch
Father of Humanism. His most famous works were actually sonnets.
Aristotle
Ancient Greek Philosopher who supported Scholasticism
Scholasticism
A method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of universities between 1100-1500
Liberal Arts
Subjects or skills that in classical times were considered essential for a free person to know in order to participate in civic life.
Dante Alighieri
A humanist, and the author of the Divine Comedy.
Giovanni Boccaccio
A student and friend of Petrarch. The humanist writer of Decameron
Quintilian
A Roman Orator who wrote Education of the Orator.
Baldassare Castiglione
A humanist who wrote a novel showing that rediscovered knowledge of the past is both a model and challenge to modern society. The book embodies the highest ideals of Italian humanists. He called for a strong leader to unify the Italian city-states.
Christine de Pisan
An Italian born daughter of the physician and astrologer of French King Charles V. As a privileged, educated noble woman, she promoted the new education and culture at royal courts. She was considered by many to be the first feminist.
Pico della Mirandolla
Helped support the Florentine Platonic Academy
Lorenza Valla
Author of the standard Renaissance text on Latin philosophy. Writer of an expose of Donation which Protestants used against the Church. Valla was only proving with evidence that it was a fake.
Donation of Constantine
A fraudulent expose written in the eighth century, purported to be a good faith grant of vast territories to the Pope and the church by the Roman Constantine.
Niccolo Machiavelli
A humanist historian who wrote in Italian and made contemporary history their primary source and subject matter. He wrote a practical guide for nobles, embodied Italian humanism.
Giotto
The father of Renaissance painting. He painted a more natural world
Massacio
A painter who depicted life in literally and naturally in his paintings.
Donatello
A sculptor who sculpted life both literally and naturally
Leonardo da Vinci
Painter who exhibited the Renaissance idea of the universal person. Painted the Mona Lisa.
Raphael
A painter. He painted The School of Athens in the Vatican
Michelangelo
He excelled in a variety of arts and crafts. He painted the Sistine Chapel.
Treaty of Lodi
An alliance between the city-states of Italy in case of foreign invasion, in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Charles VIII
successor to the French throne who went quickly and readily to race as conqueror through Florence and the Papal States into Naples. He was eventually defeated when the Italian cities reunited.
Alexander VI
One of the most corrupt popes to sit on the papal throne. He withdrew from the League of Venice which made them to weak to resist a French conquest of Milan.
Lucretia Borgia
child of Pope Alexander VI
Cesare Borgia
Child of Pope AlexanderVI
Pope Julius II
He suppressed the Borgia family. He raised the Renaissance papacy to its peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue. (A.K.A. the Warrior Pope)
Francis I
King of France who joined with the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, in making Italy the battleground for their mutual dynastic claims on Burgundy and parts of Italy.
Cortes
The Spanish Cortes were the representatives who were to negate the centralization of royal power into a united place of control
Richard III
King of England. After he died, the Tudor dynasty portrayed him as an unprincipled villain.
Henry VII
The first of the new Tudor dynasty that would dominate England throughout the sixteenth century.
Gabelle
The salt tax in France
Louis IX
King of France
Charles the Bold
The last Duke of Burgundy
Maximilian I
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empired
Isabella of Castille
Wife of Ferdinand of Aragon. Their union brought the two kingdoms together.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Husband to Isabella of Castille. Their union brought the two kingdoms together.
Reconquista
The re conquest of the Muslim states as Christian states in the peninsula expanded.
Charles I
The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire because the Fuggers lent him 500,000 Florins to buy his election
Christopher Columbus
Discovered America I 1492
Court of Star Chamber
This court was intended to end the perversion of English justice. The king's councilors were the judges who did ot submit to the noblemen's bribery.
Golden Bull
An agreement in 1356 to establish a seven member electoral college of German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor.
Holy Roman Empire
A complex , multi-ethnic political union of territories in Central Europe from 962-1806.
Desiderius Erasmus
Renaissance humanist. He summarized his own beliefs with the phrase pilisophia Chrisiti
Reuchlin Affair
Johann Reuchlin was Europe's foremost Christian authority on Hebrew and Jewish learning. Pfefferkorn tried to suppress Jewish writing and attacked Reuchlin. Many German humanists rushed to Reuchlin's side in defense in the name of academic freedom and good scholarship.
Thomas More
He is an English Humanist. He wrote "Utopia" which depicted an imaginary society based on reason and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to earn their bread by their own work.
Prince Henry the Navigator
He was the brother of the king of Portugal who captured the North African city of Ceuta with both mercenary and religious incentives.
Bartholomew Dias
He pioneered the Eastern Portuguese Empire after safely rounding the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa in 1487
Ferdinand Magellan
A Portuguese explorer who organized the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
Hernan Cortes
He landed in Mexico with about 500 men. He formed alliances with Aztec enemies. His forces then marched on Tenochtitlan. The Spaniards were driven away and nearly wiped out. They came back formed alliances with the Aztec people and defeated the Aztec rulers. Cortes razed Tenochtitlan and built his own capital over its ruins. He proclaimed the Aztec Empire New Spain.
Francisco Pizarro
He conquered the Incan Empire (Influenced by Cortes and his methods.)
Hacienda
A large landed estate in Spanish America. It was the major rural and agricultural institution of the Spanish colonies.
Encomienda
The grant by the Spanish crown, to a colonist, of labor of a specific number of Indians for a set period of time.
Torquemada
He ran the Inquisition that monitored the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain.
Renaissance
A time of transition form medieval to modern times
Podestas
Despots hired to maintain order in Italian city-states.
Humanism
scholarly study of the Greek, Roman, and Church classics.
Platonism
Human reason could understand things such as "truth"
Civic Humanism
Education to promote individual virtue and public service
Chiaroscuro
The use of shading to enhance naturalness
linear perspective
Adjusting the size of the figures to give viewer continuity
Mannerism
Most famous artists of the school were El Greco and Tintoretto
Hermandad
A league of cities that supported Ferdinand and Isabella
Johann Gutenberg
Invented printing with movable type which spread literacy
Which country took lead in exploration in the fifteenth century?
Portugal
Renaissance society first took on its distinctive shape in the...
Merchant cities of Italy
Erasmus wanted to...
Unite Classical and Christian ideals
The writings of Las Casas contributed to the emergence of...
the Black Legend.
The encomienda was
a grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians.
Unified national monarchies began to emerge in Europe largely because monarchs...
gained greater financial independence from the nobility.
The word Renaissance means
rebirth
Boccaccio pioneered humanist studies as the author of
Decameron
The great Italian cities were
dominated by territorial princes
The Medici family ruled fifteenth-century
Florence
The studia humanitatis did not included all of the following except: rhetoric grammar painting history politics
painting
The Treasure of the City of Ladies exemplifies Italian humanists literature for its
classical verse style
Charles VIII's successful march from Florence to Naples in 1494 inspired
the League of Venice
The first European explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope was
Bartholomew Dias
Tomas de Torquemada oversaw Ferdinand and Isabella's campaign to
monitor converted Jews and Muslims
Compared to Italian humanists, northern humanists were more devoted to ______ reforms
religious
The Portuguese drive to find a sea route to the East was motivated by a desire to gain access to
spices
The author of Utopia was
Thomas More
The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was aided by
alliances between the Europeans and the Aztecs' subject peoples
The early conquistadores were primarily interested in
gold
Avignon Papacy
The papacy that had to find ways of getting money since they were cut off from Rome. They sold Pardons for sins, and they gained a reputation for being materialistic and scheming politically.
The Great Schism
A time when there were two or three rival popes
Conciliar Movement
believers in this movement wanted to establish a way to check the pope and have balance.
Lollards
those who followed John Wycliffe who believed that having morals and being a good person and not rand and office was the thesis for true religious authority.
John Wycliffe
He led the Lollards who believed the way he did.
John Huss
He lead the Hussites; he was inspired by John Wycliffe's teachings.
Hussites
The followers of John Huss
Modern Devotion
A movement for religious reform calling for a renewal through the rediscovery of genuine pious practices like obedience, humility, and a simple life.
Benefices
A permanent job at the church often rewarded with property and income
Martin Luther
The son of a miner, Luther was an educated man. He entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine in Erfurt. (Ordained in 1507). He became a reformists when he began teaching that good works did not earn salvation, but instead they were a product of it. He openly attacked indulgences. He defended John Huss' teachings and was excommunicated.
Justification by Faith
A belief by Martin Luther that one has salvation by believing in and trusting Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and not works.
95 Theses
A list of 95 arguments against Indulgences that Martin Luther constructed and nailed to the doors of Castle Church in Wittenberg.
Indulgences
a reduction of time in purgatory able to be bought from the Catholic Church
Treasury of Merit
An infinite reservoir of good works in the church's possession that could be dispensed at the Pope's discretion.
Johann Tetzel
A preacher who went to Albercht's territories and stirred up the lay people so they would want to buy indulgences.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor who placed an imperial ban on Luther. He then gave territorial sovereignty in religious matters to German princes.
Johann Eck
Professor in Leipzig whom Luther debated.
Leipzig Debate
A debate between Luther and Eck where Luther challenged the infallibility of the pope and the inerrancy of church councils. Luther used only scriptures as evidence.
Address to the Christian Nobility
A pamphlet by Luther urging German princes to force reforms on the Roman Church especially to curtail its political and economic power in Germany
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
A pamphlet by Luther attacking the seven sacraments. He argued that only baptism and Eucharist were unquestionably biblical. It also exalted the authority of scripture, church councils, and secular princes over that of the pope.
Diet of Worms
A council presided over by Emperor Charles V that placed an imperial ban on Luther after he refused to take back his statements on his beliefs.
Habsburg/Valois Wars
Four major wars between Spain (Habsburg dynasty) and France (Valois dynasty) over disputed territories in Italy and along their respective borders
Battle of Mohacs
Ottoman empire defeated Hungary which led to division and distracted Charles V from the growing Reformation
Peasant Revolt
Lutherans didn't see a need for a revolt because if their movement became entwined with it, it had no hope. Luther told the peasants who did revolt that they were not Christians and to stand with the revolt would contradict his teachings
Ulrich Zwingli
Leader of the Swiss Reformation and had been humanisticly educated. He opposed indulgences, and he petitioned the right of clergy to legally marry. If it wasn't supported by scripture he did not support it.
Eucharist
The bread and wine being the body and blood of Christ.
Transubstantiation
The turning of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
Marburg Colloquy
Phillip of Hesse brought both Luther and Zwingli to Marburg Castle to talk out their differences. It was in vain, however, as it did not work. Luther left thinking of Zwingli as a fanatic and forevermore painted him black
Anabaptists
Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to scripture. They were separatists and broke away from society. (Amish)
Thomas Munster
A man with close ties with Anabaptists leaders in Germany and Switzerland. He died as a leader of a peasants revolt in Germany. He was a spiritualist.
Spiritualist
A group of Protestant decenters who believe God is the only authority and he doesn't speak in the past but here and now in the heart and mind of every individual.
Anitrinitarians
Radical Protestants who supported John Calvin and believed in original sin and predestination.
John Calvin
A religious reformer who believed in original sin and predestination. He was the leader of Calvinism
Institutes of the Christian Religion
This writing from the end of John Calvin's work discussed predestination. He described it as a doctrine for only mature Christians.
Elect
Those are God's "elect" or his elite people. These are the people predestined to go to heaven. Calvin believed that they should live in a God pleasing way if they are truly his "elect"
Reprobate
Someone who is predestined to go to hell
Schmalkaldic League
A league formed by Protestant lands who were preparing for war with the emperor.
Peace of Augsburg
This agreement recognized in law what had already been established in practice: The ruler of the land would determine its religion.
Cuis regio, ciud religio
Ruler of the land determines its religion.
Thomas Wolsey
A cardinal and chief minister to King Henry VIII. He was dismissed in 1529 because he could not secure an annulment for King Henry. (through no fault of his own)
Henry VIII
King of France known as "Defender of the Faith" and he solidified the Church of England. He had many wives.
Catherine of Aragon
Daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain. She married Henry VIII. They had one surviving child, Mary I.
Mary I
Child of Catherine of Aragon and King Henry VIII
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's second wife who was pregnant when they got married with Elizabeth.
Elizabeth (I)
The daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She is the half sister of Mary I
Clement VII
The pope who was prisoner to Charles V
Convocation of 1531
A legislative assembly that represented the English clergy publicly recognizing Henry as head of Church in England as far as the law of Christ allows.
Submission of the Clergy
A law Parliament passed placing clergy under royal jurisdiction by placing canon law under royal control
Act of Supremacy
The declaration by Parliament in 1534 that Henry VIII, not the pope, was the head of church in England.
Act of Succession
This made Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne.
Jane Seymour
Henry's third wife who died after having Edward, the future Edward VI
Ten Articles
A statement released by Henry VIII about the religion in England. It only slightly gave way to Protestant views, but the Church of England remained primarily Catholic.
Six Articles
A statement released by an angry King Henry against Protestant views. It reaffirmed many Catholic traditions and beliefs like transubstantiation, denying Eucharist wine to laity, declared celibate vows inviolable, provided for private masses, and ordered the continuation of oral confession.
Edward VI
Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. Under his rule England enacted the Protestant Reformation . He repealed Henry's Six Articles.
Acts of Uniformity
An act that imposed Thomas Crammer's book of Common Prayer on all English churches.
Book of Common Prayer
A 42 article confession of faith written by Thomas Crammer which taught justification by faith and the supremacy of the Bible, denied transubstantiation, and only recognized two sacraments.
Counter Reformation
Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation
Theatines
A group with in the church founded in 1524 to groom devout and reform-minded leaders at the higher levels of the church hierarchy.
Barnabites
Founded in1530 they worked to repair the moral, spiritual, ad physical damages done to people in war-torn Italy
Ursulines
Founded in 1535 for women. It established convents in Italy and France for the religious education of girls from all social classes.
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder oft the Jesuits, and he was a heroic figure
Jesuits
An instrumental group in the counter reformation. In their eyes Protestants had distinguished themselves by disobedience and religious innovation. The exercises of the Ignatius were intended to teach good Catholics to deny themselves and submit without question to higher Church authority and spiritual direction.
Spiritual Exercises
The practices done by those who believe a certain way. The Jesuits denied themselves and submitted to higher church authority.
Council of Trent
A council strictly under the Pope's control. The reforms included internal church discipline. They took measures to stop selling church offices and to make bishops live in their dioceses.
The Peace of Augsburg
asserted regional princely control over religion
Between 1500 and 1800, European men married in their
mid-to late-twenties
Cervante's most famous work is
Don Quixote
Which factor was not related to the emergence of the Protestant Reformation
The Spanish Inquisition
Pop Leo X's Jubilee Indulgence was meant to raise funds to
Rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
The Marburg Colloquy sought to
unite Swiss and German Protestants
Ignatius of Loyola organized the Jesuit order to encourage
Religious and moral self-discipline
Which of the following occurred first: Diet of Worms; Marburg Colloquy; Diet of Augsburg; Council of Trent; Peace of Westphalia
Diet of Worms
Which of the following practices did Zwingli not question and repudiate in the course of his reforms: worship of saints; transubstantiation; pilgrimages; clerical celibacy; church attendance
Chruch Attendance
Reform efforts of the Council of Trent included all of the following except: Several doctrinal concessions the reformers; creation of new seminaries; reform of the office of bishop; machinery to control the morality of churchmen; step to curtail the selling of church offices
several doctrinal concessions to the reformers
The Reformation broke our first in
the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland
Northern European rulers and magistrates attacked the sale of indulgences primarily as
A drain of local revenues
In houses of Modern Devotion
clerics and laity shared a common religious life
The benefice system
allowed important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidder
Thomas a Kempis was known as
The author of the Imitation Of Christ
Luther believed in all of the following except: salvation by faith alone; the priesthood of all believers; the sovereign authority of scripture; the unimportance of good works; the need for social and political hierarchy
The unimportance of good works
The Anabaptists were
seen as a threat to good order by the political authorities
According to the doctrine of predestination
God has foreordained who will be saved and who will be damned
Preacherships were endowed by
city governments
Protestant reformers tended to do all of the following except: favor clerical marriage; encourage basic education; oppose monasticism; see marriage as degraded state; oppose the celibate life.
see marriage as degraded state.
The Reformation broke out first in the cities of
Switzerland and Germany
Luther's 95 theses
Sparked the Reformation in Germany
The Freedom of a Christian, by Martin Luther, summarized the new teaching of salvation:
by faith alone
When German peasant revolted in 1524-1525, they won the support of: the pope; John Calvin; Martin Luther; the merchant class; none of these people or groups
none of these people or groups
The Reformation in Zurich was led by
Ulrich Zwingli
Anabaptists are the 16th century ancestors of which modern group
Amish
The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice
The ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land
The reformation Parliament met for seven years and determined that
Henry VIII would rule the church in England " as far as Christ allows"
The Act of succession
Made Anne Boleyn's children the legitimate heirs to the throne
Ignatius of Loyola taught good Catholics to
submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction
The Council of Trent's most important reforms concerned
internal church discipline
Which of the Following is NOT an example of the way the church calendar regulated daily life in the 15th century? 1/3 of the year was given over to religious observances and celebrations; regulation of the diet of a pious Christian; Saints' days played an important role in popular culture; frequent periods of fasting; most Europeans attended church three times a week
Most Europeans attended church three times a week.
Protestants were more likely that Catholics to
permit divorce
The canonical, or church-sanctioned, age for marriage prior to the 16th century was which of the age for men
fourteen
Which of the following novels is Cervantes most well known for? El Gato Negro; La Galatea; El Amante Liberal; Don Quixote; La Gitanilla
Don Quixote
Contributing factors to lay critics of the church were all of the following except: urban society was increasingly atheistic; new postal systems and the printing press increased the information at the disposal of the laity; lay people gained greater control over the cultural life of their communities; the laity traveled widely; the laity in the cities were becoming increasingly knowledgeable about the world.
urban society was increasingly atheistic
What was the primary theological point of contention between Luther and Zwingli
The "presence" of Christ in the Eucharist
The long-entrenched ________ system of the medieval church had permitted important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidders.
benefice
Established in mid-16th century Geneva,_________ believed strongly in both divine predestination and the individual's responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan
John Calvin
Martin Luther was ordered to recant at the diet of _____ in April of 1521
Worms
Columbus expected his first landfall to be
Japan
By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of
Central Mexico
he was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors
Bartolome de Las Casas
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