|What is regional anatomy?||
Encompasses ALL systems of anatomy
The skin. The insulation, protection, regulation (temp), and synthesis of Vitamin D.
Moving, store calcium. You need to have Vit D to absorb calcium.
Allows one to move
-Part of immune system
-Maintain water balance in blood
-Absorbs 02 and give off CO2
-Maintain pH balance in blood
-Breaks down food into nutrients we can absorb
-help maintain pressure in abdomen to for example urinate
-controls the movement of muscles
-taking in stimulus from outside world
-ovaries, and testes are glands
- male and female make offspring
-not a true system
-pancrea, testicals, ovaries, and adrenal glands (adrenaline).
-Responsible for hormones
-Delivers oxygen to every cell of the body by blood
-Kidneys-- maintain water balance and monitor blood pressure
studies body systems
Face up, palms out.
Cut into left and right halves
Cut down the middle into even right and left halves
Top and bottom horizontal
front half and back half cut down the middle
Come in at an angle cut
|Why is it I'mportant to understand anatomy and physiology?||
Basis for understanding diseases. Cant understand liver disease if you dont know what the liver does.
Person is lying face up
Person laying face down
Close to midline.
The heart is meadial to the left lung
away from the midline. Left lung is lateral to the heart.
Close to the point of attatchment. (skeletal)
or closest to midline
Far from the point of attachment (skeletal)
Close to the surface
(to the bone)
Toward to interior of the body
|know figures in chp. 1 introduction slideshow||
|Why are cells little? And why do they need to be?||
They are little to increase surface area and for membrane transport.
|What is in the phospholipid bilayer?||
Proteins in the cell membrane.
These control all physiology.
|Receptor protein, what does it do?||
A receptor that binds to chemical messengers such as hormones sent to other cells. These receive chemical messages. All cells have the right receptors.
|What are the different types of protiens in the cell membrane?||
GATED ion channel
Cell identity marker
Call adhesion molecule
|ENZYME,TEL ME ALL ABOUT IT||
Breaks down chemical messenger and terminates its effect. BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS.
A channel protein that is constantly open and allows ions to pass into and out of the cell.
-Lets things that are too big to go through or have a charge, they will go through a channel.
|GATED ION CHANNEL TELL ME ALL ABOUT IT!||
A gated ion channel that opens and closes to allow ions through only at certain times.
-Lets certain things in and out.
|CALL IDENTITY MARKER, Yo!||
A glycoprotein, acting as a cell-identity marker distinguishing the body's own cells from foreign cells.
- all homosapians have some of the same cell identity markers.
-then specific ones saying they belong just to your own body.
- transplants for example need similar cell markers.
- kidney cells and heart cells are different.
- * cells know humans, what it does for your body.
|Cell Adhesion molecule||
a cell adhesion molecule is one that can bind to another cell.
Higher concentration ---> lower concentration
CO2 and O2.
Small and uncharged molecules
Water sometimes can sneak through but not as readily as Co2 and O2 because of charge.
Sodium or potassium.
High to low
Has a helper (ion channel) get it through.
|Sodium potassium pump/ ACTIVE TRANSPORT||
At least 50 % of body's energy goes towards this
- goes against the concentration gradient.
-whole bunch on one side but you need more.
-FORCE the issue against gravity and you need ENERGY to do so. THIS IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
|Tell about the graph and draw for transport maximum||
How fast is the side and the bottom is whats coming in and how much of it.
Transport maximum is the plateau or maximum speed something can come in at when coming in the cell.
EX. everyone in line for roller coaster but can take so many people at the same time in a cart.
Only so much channels to handle the sodium (example) coming in
|When 2 items are coming into the cell, describe the graph.||
Speed goes down because there is 2 coming in at once.
EX. people bumping into eachother while going double file out of a door, so slower pace.
|Can all types of transports be happening in a cell at once?||
YES. in any given time, all of these transports can be happning.
-large amounts of one thing at a time.
- receptor mediated endocytosis, cells trying to come in and have the correct receptors.
-use this when bringing in something so big that the protein channel isnt big enough.
For example, hormones. (INSULIN IS SPECIFIC EXAMPLE).
|Tell me about the cell. Inside and outside and mostly its inside||
-Has fixed anions
-Overall charge of the cell is NEGATIVE
-opposite charges attract
-Inside negative and outside positive, that is the membrane potential.
--70MV is the charge of the cell
-CONCENTRATION GRADIENT, wanna go where it is low)
-ELECTRON ATTRACTION- (come in or repel)
-Cells have negative and positive ions inside of them
NEGATIVE IONS ARE BIG AND DO NOT HAVE THE READILY ABILITy/ TO MOVE THROUGH PROTEIN CHANNELS. wHY THEY ARE FIXED.
|How does sodium come into the cell?||
Positive charge, so goes in rapidly
also, lower concentration inside the cell, so goes in there.
12nm inside and 145nm outside
More sodium outside, so will go in.
|How does potassium come into the cell?||
It is positive so on that view point goes in nicely.
150nm inside the cell vs 5 nM outsie of the cell.
30 times higher concentration gradient inside the cell. Based on the concentration gradient Potassium goes out of the cell, but based on electrical attraction it stays in.
Because of the contradiction, it needs to leave rapidly though outside of the cell.
more pottasium inside of the cell.
|How does Chlorine come into the cell?||
Only one to be an anion (negative ion).
9 nM inside the cell, and 125 nM outside.
On that point will go in, but negative charge wants it to stay out.
Will go in though because of concentration gradient.
more cl outside of the cell.
|How does calcium go into the cell?||
It is positive, so on electrical attraction, positive.
It also has .0001nM inside the cell and 2.5 nM outside. so it will go inside the cell because of the high to low concentration gradient.
More ca outside cell.
|What is the study of tissues?||
|What are the four broad catagories of tissues?||
|What is the largest and most diverse tissue?||
|What is the definition of a tissue?||
group of similar cells serving a function, or working towards a common goal
|What is the definition of organ?||
A structure with discrete boundaries that is composed of TWO OR MORE tissue types.
Ex. Heart is an organ composed of all four tissues.
|What do epithilial tissues do?||
-cover body (internal and external)
|Where are epithilial tissues?||
Skin, kidneys, trachea, glands, ALL glands, salivary glands, testicals, ovaries, pancreas.
|What are some characteristics of epithelial tissues?||
-cells are close together
-VERY TIGHTLY BOUND
-NO extracellular fluid or very little
-form most glands
-BASAL SURFACE: attatches epithiel calls to underlying tissues
So one is attatched to basement membrane and the other to the free surface (think about your own skin)
|Functions of Epithelial Tissues||
2. Act as a barrier
ex. keeps bacteria out
3. Diffusion and Filteration:
Ex. Lungs and kidneys
Ex. Sweat glands (sweat for thermoregulation)
Ex. Small intestine
|How can epithelial tissue be classified in layers?||
Simple and stratified
|How can epitherlial tissue be classified in shape?||
Squamous, cubodial, columnar, transitional = cell shape
1 cell layer. ALL cells touch basement membrane and all touch free surface.
1 layer reaches basement membrane and 1 layer only touches free outer surface.
ALL touch basement membrane, but only some touch the free outer surface.
|Tell me about simple squamous||
Structure: 1 layer flat, tile-like cells
Function: diffusion and filteration
Location: blood vessels, lungs, heart, and kidneys (line tubes and ducts)
|How about simple cubodial?||
Structure: 1 layer of square-shaped cells
Location: glands, ovaries, KIDNEYS (best example)
Structure: 1 layer of tall, narrow cells
Function: secrete mucus and absorption
Location: stomach, intestines, resp. tract, see in intestines
* have goblets containing mucus to help lubercate intestines so digestion will not hurt.
Structure: 1 layer of tall, narrow cells appear stratified but itsnt
Function: secrete mucus and propel debris out of resp. tract
Location: nasal cavity and trachea
Structure: many layers of flat, tile-like cells
Function: protect and acts as a barrier
Location: skin, mouth, throat, and esophagus
Structure: special type of stratified epi. changes shape (stretched squamous, not stretched cubodial)
Function: hold fluids
Location: urinary bladder
in various glands throughout the body
Proteins that go between two membranes of the cell. Main thing that makes the cells tight together. "drag the nail between the two membranes. ( how they are tightly bound)
line between the epithileial cells (not taking out), that allows cells a communicate to one another.
Breath in oxygen , lungs, then to blood vessels and capillaries.
|What are glands?||
structures that secrete substances onto a surface, into a cavity, or into blood.. Primary made up of epithilial tissue. Produce products that have to make it to other parts of the body.
-glands with ducts
Ex. sweat or oil glands
Glands are going to secrete substance to target exocrine glands, outside of blood stream
ex. liver has a duct that secrets bile
-enzymes right into small intestine (exocrine)- pancreas
-no ducts (directly into blood stream)
- ex. thyroid, thymus, pituitary glands
Pancreas- produces hormones that regulare blood glucose. and into blood (endocrine)
Products are mostly hormones that go DIRECTLY into blood streams