FDSC 413 Plants Exam One PSU Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Botanical definition of a fruit
ripened ovary of a seed-bearing plant
Botanical definition of a vegetable
includes roots, stems, leaves, bulbs, tubers
Culinary definition of a fruit
Plant fruits and fruit parts that are sweet and fleshy
Culinary definition of a vegetable
any part of a herbaceous plant that can be eaten whole or in part and is usually not sweet
Proximate analysis of plants
high moisture, low protein, low fat, high carbs, contain organic acids, vitamins, minerals and secondary metabolites (flavonoids, phenols, sterols, etc.)
Why do fruits have more sugar than veggies?
so that animals will like the taste of it, consume the ovary and seed and propagate the seed.
Enzymes responsible for degrading pectin
pectin methyl esterase (PME)
polygalacturonase (PG)
enzyme responsible for creating ripe aromas in plants
lipoxygenase
What are the chemical and physical attributes of hot break processed tomatoes?
Hot break: only break tomatoes after cooking; denaturation of PG and PME enzymes, so pectin stays intact and creates viscous product; lipoxygenase deactivated so fresh aroma is not present
What are the chemical and physical attributes of cold break processed tomatoes?
tomatoes are cut at lower temperature, enzymes are in native state and act upon tomato; lipoxygenase cleaves fatty acids to release hexanal "fresh tomato" aroma; PG and PME act on pectin to break it down, resulting in less viscous product
What is the function of secondary metabolites in plants and what are some examples?
Not directly involved in growth and development of plants but often play a role in plant defense, thus long term absence may affect potential for survival ex) Flavonoids (fruits and veggies), glycoalkaloids, sterols, phenols (tannins)
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