Ancient Greece Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
polis
fort
Himation
type of clothing
Marathon
A long-distance race.
Nike
Greek goddess of victory
Aristophanes
father of comedy; Lysistrata
Syria
Alexander captured in 332 B.C.
Sophists
traveling teacher who rejected Pythagoras' teaching; instead, they taught people should improve themselves instead of the impossibility of understanding the universe
Andron
Mens room in the house
Doric
THREE MAIN STYLES OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE - simple and plain
Chaeronea
Macedonians crushed the Greek allies at this battle
Who discussed politics and philosophy in the Athenian Agora?
Men
Ostracism
The process for temporarily canning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote.
If a person was named more than 6,000 times then they were banned for 10 years
Illium
What is another name for Troy?
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Hippocrates
Greek physician who laid the foundations of scientific medicine by freeing medical study from the constraints of philosophical speculation and superstition Also known as the "Father of Medicine."
Rhetoric
Study of public speaking and debating.
dorians
1150-750 B.C. people who migrated into Greece after the fall of the Mycenaean civilization bad traders dark ages
Hades
God of the underworld ; Zeus's brother
Epic
A long poem, such as the Iliad
Thermopylae
a narrow pass in east-central Greece where an unsuccessful attempt by the Spartans led to their defeat by Xerxes and the Persians in 480 B.C. during the Persian Wars
Corinthian
developed in 340 BCE; fancy capital decorated with rows of curly leaves; Greeks rarely used but Romans adopted it and used it in their buildings
sappho
poet who wrote of friendship, love, and nature.
Hemlock
a poisonous drink made from this plant
Panhellenic League
an alliance of 31 city states
Oligarchy
is when the richest most powerful people had a say in goverment.
aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
what was the largest island in greece?
crete
Javelin
The winner threw this light spear the farthest
Theocritus
wrote short poems about the beauty of nature
Aristarchus
Concluded that the sun is larger than the Earth
- THe Earth revolves around the sun
- the stars lie at immense distances from both
Athens
An Ancient Greece city that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Early on it was ruled by a king
but it became an oligarchy and the Assembly had few powers
Drama
The art of writing, acting in, and producing plays
pindar
poet who wrote of epic events and brave deeds.
The Republic
The best-known dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates is shown outlining an ideal state, ruled by philosopher-kings.
King Phillip the 2nd
was Alexander the Great's father.
judah maccabee
led the Jewish revolt against the Greek-Syrians
spartan boys
7-20 in school
10 yrs in barracks
30 year reserve
Aphrodite
Goddess of love and beauty ; wife of Hephaestus
Legacy
is what a person leaves behind when he or she dies. Example Alexander took over vast areas and spread Greek art, ideas, language, and architecture
Parthenon
A temple that was built to honor the goddess Athena
Granicus River
334 BC Alexander the Great met the Persians on their soil, the Granicus River, and defeated them
Darius
The great king of Persia. He was able to become a king after a year of a civil war following the death of someone. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia
Olympic Games
1. men could only participate
2. men were naked while playing olympic games
3. played all types of challenges
The god of wine Dionysus
Who were all plays to honor?
1st Persian War
490 BC
At Marathon (26 miles from Athens) (battle of marathon)
Athenians (Greeks) were greatly outnumbered but still won
LEGEND-An Athenian ran the 26 miles to Athens announcing their victory, said "victory!" and dropped dead. (said Nike!)
486 - Darius died and Xerxes was then king
Pericles
made sure poor as well as rich had a say in goverment.
What were the main cropes of Ancient Greece
1. grapes
2. olivies
3. grain
What was the main source of wealth in Athens?
Trade and silver
Increased number of officals who were paid salaries, enlarged wealth and and power to Athens through the Delian league, used money to beautify Athens
How did Pericles achieve these goals?
What kind of work did slaves do in ancient Greece?
Farming, Mining, and Construction
5000 to 10000 free adult men meeting place
What did a polis consist of?
island located on the eastern Mediterranean Sea; equidistant from mainland of Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor. The center of the Minion empire on Crete was the palace of Knossus.
Where is Crete located and what was the center of the Minion empire on Crete?
What is a commmon definition of citizens in Greece? Who does this not include?
A. Grrek Born Males B. All females, all foreign born males, slaves
The production of dramatic plays in Athens expressed a civic pride and a tribute to the Greek gods and goddess.
Be able to explain how drama in Athens was more than entertainment. (History Essay #4, Classical Era, 480-323 BCE)
Polytheistic
belief or warship
athena
sculpture
phidias
put in parthenon
Epicurus/Epicureanism
Epicurus started Epicureansism
-Argued that people should avoid emotions and ignore politics and live simply and quietly with a few close friends
Hera
goddess of marriage
Queen of Olympus
symbol is the peacock
Dark Ages
1,100 - 750 BC
Epaminondas
Theban general/statesman won at lectura with new army formation against sparta, trasformed thebes
Boxing
Competitors Wore :
1. LEATHER STRAP AROUND HANDS AND WRISTS
Didn't Wear :
1. BOXING GLOVES
Euclid
is the most famous Greek mathematician. He worte Elements which describes plane geometry.
Barbarian
Greek word for an uncivilized person
Euripides
Created more realistic characters & more complex & realistic situations
Questioned values, portrayed war as brutal and barbaric, and expressed compassion for the women & children who suffered as a result of it
Colonizers
Greeks established colonies to acquire resources they didn't have
Hoplites
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens
Iliad
was an epic poem Homer wrote.
Solon
settled in the disputes between creditors and debtors by erasing the debts
Democracy
A system of government in which citizens vote to make governmental decisions
Who wrote the illiad and the Oddesy?
Homer
Peninsula
Land surrounded by water on three sides
Sparta
an ancient Greek city famous for military power,
Ruled by anoligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
boys began military training at the age of 7, left for the army at age 20
Troy
Greek city; Best remembered for the Trojan War
girls education
not formally educated; only sparta girls taught athletic skills; taught by mothers; taught "domestic science" (weaving, embroidery , and spinning); prepared to run household and be mothers, learned how to dance
plague
A ________________ is a fast spreading disease that often brings death to those who contract it within days.
Piraeus
port of Athens; city state connected to Athens by the long walls
aeschylus
a playwright that wrote Orestia, the Trojan Women,
Acropolis
a hill in acient Greece where city residents sought shelter and saftey in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
Hellenistic
The culture at the time of Alexander the Great
Academy
School founded by Plato in Athens to train statesmen and citizens
comedy
light and humorous drama with a happy ending
phidias
Sculptor who was in charge of the parthenon's sculptures- made Athena scupture,
The golden ratio is signified as the letter Phi after this man, who was said to use it in his art.
trojan war
year 1200 Homer wrote about it
GREEKS won!
Darius III
King of Persia, which was conquered by Alexander the Great
Chiton
a woolen tunic worn by men and women in ancient Greece
alexander the great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
King Phillip II
The King of Macedonia who was killed before he could lead the Greeks and Macedonians into a war with Persia / son was Alexander the Great
Council of Elders
2 kings and 28 citizens over age 60
-decided on the issues to be presented to the assembly
Why were Athenian Families expected to educate their sons?
1. Participate in Government
2. Defend themselves should they be accused of something
the largest empire the world had ever seen (conquered between 334 and 332 BCE)
What did Alexander conquer?
What was the major result of the Persian War?
Athens became the major city-state
What happened after Alexander the Great died?
His empire was divided into three Hellenistic kingdoms
What caused the kings to loose power to the aristocrats?
a. aristocrats provided cavalry which kings needed for armies
girls and boys similarities in education
girls and boys both read, wrote, sang, and played instruments
a monagarchy is a government ruled by a king, and an oligarchy is a government ruled by a few wealthy people (3-5)
What is the difference between an oligarchy and a monarchy?
Socrates
Important Greek philosopher
Messanger of the gods
Hermes
Ionia
-Also called Ionic Greece
-territory on the western shores of Asia Minor
-In modern-day Turkey
Tragedy
Greek plays that end sadly
Myths
traditional stories about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Arete
-means excellence, which the Greeks strove for
-(won in a contest or struggle)
Phalanx
A rectangular formation of soldiers that created a wall of shields to protect the Hoplites
alliance
a group of people working together.
sophocles
tragedy (Oedipus Rex and Antigone); wrote over 100 plays
spartan girls
no voting little intelectual life
stoicism
developed by Zeno when he couldn't afford to rent a hall to teach; he taught outside from a painted porch
Pythagoras
Taught that the essence of the universe can be found in music and numbers
Doctors
-dissected corpses in order to learn more about human anatomy
- discovered the nervous system
- studied the brain and liver
- learned how to use drugs to releive pain
Homoioi
similar, with the belief that all Spartans were equal and alike
Aeropagus
Aristocartic council who met on the hill of Ares and was made of former archons, lifetime membership, most influential body in early republic, responsible for foreign policy.
Periocoi
a group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta
Long Jump
Athletes carried stone weights as they trained
What were the 3 colum types?
Doric, Corinthian, Ionic
Who controlled most of the good land in ancient Greece
Aristocrats
Cleisthenes
508 BC
Created the council of 500 that supervized foreign affairs, oversaw the treasury and proposed laws.
Athenian assembly was given authority to pass laws after free and open debate.
Because the Assembly now had the central political role, the reforms, of Cleisthenes created a basis for Athenian Democracy
Architecture
temples dedicated to a deity were most important
open structures
Aristocrat
A member of a rich and powerful family
Eclessia
a greek word for a duly summoned assembly; also church
Assembly
An is a lawmaking body of a goverment.
persia
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
Wrestling
Two opponents in this test of -
1. STRENGTH
2. SKILL
Discus
A heavy disk made of iron was thrown as far as possible
Socrates was concerned with
The meaning of justice and courage
Direct Democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly by attending mass meetings and not through representatives
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
Epicureans
The beleif that the meaning of life is to seek pleasure
What 2 common characteristics did the Greeks share with each other, although they were united under one governement?
1. Language and Religion
kings in a monarchy
Who ruled the early city-states of Greece?
How did the early civilizations end?
which came first?
mycanean- argos captured in 462bce

minoans: invasion from mycenean
-earthquake
Despite Alexander's wishes, the societies of the people he conquered
Had cultures that did not become dominated by Greek culture
arete
what CULTURE? the _ _ _ _ ans
strive for excellence DORIANS
Alexander the Great (hero & villian beliefs)
1. Alenxander was a brilliant general
2. he was a brave fighter
Sparta's primary goal was to train boys to be Greece's great warriors. Sparta's achievement was developing men of deep courage and bravery. They did not create artistic, scientific, or democratic acievements like Athens. Also, no great statues, temples, p
Know how Sparta's acheivements were different from those in Athens.
What did the Battle of Marathon show?
That a small, determined army could defeat a larger army
What was the Delian League?
When was it formed?
What was the peloponnesian League
DELIAN LEAGUE- ALLIANCE BETWEEN ATHENS AND ALLIED CITY STATES

PEOloponnesian league- sparta and allied city-states

460-429 BCE
what are the three reasons for greak religion?
1. to explain nature
2. to explain emotions
3. religion with benifits
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