Week 6 ENDO Flashcards

Terms Definitions
factors for factors
increasing in age, sedentary lifestyle, increase obesity, unhealthy diet
Type 1 or Type 2 (which is faster growing)
type 2
risk factor for diabetes
obesity, multiple cardiovascular disease risk factor, high lipid or cholesterol level, smoking, hypertension, family history
what is diabetes?
chronically high level of blood glucose, cause: defect in insulin secretion, or/and action, abnormality in carbohydrate
normal blood glucose
fasting: >6.1mmol/l, 2 hour post: >10mmol/l
In DM 2, what is the major cause for impairment in insulin secretion?
Accumulation of amyloid peptide
In DM 2, peripheral insulin resistance to insulin is thought to be ...?
Post receptor malfunction
what is insulin resistance?
impaired biological response to insulin (reduced sensitivity to insulin)
what are the other cause of insulin resistance?
obesity, excessive cortisol, excess GH, pregnancy (gestational diabetes), PCOS
What are the cell that produce insulin
Beta cell (islet of langerhans)
C peptide can be detected in type 1 or 2 DM
DM 2
what are the acute complication of DM?
Coma, infection, hypoglycemia
What are the types of Coma induced by Diabetes?
(1) diabetic ketoacidosis (2) hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (3) lactic acidosis (4) hypoglycemic coma
What are the chronic complication of diabetes?
(1) retinopathy (2) Nephropathy (3) Erectile dysfunction (4) Macrovascular and Cerebrovascular disease (5) foot problems
What are the test available for DM
(1) fasting plasma glucose(2) Oral glucose tolerance test (3) HbA1c
what is the management plan for DM patient
(1) alleviate symptoms (2) improve quality of life (3) prevent complication ABC -HbA1c, BP, Cholesterol
what is the first line treatment plan for DM2 patient
healthy lifestyle
When is the right time to initial metformin if lifestyle method fail to work?
after 6 weeks of lifestyle changes
What is the side effect for metformin?
abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea, lactic acidosis(rare)
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