Chapters 50-52 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ecology
Interactions between organisms and their environment
Organismal Ecology
Focuses on the structure, physiology, and behavior of an organism meet the challenges of the environment
Population Ecology
Focuses on how the environment affects a number of individuals of a certain species in one area
Community Ecology
Focuses on the interaction between species in a community and how the factors of the environment affect the communities structure and organization
Ecosystem Ecology
Emphasizes the energy flow and chemical cycling of abiotic and biotic components
Landscape Ecology
Focuses on the array of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region
The Factors that cause species distribution
Temperature
Water
Sunlight
Wind
Rocks and Soil
Abiotic
nonliving components
Biotic
living components
Population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species
Community
consists of all the organisms of all the species that live in that area
Ecosystem
consists of all the abiotic factors and the community of species that live in the area
biosphere
the entire portion of Earth that is inhabited by life
dispersal
the distribution of individuals within an area of the populations boundaries
Macroclimate
the patterns of climate globally, regionally, and locally
Microclimate
the patterns of climate in a community in a certain area
Proximate
questions that link a behavior to an environmental stimuli
ultimate
making the connection between evolution and the certain behavior
ethology
the study of how animals behave in their natural environments
FAP (Fixed action pattern)
a sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is unchangeable and carried until completion
Imprinting
involves learning and innate components that are irreversible
innate behavior
under strong genetic influence and mentally fixed in a certain way
Kinesis
a simple change in activity in response to a stimuli
Taxis
an automatic movement towards or away from a stimuli
Pheromones
In animals and other organisms it is a volatile chemical that functions in communication or a hormone in influencing
Learning
a behavioral change resulting from experience
Habituation
type of learning that results in a loss of responsiveness from stimuli that convey little or no information
Spatial Learning
changing your behavior based on what you need to survive
Cognitive Map
making an internal relationship of spatial learning
Associative Learning
the ability of organisms to associate a feature of the environment with one another
Classical Conditioning
researcher gives reward or punishment based on behavior
Operant Conditioning
associating your behaviors with reward or punishment
Cognition
problem solving or reaction to environment
Promiscuous
having more than one partner- no strong bond between two animals
Monogamous
one partner
Polygamous
one organism is monogamous while the other mates with multiple partners
Polygyn
one male with many females
Agonistic Behavior
a contest between organisms that determines which competitor gains the resources
Altruism
behavior that reduces an individuals fitness while increasing another's fitness
Population Density
Population Dispersion
Population Demography
Immigration
When new individuals come to the area
Emigration
movement of individuals out of a population
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