Ap enviromental Flashcards

Terms Definitions
2 types of pollution
Non point source and point source
Term for increasing toxicity up the food chain
Biomagnefication
Year the EPA was established
1970
Senator that helped established the first earth day in 1970
Senator Gaylord Nelson
Year that Yellowstone was founded
1872
Migratory Bird Act: when and what
1918, ban the hunting of non game birds
Sierra club: who started
John muir
Golden age for conservation movement
Teddy Roosevelt in 1901-1909
Formula for finding the doubling time in years
70/%growth rate
Earth's capital: what is it?
The sum of all the earths resource available
The rate you can use a supply indefinitely
Sustainable yield
Top 3 countries for total gdp
US, China, India
The total amount of resources (land, energy, etc...) used by a person in their
Ecological Footprint
Set of strategies industry, businesses, government to act smarter and operate more efficiently
B.M.P. (best management practices)
Extreme word view that nature serves man
Western Worldview
Extreme world view that everything in nature is equal, including ants
Deep Ecology
Attitude that the earths resources including land and minerals were unlimited
Frontier Attitude
Type of pollution control where a government agency requires limitations to emissions or pollutants
Command and Control solutions
What percentage of the fish in the Great Lakes are toxic?
25%
Pollution control where true cost (price of producing and disposing) including enviromental pollution
Enviromental taxes
Silent spring was written by WHO, WHEN about the overuse the pesticides particularly WHAT
Rachel Carson, 1962, DDT
Who wrote a Sand County almanac
Aldo Leopold
How much energy is loss as you go up the trophic level
90% due to cellular respiration
Biodiversity formula
Speciation-extinction= biodiversity
Divergent Evolution
A combined process of speciation of geographic isolation and reproductive isolation
Morphological speciation adaption
Specialized physical adaptions, (wings)
physiological speciation adaption
Specialized functions within an orgasm (able to eject venom, able to fly
Study of organisms and how they relate to the enviroment
Ecology
What terms describe any living component of an ecosystem
Biotic
What is the term for non living and have never lived components of an ecosystem
Abiotic, ex: air and water
What makes a biosphere a biosphere
It doesn't take in outside matter
Endothermic
Warm blooded
Exothermic
Cold blooded
Gross productivity
What you put on to an ecosyst
Net productivity
What is left after respiration
What ecosystem has the most biodiversity on land
Rain forests
What ecosystem has the most biodiversity in water
Coral reefs
4 types of evolution
1. Natural Selection. 2.Mutation. 3.Gene flow (reproduction.). 4.Genetic drift
Behaviorial speciation adaptive method
Things a species do socially, (migrating)
3 Speciation adaptions
1. Morphological-[they have] (they have wings) 2. Physiological [they can/they do] (they can fly) 3. Behavioral [they act upon]
Divergent evolution 2 parts
1. Geographic isolation. 2. Reproductive isolation
What evolutionary process leads to symbiosis
Co- evolution
Technical term for producers
Autotrophs
Technical term for consumers
Heterotrophs
What is an advantage and a disadvantage for a specialist species
Disadvantage: they don't adapt well ADVANTAGE: no competition EX: koala
Generalist species: advantage and disadvantage
Advantage: high adaptability DISADVANTAGE: higher competition EX: da loons
Factors that limit a populations growth
Limiting factors
what term depicts a point a that where you hit a point where you reach harmful or fatal reaction
Threshold
3 types of competition
1.INTERFERENCE (restricting access to a resource) 2. EXPLOITATION (using up a resource better than someone else). 3. COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION (organism with same niche cannot stay in same area)
2 types of avoidance
1. CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT (adaptations that allow you to use every resource available) 2. RESOURCE PARTITIONING (organisms w/ similar resource requirements divide up resources up at different times
What type of evolutionary process leads to character displacement
Adaptive radiation
Three types of symbiosis
1 commensalism (one benefits and other isn't affected) 2. PARASITISM 3. MUTUALISM
What species serve as an early warning sign
Indicator Species
Difference between Primary and Secondary Sucession
Primary has no soil while secondary has soil
3 types of stability in an ecosystem
Inertia, constancy, resilience
What is inertia in an ecosystem
Resistance to change
What is constancy in an ecosystem
Ability of an ecosystem to survive with their factors
What is resilience in an ecosystem
The ability for an ecosystem to recover
What is the relationship between biodiversity, inertia, and resilience
High biodiversity means high inertia and low resilience. Low biodiversity means high resilience but low inertia
Equation for growth rate
R= (birth - death) +(immigration - emigration)
Density Independent factors
Characteristics that would occur regardless of the # of organisms
A s curve
↗️〰
J curve
⤴️⤵️⤴️⤵️
3 kinds of population dispersion factors
Random, uniform, clustered(most common)
K STRATEGISTS
High parental care, slow to mature, small litter. S curve. Specialists. EARLY LOSS TYPE I
R- strategists
Low parental care, quick to mature, large litters. J curve. EARLY LOSS-TYPE III
Top 3 most populous countries
China, India, USA. (In 20 years India will probably pass China)
Industrial stage of growth
⬇️BR ⬇️DR
Pre-Industrial stage of growth
⬆️BR ⬆️Dr
Transitional stage of growth
⬆️BR ⬇️DR
Which factor plays the most important role in affecting growth rate
Cultural and religious belief
2 factors that determine quality of life
Life expectancy and infant mortality rate
3 leading causes of death in developed countries
Heart disease, lung disease, and cancer
Pathogens are carried by__
Vectors
Is malaria old world or new world
Old
Antibiotics treat what
Bacteria
Vaccines prevent what
Viruses
Top 7 deadliest diseases and their pathogens
1. Flu/pneumonia (virus) 2. HIV/AIDS (virus) 3. Diarrheal diseases (bacteria). 4. Tubercolis (bacteria) 5.Malaria (Protozoa) 6. Hepatitis B (virus) 7. Measles (virus)
Level at which a chemical kills half the population in 14 days
LD50
Groups of toxic chemicals that causes cancer
Carcinogens
How many many people have to live in an area to be considered urban
25,000
How many food plants came from natural plants
90%
How many medicines came from natural plants
80%
If a species is declining
Threatened
Two states most concerned with species becoming extinct
California and Hawaii
Year the endangered species act created
1973
Year that CITES came back in
1975
Most common method of species protection
Wildlife management
Fish farming
Aqua culture
What group oversees whaling
International whaling commission
Which continent has the fastest growing population right now
Africa
Total Fertility Rate what does that mean
# of kids a woman will give birth to in a life time
Replacement level fertility
# of kids requires to replace the parents. It is 2.3 globally because of infant mortality
What percent of woman are at reproductive age
50%
What does commercial extinction mean
It is no longer profitable to hunt the animal
Group of toxins that alters chromosones
Mutagens
Group of toxins that causes congenital defects
Teratogens
Groups of toxins that attack the nervous system
Neurotoxins
Group of toxins that interfere or exclude o2 uptake
Asphyxiates
Group of toxins that affect the immune system
Allergens
Difference between high quality and low quality resources
High quality is more organized/concentrated and easier to harness
3 main types of radiation
Alpha beta particles and gamma rays
The term for the amount of disorder with harnessing energy that some energy degrades into less useful forms
Entropy
First law of thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
As energy is transformed from one to another, some energy is transformed in less useful or usable forms like best.
Us industries rate from most used and least used: commercial/residential, transportation, industrial, electricity
1: electricity 2., transportation, 3.industrial, 4.,commercial/ residential
Us rate from most used to least used: oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, renewable
1.oil, 2. Natural gas, 3. Coal, 4. Renewable, 5. Nuclear,
Oil comes from what and coal comes from what
Oil comes from animals plants coal
What percent of electricity is produced from coal in the USA
50%
4 stages of coal formation and which one is most commonly used for the US, the rarest, and which side has the most coal
1. Peat, 2 lignite, 3. Bituminous 4. Anthracite. 3 is most used, 4 is rarest, and west side
Which country has the most coal
USA
3 ways to mine coal
Subsurface mining, contour mining, and mountain top, area strip, open pit
What are the three main pollution from fossils fuels
NOx, SOx, Particulate matter ("NOx SOx and Rocks")
4 main pollutants from coal fire power plants
Carbon monoxide, CO2, MerCury, Lead
What are 4 ways to reduce air pollution from a coal power plant
1.Scrubbers take out sulfur oxides. 2. use anthracite (burn a higher quality coal, 3. Fluidized bed boiler (takes out everything) 4.electrostatic precipitator (⬇️Pm)
Main piece of federal law that regulates mining
1977- Surface mining control and Reclamtion Act
What percent of oil is extracted from a refinery using primary and secondary succession
35%
What do we call the process of refining oil
Distillation
Distillations of crude oil creates petrochemicals name a few
Paints, plastics, pesticides, petroleum jelly, polyester
What country has the most oil reserves
Saudi Arabia
Who produces the most oil
Russia
What was the biggest oil spill in US History by a tanker
Exxon Valdez in Alaska
What is name of the biggest oil spill in us history period.
BP gulf oil Spill (deepwater Horizon)
Primary component of natural gas
CH4 (Methane)
What energy resource would be tapping methane from a land fill
Biomass
What country has the top proven natural gas reserves
Russia
Largest producer of natural gas
USA
Most common moderator in a nuclear fission plant
Water
Only nuclear plant incident in USA
3 mile island 1979
Where are our currently spent fuel rods stored
On site on the facilities themselves
What do you call the type solar of power that converts solar energy directly in electricity
Photovoltaic
What kind of solar energy is when you collect heat and heats water like a solar hot water heater
Active solar energy
Leaders in percent production : biomass- hydro- Wind- Geothermal. -nuclear
Wind: Denmark Hydropower: Norway. Geothermal: Iceland. Biomass: Sweden Nuclear:France
Largest hydrofacility in the world
3 Gorges Dam in China
What do you call a energy source that is like a battery by the reactants are supplied externally
Fuel Cell
What term describes the way of thinking: instead of lots of large power plants there are many small generators locally
Micro-Power
What percentage of water is sea water
97%
Majority of fresh water found
Glaciers
3 processes of hydrologic cycle that goes against gravityy
Evaporation, transpiration(plants), perspiration(animals)
What is a watershed
The area of land where water is drained into a water body
Majority of floridians get their water from
Aquifer
Deepest and largest by surface area lentic bodies
Bikal (deepestest) Lake Superior(surface area)
Biggest and least user of water
Biggest:irrigation least=domestic
What happens when aquifers are over withdrawn
Saltwater intrusion & sinkholes
What are 3 water diversion projects
California Aqueduct Project, ARAL SEA(Former Soviet Union)!Mono Lake
What are 3 possible consequences of a dam
Interrupting fish migration of salmon. Disruption of habitat, potential for catastrophic flooding
3 advantages for a dam
Hydropower, recreational activity, water supply, prevents flooding, etc....
Label behind the dam and infront of the dam as either upstream or downstream
Behind=upstream infront=downstream
Process of removing salt from saltwater
Desalination
Most common method of desalination and other methods
Reverse osmosis! Other methods are distillation
What is cloud seeding
Adding dry ice or silver iodide to clouds to make it rain
3 irrigation methods and how efficient they are
1. Drip (%90-95%) 2. Center pivot(80%) 3. Gravity Flow (%60%)
What federal law is the main law that monitors water and who enforces it
Clean Water Act, EPA
What does BOD stand for and what happens to DO as BOD⬆️
Biological Oxygen Demand & DO goes⬇️ as BOD goes up ⬆️
The two biggest inorganic chemicals that we are most concerned with
Nitrogen and Phosphorous
What part of the body does Pb and Hg affect
Nervous system
What do we add to drinking water so that we prevent contamination
Cl (Chlorine)
Sewage treatment stages how and what it solves 3 stages and final stage
Primary-mechanical screens-(⬇️suspended solids). Secondary- Airation/biological (aerobic bacteria) (⬇️BOD). Tertiary-chemical (specific pollutant like N OR P). . DISINFECTION-chemical(pathogens or diseases)
The final stage of sewage treatment uses which three chemicals
Cl, O3( ozone), UV light
What is the waste left over after primary and secondary sewage treamtnet
Sewage sludge
What is called the on site sewage treatment that used to be under houses.
Septic Tanks
What is the part of the Clean Water Act that deals with Point Sources
NPDES
What is the part of the Clean Water Act that deals with non-point sources
TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load)
How often do private wells had to be tested and who regulates bottled water, unless some gets sick
Never, no one (FDA if sick)
Oligotrophic, eutrophic, Who has more nutrients
Eutrophic ⬆️ nutrients, oligotrophic⬇️Nutrients
What is it called when too many nutrients are added to fast
Eutrophication
What are artificial lakes that store water called
Reservoir
What is the difference between gray water and REUSED
GRAY water is when you collect water from the shower drain and reuse it. REUSE water comes from treated sewage plants.
Main National Organization dedicated to protecting water ways
RIVERKEEPER
What do you call water you can drink
Potable
Where was the seasonal thinning of the ozone first noticed and when?
Antartica, 1985
What major international treaty designed to curb CO2 production that has not been signed by the us?
Kyoto Protocolm
3 examples of primary pollutants
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous dioxide,
Name of permitting program that established emission credits under the clean air act
Title V permit
1 atmosphere of pressure equals _____ psi
14.7 psi
Difference between primary and secondary air pollutants
Primary pollutants are directly emitted into the atmosphere and SECONDARY pollutants mix together with elements already in the atmosphere
3 main ways CO2 levels are increasing
Burning fossil fuels, deforestation, burning forests
What term describes the reflectivity of the earth
Albedo
2 ways that sea levels are rising
Land ice are melting, and THERMAL EXPANSION
What are four probable result of global climate change
Temperature change, lower levels in zoo plankton, polar bear deaths, increase in wild fires
Order of the layer of the atmosphere from bottom to top
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
The ozone layer is located in the _____ and global warming is located in the ______
Stratosphere, thermosphere
4 most common gasses in the atmosphere from most to least
1.N (78%) 2. O2.(21%) 3. Ar. 4. CO2
Define commons and what are two additional commons besides the astmosphere
Shared resources between two nations or communities, oceans rivers, forests ...etc
3 major greenhouse gasses
CO2, NOx, CH4 (methane)
Worst city in the world for air pollution and worst city in the US
Beijing & St. Louis
Main way lead has decreased in the atmosphere since 1970
They had banned leaded gasoline
Last international treaty aimed at curbing CFC production (name and date)
Copenhagen Protocol, 1992
2 most common sources of outdoor air pollution
1. Transpiration &fossil fuels combustion in power plants
How are O3(ozone) destroyed in the stratosphere
CFCs break down into Chlorine and chlorine stops O2 from turning into O3 and destroys ozone molecules
4 examples of a secondary air pollution
Ozone, H2S04 (sulfuric acid), HNO3(nitric acid), H2O2 (hydrogen Peroxide)
4 effects of increased UV exposure
Eye cataracts in humans, Skin cancer , lowered phitoplankton, increased acid deposition
How does photochemical smog formed
When the sun light reacts with the pollutants that create smog,like NOx O3, hydrocarbons
Why were the first ozone holes formed over the polar regions
The centripetal force or global air circulation patterns pulled CFCs emissions to the the poles
What is the first international treats aimed at curbing CFC production (name and date)
Montreal Protocol, 1987
Stratospheric ozone blocks which specific form of light
UV-C
What percentage of the worlds food supply is from farm lands
75%
Term for Exceeding a rangelands carrying capacity for livestock
Overgrazing
#1 cause for desertification
Rangelands
federal laws that manages rangelands
Taylor Grazing Act
3 most common crops grown to feed people
Corn, wheat, rice
Most commonly grown crop period
Sugar came
What percentage of calories come from meat in developed countries
40%
Calories for meat in developing countries
5%
4 benefits of using GMOs (genetically modified organism)
1. Pest resistance. 2 more nutrition 3. Drought resistance 4 increasing crop yields
Term for when you catch fish species not intending to catch
Bycatch
Difference between first generations and second generation pesticide
1st- inorganic compounds derived from plants. 2nd-- synthetic poisons
Describe pesticide treadmill
Keep putting more money into pesticides to achieve the same level of pest protection from the year before
Integrated pest management. Name a few methods
Pheromone traps, natural pest enemies, planting crops naturally resistant to pests,
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