Textiles Flashcards

Wales
Terms Definitions
scientific testing (method) involves what steps?
1.Record
2. Report
3. Explain
4. Apply Knowledge
when product development teams look to forecast info regarding textiles which data sources included in research process?
customer behavior
trade shows
services such as stylesight
retail store analysis
trend forecasting for fibers and textiles takes place how long before product available?
18-24 months
a textile product could have been worked in several countries before making it to your closet?
true
define serviceability
describes the measure of a textiles ability to meet consumers' needs.
understand consumer market and target market
aesthetics
attractiveness or appearance of a textile product
durability
manner in which a product withstands use, length of time product suitable for its use purchased for
comfort
the way it affects heat, air, moisture transfer, how body interacts with textile
safety
a textiles ability to protect the body from harm
appearance retention
how the product maintains its original appearance during use and care
care
treatment required to maintain a textiles products original appearance and cleanliness
environmental concerns
the effect of production, use, or disposal of a textile has on the environment
sustainability and life cycle impact
practices and policies that reduce environmental pollution and how product effects people environment involved now and in future
cost
amount paid to acquire, use, maintain, and dispose of a product
fibers that come from seed of a plant
cotton
kapok
choir
milkweed sometimes
fibers that come from bast of plant
flax
hemp
ramie
jute
kenaf
hibiscus
nettle
bamboo
milkweed sometimes
fibers that come from leaf of plant
pina
sisal
henequen
abaca
staple fibers
short fibers measured in inches or centimeters.
range in length from less than 2 to 26 cm (0.5-18 inches)
staple fibers
silk is the only fiber not available in
staple form
filament fibers
are long, continuous fiber strands of indefinite length.
measured in miles or kilometers.
monofilament
one filament
mulitfilament
multiple filaments
filaments may be
smooth or bulked (crimped in some way)
smooth filaments used to
produce silk like fabrics
bulked filaments may be used to
produce cotton like or wool like fabrics
filament tow
produced as loose rope of several thousand fibers, is crimped or textured and cut to staple length
all cellulosic fibers contain
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
basic monomer of cellulosic fibers is
glucose
performance
encompasses everything from textile to sewn product and details.
fabric
construction
details
fabric quality is
only one component of product quality
standards
don't tell how to get good quality
general guidelines
specifications
how to meet specifics, etc
globalization
refers to companies purchasing from and/or selling to multiple sites in the world
specification companies
ASTM
ATCC
ACT
ISO
CEN
GOTS
polymer
monomers that join together to form a chain
foundation fro understanding textiles
science
polymerization
little molecules make a chain and when chains mix, properties change
homopolymer
multiple repeat units of a single monomer
ex: Nylon 6
copolymer
two or more types of monomers
ex: Wool
orientation of chains
amorphous
cyrstalline
oriented
amorphous
packages go separate all over, random, disorganized
cyrstalline
arranged in little packages, organized parallel to each other
oriented
go in same direction, high degree of orientation
fibers that are highly oriented are also
highly crystalline
highly crystalline not always
highly oriented
stretching or drawing
increases orientation and crystallinity
affects fiber's diameter
molecular chains are held close to one another by
inter molecular forces
those intermolcular forces are called
hydrogen bonds and van der waals forces
cross sectional view
inside of fiber
fiber cut in half
longitudinal view
the fiber full
denier
weight in grams of 9000 meters of fiber or yarn.
refers to the fineness (small number) or coarseness (large numbers) of the fiber
tex
weight in grams of 1000 meters of fiber or yarn
staple fiber sold by
denier and fiber length
filament fiber sold by
denier of yarn or tow
denier per filament
way of identifying fiber size
calculated by dividing yarn size by number of filaments
fiber crimp
usually found in nature
i.e. wool
can be synthesized
aesthetic characteritcs
drape
hand/body
luster
texture
amorphous fibers drape
softly
oriented fibers drape
stiffly
durability characteristics
abrasion resistance
flexibility
pilling
tenacity
cohesiveness
elongation potential
comfort and safety characteristcs
absorbency
electrical conductivity
wicking
dyeability
heat retention
heat conductivity
flammability
density
allergenic potential
hydrophobic
low attraction of water
hydrophilic
high attraction of water
hygroscopic
attraction of water but feels dry
oleophilic
High attraction of oil
appearance retention characteristics
resiliency
dimensional stability/ shrinkage resistance
elasticity or elastic recovery
care
aging resistance
environmental concerns characteristics
social justice
sustainability
cradle to cradle concept
generic fiber names
assigned by government or popular culture
trademark fiber names
assigned by company or brand
trademark and generic example
tradename= 100% Tencel
generic = lyocell
percentage, orientation, and degree of polymerization varies by
fiber
seed fiber of cotton
comes from flowers
comes in short staple fibers or super long staple fibers
cotton mainly grows in
Peru, India, US, egypt
ginning
separates seeds from fibers
types of cotton
organic cotton
transition cotton
conventional cotton
green cotton
colored cotton
organic cotton
chemical free land for at least 3 years
transition cotton
hasn't hit 3 year mark to be considered organic yet
conventional cotton
describes all other cottons
american upland
american pima (long high quality)
green cotton
doesn't meet organic standards but is cultivated with natural soaps and is not bleached
colored cotton
grows naturally a different color
i.e. fox fiber cotton
cotton grading
length
color
cleanliness
fineness
strength
crimp
aesthetics of cotton
soft in raw state
comfort/safety of cotton
hydrophilic
appearance retention of cotton
wrinkles easily, vulnerable
environmental concerns and sustainibilty of cotton
a lot problems
chemicals
energy
water
mildews easily
soil erosion
bio engineering (genetic modifications)
provides income for many
seeds can be processed for food
cotton end use
apparel- casualwear, sleepwear, undergarments, socks. accessories
interiors-draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, rugs/mats, towels
global organic textiles standard
certifies organic
bast fiber: flax
known as linen
one of oldest textile fibers
flax production
1. retting
2. scutching
3. hackling
retting in flax production
first step
getting fibers wet to rot to loosen so that they can decompose to remove from the stalk (pectins seal the outside)
scutching in flax production
second step
after retting, the woody portion is removed by breaking and crushing the outer covering when the stalks are passed between fluted or metal rollers
hackling in flax production
third step
short irregular fibers removed
like combing
flax fiber structure longitudinal (surface contour)
straight with nodes that look like bamboo
shape and size vary
flax structure cross contour (shape)
polygonal with rounded edges and small lumen
shape a diameter vary
flax wrinkle resistance
poor
flax absorbency
good
flax properties
hydrophilic
no irritants
very strong abrasion
vulnerable to light
resistent to rotting
ramie is used for
apparel and may be blended with cotton
hemp and jute are usually used for
industrial purposes
ramie properties
not aesthetically pleasing
durable
not comfortable
easier care
hemp properties
comfortable
absorbant
environmentally friendly
abaca fibers are from
stem of the banana plant leaf
may be up to 15 feet long
ixle, sisal, and henequen
agave family- blue agave
other cellulosic materials
rush, seagrass, conhusk
leaf fibers used on
paper yarns in walls fro visual interest and texture, wooden slats and grasses, wicker furniture
hemp comes from
a long, tall, think plant stalk that has a very fibrous shell around core of stalk
AATCC
standards of organization that oversees evaluation of wet processes
ACT guidlines for
association fot contract textiles
shorter versions of flax are called
tow
textile
any flexible material composed of thin films of polymers
fiber
any substance with suitable for being processed into fabric
textile complex
global mix of related industries that provide soft goods for worlds population
chemical reactivity of cellulose is related
to the hydroxol groups (OH) of the glucose unit
convolutions
ribbonlike twists that characterize cotton
enables fibers to cling to each other
line
long, combed, better quality flax fibers
flax has a higher
degree of orientation and crystallinity than cotton
keratin protein
wool
Fibroin protein
sericin
silk
natural protein fibers composed of
amino acids in polypeptide chains with high molecular weights
those amino acids contain
sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
goat family
angora goat
cashmere goat
camel family
camel hair
llama
alpaca
vicuna
guanaco
sheep family
Shetland
marino
ramboulet
others family
angora rabbit
musk ox
yak
wool has..
scales found in cuticle which allow for felting
wool fiber structure
complex layers
cells inside look like cut tomatoes
wool grading
fineness
length
crimp
color
strength
wool grading systems
USDA numerical system (US only)
Micron System (international/universal)
sheared wool
raw wool or grease wool (right after the shear)
clean or scoured wool
no oils
pulled wool
dead animals wool
lambs wool
baby up to 7 months old wool
very soft cause hair end is still tapered
FTC- federal trade commission oversees
the naming of of wool types
virgin wool
straight from the animal
never processed
recycled wool
scraps that could be Virgin or re-claimed are garnetted or shredded and reused
wool
new or wool fibers reclaimed from knit scraps, broken thread, and noils
noils
short fibers that are removed in making worsted yarns
most common wool fiber
sheep
wool quality depends on
breed
area of body comes from
cashmere comes from
goats
mohair is from
angora goat
camel hair comes from
bactarian 2 hump camel
south asia
characteristics of camel hair
luxurious
soft and fine
lustrous
strong
light weight
long nap and warm
waterproof
beautiful natural color
accepts dye easily
llama and alpaca
no lanolin= hypoallergenic
comes from andes mountains of peru
common characteristics of natural protein fibers
absorbent
resilient
hygroscopic
low tenacity when wet (weaker)
lower specific gravity than cellulosic
sensitive to alkais and oxidizing agents
insect damage
harmed by dry heat
somewhat flame retardant
wool serviceability aesthetics
loft and body
matte
can vary
wool serviceability durability
wool is durable
retains flexibility
wool serviceability comfort
poor heat conductor
hygroscopic
wool care
does not soil easily
will be eaten by moths
susceptible to damage when wet
environmental concerns and sustainability of wool
animals- health and farming.
fiber processing is involved and expensive.
recycling done in Italy.
organic wool
uses of wool
apparel, furnishings, industrial and consumer goods
wool bureau
promotes use of wool
the wool mark company
silk is the only
natural filament fiber
raw silk called
tussah
sericulture
process of growing silk worms and pulling silk from them
longitudinal view of silk
smooth but not uniform width
silk is fine but
stronger than wool
silk has varied
shape and size
cross section of silk
triangular fiber
majority of silk produced
in south and far east asia
silk worms cultivated either
bombyx mori or
wild silk
bombyx mori
cultivated silk done with sericulture
wild silk
tussah
eri
muga
peace silk and ahlamsa silk
marketed as eco-friendly.
produced without killing the silkworm (cocoons where moth has already emerged)
reeling of silk
several filaments are gathered together and wound onto a reel
fine silk fabrics are more
expensive than other fabrics of similar and construction
dupion or doupioni
reeled from cocoons that became tangled while they were spun
yarn has variable areas, some thicker due to the inseparable entangled filaments
spun silk
filament fibers from cocoons damaged by the emerging silk moth
waste silk or silk noil
fibers that can not be reeled
lower quality than spun silk
less expensive
less lustrous
staple fiber
care of silk depends on
silk type
fabric construction
dyes
in silk cleaning..
avoid chlorine
dry cleaning only (water removed sericin)
dont rub to take out stains
keep silk
out of sunlight
from water
spider silk
exceptionally strong and elastic
protein is spidron
chemical reactivity of silk is
similar to wool
identification of silk
microscopic appearance
proteina and cellulose fibers differ in
resiliency
flammability
strength when wet
heat
moth damage
mildew
weight
alkali is
sodium hypochlorite
mineral acids is
hydrochloric acid
manufactured fiber
any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from substance that at any point in the process is not a fiber
three general fiber spinning steps
1. preparing a viscous dope (a thick solution)
2. forcing or extruding the dope or melt through an opening in a spinneret to form a fiber
3. solidifying the fiber by coagulation, evaporation, or cooling
all manufactured fibers are regenerated
FALSE
what fiber was produced in response to concerns about the environmental impacts of manufacturing rayon?
Lyocell
a bamboo fiber that is regenerated should be labeled...
bamboo rayon
starting materials for regenerated fibers are
cellulose and protein
first thermoplastic fiber was
acetate
generic name
refers to the family of manufactured or synthetic fibers that have similar chemical composition
based on fiber chemistry
approved by FTC
trade names
companies names for fibers and may be used in promotion and marketing
Spinning methods
wet spinning
dry spinning
melt spinning
wet spinning process
1.dissolved by chemicals
2.spun into chemical bath
3. fiber solidifies when coagulated by bath
wet spinning characteristics
oldest process
solvent may be recovered and reused
difficult to control cross section
fibers made from wet spinning
acrylic
lyocell
rayon
spandex
dry spinning process
1. resin solids dissolved by solvent.
2. fiber is spun into warm air
3. fiber solidifies by evaporation
dry spinning characteristics
direct process
solvent required
solvent recovery required
no washing required
polymer properties stay the same
fibers cross section changes (shrinks when solvent evaporates)
fibers made from dry spinning
acetate
acrylic
modacrylic
major method for spandex
melt spinning process
1. solids melted in autoclave.
2. fiber is spun into the air
3. fiber solidifies on cooling
melt spinning process characteristics
least expensive
direct process
high spinning speeds
no solvent or washing required
fibers shaped like spinneret lobe
fibers made from melt spinning
nylon
olefin
polyester
saran
fiber sizes for industry
apparel- less than 7 denier
interior- 5- 25 denier
technical- any size
microdenier
less than 1 denier per a filament
first manufactured fiber was created in france in
1889
regenerated fibers
naturally occuring polymers
cellulose- wood chips, bamboo, cotton linters
Protein- soybeans and milk
synthetic fibers
petroleum based chemicals
synthesized in a lab
non fibrous material
thermoplastic filaments
melt when heated
threadless stitching
thermal finishing
extrusion
forcing or pumping the spinning solution through the tiny holes of spinneret
spinneret
a small thimbelike nozzle made of platinum or stainless steel
filament fibers spun in spinnerets with
350 holes or less
manufactured fiber modifications parent fibers
size and shape - spinneret opening.
polymer properties- molecular structure (crystallinity), complex modification polymer (polymer combination).
physical structure- alter spinning process.
additives to dope for fiber enhancement
ultrafine fibers
smaller than microfibers
mixed denier fiber bundling
combines regular size fiver with microfibers in a yarn
nanofibers
fibers with cross section less than 1 nm.
Us army research.
used for medical textiles, protective clothing, membranes.
electrospinning and other special manufacturing processes
what spun fibers are easiest to modify in cross section?
melt spun
round shape of spinneret
easiest and most common
triangular shaped spinneret
used to enhance luster
trilobal shaped spinneret
lobes hide dirt
used in carpets
hollow shaped spinneret
adds bulks but not weight
reduces appearance of soil in carpets
common additives to dope
flame resistant
strain resistant
light resistant
de-lustrants
colorants
whiteners or brighteners
antistatic
antibacterial
fibers with microcapsules
produce phase change materials
regulate body temp.
outlast thermocules
bicomponent fiber
a fiber consisting of two polymers that are chemically different, physically different, or both
bicomponent modifications
fibers placed side by side,
sheath core-one inside the other
matrix/fibril- fibers stuck all over inside one in with diff. sizes
yarn
a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or materials in a form suitable for knitting, weaving, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric
filament yarns
smooth
dont shed lint
resist pulling, wind, water
non-absorbant
pact into compact yarns
filament yarns are produced from
filament fibers
ways to get filament
reeled
extruded
films
reeled
silk reeled from cocoon
extruded
pushed through holes to make filament
films
thin layer of liquid to be laid out to harden
diff btw yarns and thread
yarns make the fabric and thread is used to join the fabric pieces
spun yarns produced by
twisting staple fibers together
ways to obtain spun yarns
naturally occurring short fibers
cutting filament into short fibers
monofilament example
fishing yarn
types of filament yarns
monofilament
tape/film
multifilament
bulk or textured yarns
filament yarn production sequence
polymer dope
fiber extrusion
fiber coagulation (drawn)
either textured, twisted, monofilament, or tape yarn
tape yarn
inexpensive yarns produced from extruded polymer films
network yarn
made of fibers connected in a network arrangement and are less bulky and dense compared to tape yarns. both yarns are used in technical products.
grain refers to
the relationship of the warp to the filling
a yarn that crosses over one yarn at a time in an interlacing pattern is called a
float
twill weaves have diagonal wales on the
technical face
knits are made with yarns that
interloop
wovens are made with yarns that
interlock
factors that knits can be classified
machine knit was made
type of stitch or stitches used
number of yarn sets in the knit
double filling knits are
made on a machine with two beds of needles
knit terry cloth is
a loop pile fancy
weft insertion jersey
another yarn is laid in a course as it is being knit
fabric density designated as
wales by courses
wale
vertical
course
horizontal
flatbed machines
knit a variety of fabric widths, at least 100 inch wide.
slower than circular machines
produce less skew in the fabric
can fashion or shape garment or product parts
warp knitting
process in which yarn sets are interloped vertically or lengthwise to form fabric
float or miss stitch is
used to create a fancy knit with a pattern in the fabric
characteristics of filling or weft knit
yarns move horizontally
done by both hand and machine
has 2 way stretch
categories of woven fabrics
basic
fancy
pile
leno
tufted fabrics are an
inexpensive way to create pile fabrics
shed on a loom
space through which the filling yarn is inserted when one harness is raised and the other harness remains in the original position
which type of loom produces the most fabric per a minute
water and air jet
shuttle-less loom
filling yarns are measured, inserted, and cut, leaving a fringe along the side.
These ends may make a fused selvage if the yarns are thermoplastic.
balanced plain weave examples
lawn
batiste
flannel
common end use of twill fabric
denium
satin fabrics
made with bright filament yarns with low twist
durable and smooth
floats in either warp or filling direction
dobby weaves
small figured designs that require fewer than 25 different warp arrangements to complete one repeat of the design
momie weave
presents no or wale or distinct weave effect but gves the fabric the appearance of being sprinkled with small spots or seeds.
basket weave
two or more adjacent warps controlled by the same harness
double weave
four sets of yarns creating two separate layers of fabric that periodically reverse position from top to bottom
over the wire warp pile fabric end use
frieze
curtains
velvet is a
warp pile created with double cloth method
filament yarns
leno
warp yarns cross over each other and is open appearance
matelasse
double cloth with bubbled or puckered surface
pile
extra warp or filling yarns are woven in to give a cut or uncut surface to a three dimensional weave
warp pile example
terrycloth
extra yarn fabric
additional warp or filling yarns of different colors or types are woven into the fabric to create a pattern
examples of jacquard fabrics
brocade
damask
stuffer yarns are used in some
pique fabrics
slack tension fabrics
weave with two warp beams used with one a regular loom tension and the others at a slack tension
jacquard looms
punched cards that form continuous strip
large repeating designs requiring 25 or more warp yarn arrangements.
permanent design
lightweight sheer plain weave fabric
voile
tweed
made from any fiber or blend always characterized by novelty yarns with nubs of different colors
heavyweight ribbed fabric example
faille
warp knits characteristics
stable in both directions
depends on loops sideways and diagonally
lighter weight
fast
tricot is
a warp knit
finer gauge
often filament
tricot end use
mens swim trunk lining
automotive upholestry
tulle
fashion side is the technical back of
brushed or napped tricot
raschel knits identified by
have rows of chain like loops called pillars
fabric splits and comes apart lengthwise
coarser gauge and have complex pattern or design
gauge
needles per inch
higher the gauge the finer the fabric
weft yarn insertion in a filling knit
increases crosswise stability
knitting
series of interlocking loops
hairiness
excessive fiber ends on the yarn surface due to the spinning process.
texturing filament yarns includes
false twist
draw texturing
stuffer box
air jet
2 ply yarn
2 single strands twisted together
components of a fancy yarn
core, binder, effect
low twist
2-3 tpi
napping
8-15 tpi
average
15-30 tpi
voile twist
30-40 tpi
napping twist example
flannelette
crepe twist
40-60 tpi
steps of spun yarn manufacturing process
opening
cardung
drawing
roving
spinning
winding
three basic weaves
plain
twill
satin
difference btw satin and sateen fabric
satin made from filament yarns
sateen is made from spun yarns
weave notation 30x60 indicates
yarn count per inch
warp x filling
oldest type of loom
vertical/back strap loom
four width categories
very narrow
narrow
medium
broadloom/wide
very narrow
under 12 in
narrow
27-36 in
medium/standard
45, 55, 60, 72 in
broadloom/wide
108
fuzzy yarn pulled from a pile weave fabric
caterpillar
true crepe
pebbled texture from crepe twist yarns
momie crepe
pebbled texture from weave
structural design
part of weave itself
i.e dobby
applied design
applied to completed fabric
i.e embroidery
filling knit wale stitches go
vertical
which type of knit fabric does not unravel
warp knit
four basic filling knit stitches
knit
purl
miss/float
tuck
knit
looks like v's
purl
scallops
miss/float
float on back
tuck
open space
fashioned
pattern pieces are knit t proper size for garment
knit yardage
fabric knit to a constance width, then cut and sewn into garment
true felt
wool fibers
leather
outer side of skin is tanned
suede
flesh side of skin is napped
goretex is an example of what type of fabric
poromeric
when two 1x1 rib structures are meshed
interlock
warp knits are diagrammed using
point paper notation
raschel knits are
warp knits
true tapestries usually have
larger picks and ends
colorfastness
process of keeping color in textile throughout care cycle
metamerism
happens when textile changes under certain lights
bezold effect
effect well known through impressionist painters
color effects shown by putting next to each other
color measurement systems
pantone
munsell
color matching
measurement systems used to match color under light box
shade sorting
different roles of fabric all coordinate to a product
fiber reactive (basic) dyes
negative charge
cellulosic
Acid dyes
positive charge
protein
dispersed dyes
trapped inside fibers
synthetic
stages of dying
fiber
yarn
fabric or piece
product
fiber
solution or gel (synthetic)
stock or fiber (staple or natural)
in fashion color usually added at
fabric or product stage
resist dye batik process
tracing design
applying wax
dye
time for dye to penetrate
remove wax
recycle wax
resist dye shibori
shibori means pleating in japanese
resist dye types
batik
shibori
tie dye
ikat
ikat effect achieved by
tie dye the warp yarns
types pf dyeing
union
cross
resist
color specs and standards are measured by
AATCC
printing mostly done at
fabric stage
printing
adds color in localized areas
dyes are in paste form
allows for great design flexibility
direct printing processes
direct roller
screen print
warp print
block print (wood or metal)
discharge printing
remove color from dyeing fabric
direct roller printing process
rolls are engraved
screen printing methods
flat
rotary
screen printing process
open spot for dye on screen
different screens for each color
digital printing
quick to market
limited textiles
emerging technology
experimentation
beauty of CAD
digital printing advantages
quick to market
inexpensive
exciting
digital printing limitations
glitches
only works on some textiles
not exact colors
other surface design methods
foam dyeing
jet
heat transfer
electrostatic
differential
foil printing
jet products
carpeting
upholstery
toweling
components of a printed pattern
repeat
direction
color problems
poor colorfastness
bleeding
crocking
out of register
off-grain
migration
out of register problem happens
if rollers or screens are not properly aligned different colors will not be in the correct position relative to other colors
fabrics solution dyed
satin (made from acetate which is difficult to dye)
sunbrella outdoor fabric (solution fabrics don't fade like piece dyed)
fiber dyed
color varies from fiber to fiber
tweed suiting
yarn dyed
usually forms patterns
gingham checks, madras checks, plaids, woven stripes, tapestry
piece/fabric dyed
solid-color fabric of single fibers and union dyed blends; patterns or heather effect with cross dyed blends
cross dyed example
velvet
union dyed example
broadcloth
not solution dyed because cotton but is all one uniform color so union dyed
slub
thick and thin lines
shantung
single spun fancy yarn
boucle/loop
suiting fabric
ply yarns
spike/snarl
purl knit
alternating open loops on each side of the yarn
ply
knot of spot
marquisette
twisting yarn in same place several times
ply yarn
metallic
may be monofilament fibers or combined ply yarns
brocade
chenille
upholstery pile
made by cutting a specially woven ladder like fabric into warp like strips
ply
pocket cloth-multiple yarns in different colors
plying increases diameter, strength, uniformity, and quality
composite
regular in appearance along length
have both staple-fiber and filament-fiber components
balanced plain weave
basic interlaced yarns, flat, no ribs or ridges
weft yarns are about the same size and distance apart
unbalanced plain
ribs or ridges formed
significantly more yarns in one direction than the other
bengaline
shantung
basket
two or more adjacent warps ad two or more adjacent fillings are placed in the same shed
oxford cloth, oxford chambray, duck
twill
have a technical face and a technical back
face is always the side with most pronounced wale
herringbone, houndstooth
satin
four or more fill or weft yarns float over warp yarns or vice versa.
four warp floating over a single weft
lustrous, silky appearance
jacquard
large figured designs or tapestry effects
damask
tapestry
brocade
dobby
small repeating design/small woven in design
momie
no wale or other distinct weave effect but gives the cloth the appearance of being sprinkled with small spots of seeds
crepe
leno
two warp yarns are crossed over each other and held in place by a filling yarn
drapery casement
double cloth
double faced
pocket cloth
double faced
3 sets of yarns
thick houndstooth
pocket cloth
two separate layers of fabric
periodically reverse position from top to bottom which interlocks the layers.
reversible
slack tension
some warp yarns have less tension to create relaxed areas that result in ripples or loops
terry cloth, seersucker
pile fabrics
corduroy
velveteen
velvet
corduroy
filling pile
floats arranged in lengthwise rows
velveteen
filling pile
the floats are scattered all over base of the fabric
velvet
warp pile
knits
interlocking loops
stretchy
porous
technical face (V) and technical back (U)
knit stitch/jersey
basic filling stitch
purl stitch/reverse jersey
forms a fabric that on both sides kook the the back of a basic knit fabric.
reversible
tuck stitch/jacquard jersey
fabric is thicker and less likely to stretch crosswise
bubbles or puckers for visual interest
float or missed stitch/multicolored jacquard jersey
like tuck but incorporates multiple colors
other filling knits
pile
weft insertion
pile
looks like woven pile
more pliable ad stretchy
weft insertion
another yarn is laid in loops of stitches ad they are formed
yarn may be novelty, large, irregular, or very low twist and weak
laid in yarn does not loop or form a part of the actual fabric structure
double filling knits
two fabrics put together
knit equivalent of woven double cloth
rib, interlock, purl
rib
like jersey
has technical face and technical back
interlock
both sides look like technical face
purl
both sides look like technical back or purl side
warp knits
raschel
tricot
raschel
coarser yarns than other warp knit fabrics
chain like loops
splits and/or comes apart lengthwise
looks lace like
tricot
one side will feature fine ribs running in a lengthwise pattern while the other side will feature ribs that run in a crosswise direction
film
quilted fabric
pleather
foam
sponges
fiber
fiber-fill in middle of swatch
true felt
yarn
lace
embroidery
composite
2 or more fabric/fabrication methods bonded or adhered together
natural animal skins
fur- hair
leather- no hair
suede- back side, napped
warp knit
stiff
doesn't stretch in both directions
yarns go lengthwise
make holes
not as common
sliver
nontwisted puff of yarn
does embossing or flocking change the color?
flocking!
embossing stays same color
what charateristics of a textile can a finish change
everything but the chemical composition of the fiber
finish reduces pilling by exposing fuzzy fibers to heat
singeing
vertically integrated
combines to or more steps of supply chain
fiber and fabric, etc
textile convertors
does only one stage
only yarns
only fibers
electrostatic vs moisture absorbency
electrostatic found in hydrophobic fibers, not hydrophilic
end uses depend on safety fields and aesthetics. don't want electricity in skirts and dresses.
electricity attracts
soils and dirt
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