Psychology: Chapter 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
psychology
scientific study of thought and behavior
cognitive psychology
study of how we perceive info, think about things, etc.
developmental psychology
study of how thought and behavior change over time
behavioral neuroscience
studies the links between the brain, mind, and behavior
biological psychology
studies connections between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought
personality psychology
study of what makes people unique
social psychology
study of how the presence of others influences thought and behavior
clinical psychology
study of the treatment of mental and emotional disorders
counseling psychology
similar to clinical psychology but deals with less severe mental issues
health psychology
study of the role that psychological factors play in physical health
educational psychology
study of how students learn
industrial/organizational psychology (I/O)
applies psychological questions and concepts to work setttings
industrial psychology
focuses on selecting employees
organizational psychology
how can we make you happy in the work place?
sport psychology
studies how psychological factors affect performance and participation in sports
forensic psychology
blends psychology, law, and criminal justice
empiricism
the view that knowledge and thoughts come from observation and experience
John Locke
said our minds are like a "tabula rasa" or blank slate and that we are born without knowledge. you must live to learn
why did psychology go in a more scientific direction?
because philosophy did not use data to test its ideas
psychophysics
first scientific form of psychology, studies perception of light and sound.
Wilhelm Wundt
In 1879 he opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
G. Stanley Hall
founded the American Psychology Association (APA), established the first psychology laboratory in the United States, and taught Francis Cecil Sumner(the first African Amercian to earn a PhD in psychology
William James
considered the founder of American psychology, taught G. Stanley Hall and Mary Whiton Calkins (the first female president of the APA)
structuralism
school of thought that argued breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior
introspection
looking into one's own mind to determine the structure of consciousness
functionalism
school of thought that argued its better to look at WHY the mind works the way it does to describe its parts
Gestalt psychology
theory that we perceive things as wholes rather than a compilation of parts (Max Wertheimer)
Frederick Bartlett
stated that memory is NOT an objective way to represent events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one's own beliefs/ideas/points of view
cognitive framework
the way we think about things organizes how we experience the world
Behaviorism
school of thought that argued psychology can only be a true science if it examines observable behavior instead of ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives. influenced by Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner
humanistic psychology
theory that promotes personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one's highest potential (Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers) *
positive psychology
approach to studying understanding and promoting healthy and positive thoughts and behavior
John Tooby and Lena Cosmides
published "The Psychological Foundations of Cultures"
Prehistoric views of clinical psychology: Shamans
medicine men and women who viewed mental illness as being possessed by demons. they drilled a hole in the skull to release demons (trephination)
Ancient views of clinical psychology
moved away from supernatural views and towards natural and physiological explanations for mental illness. Chinese: made connections between bodily organs and emotions, Egypt and Greeks: used narcotics to treat pain, Hippocrates: said when you are out of balance=mental illness
Medieval views of clinical psychology
believed in supernatural causes
asylums
facilities for mentally ill people. had horrible conditions
moral treatment
idea of treating the mentally ill with dignity and as individuals, not as monsters
Modern views of clinical psychology
natural and physiological causes to mental illness
Emil Kraepelin
classified different disorders. said that dementia was the predecessor to schizophrenia
Sigmund Freud
developed the theory of psychoanalysis
psychoanalysis
assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior
3 developments in clinical psychology
1. psychotherapy
2. drug treatment
3. Criteria for diagnosing mental disorders (Diagnostic and Statistic Manual)
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