Ancient Greece Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
agora
marketplace
Phydias
sculptor
classical
traditional (stories)
prescient
foreknowledge, foresight
Polis
Greek city-state
Athens
developed a democracy
trireme
Greek sailing vessel
Values
principles considered desirable
ZOROASTRIANISM
RELIGION OF IRAN
Aristotle
(384-322 B.C.)
Truth through observation of natural world
Biology physics-> classified observation, evolution, inductive reasoning
Help citizens achieve good life- idea of equality
Helots
servants in ancient sparta
Logos
Plan to the universe
Helot
A slave in Sparta
Aristocrat
someone with a title
comedy
satire of politicans and intellectuals. Aristophanes
achievements
things finished successfully with effort
Peloponnesus
the southern peninsula of Greece
Monarchy
government under a single ruler
Axial Age
700-300BCE
people who established ideas for the basis of a religion
Alexandria
An ancient Hellenistic city in Egypt
greek religion
12 gods (polytheistic)
interacted with people's lives/ have human qualities
goddess more respected
Ephors
5 people who ran day-to-day affairs
aristocracy
quy' toc, rich people running state
Minoan Houses Plumbing
Bathroom with running water
-Drinking
-Bathing
-Flushing waste
Landform
Rocky mountains and surronded by water.
Negora
A meeting place, somewhere where people could socialize
Catastrophe
a calamity with widespread effects; disaster.
greek colonization
each set up by groups
Greece
located in southern Europe; separated into many different city-states
democracy
a government in which citizens make political decisions
Zeus
The ruler/leader/gods of all gods and goddesses.
Epicureanism
Founded by Epicurus who taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe
Attica
a peninsula in East-Central Greecce on the Aegan Sea where Athens was built
490 BC
persian force landed in marathon bay
Lycurgus
Who wrote the law code for Sparta?
infanticida
to abandon a weak or sick baby
Lykurgos
Legendary lawgiver in Sparta; Set up education system
Citizens
People who had the right to participate in government
Zorastrianism
A religion founded in ancient Persia by the Prophet of the similar name. The religion centers on the worship of a god named Ahura Mazda and it teaches that a strict dualism of good and evil operates in the world until good triumphs over evil in a final apocalypse
Direct Democracy
A government where all citizens participate directly in government
jury
a commitee that judges or awards prizes at exibitions or contests
hellenistic
blend of greek persian egyptian and indian influences.
Sappho
Greek female poet who wrote lyrical poems that were emotional about love and relationships with family and friends
Crete
a Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea, southeast of Greece
epic poem describing the destruction of Troy
The Iliad
city-state
a city and its surrounding land and villages
colony
a settlement of people in a territory outside their homeland that is bound to the parent country by government, trade, or culture
Delian League
After the Persian war, Athens became the leader of 140 city-states
drama
the art of writing, acting in, and producing plays
lycurgan forms
lycurgan was a law maker, politician: train men and women become solider
Slaves
people owned by others, they have to work for their masters and are not free to do what they want
Persians
Ethnic group that settled in what is now Iran. They were rivals for control of Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the Arabs.
CONS of independent city-states
•hurt ability to work together
•each city state thought it was better than the others
Tyrant
in ancient Greece, a ruler who had seized power without legal right to it
effect of weather?
outdoor life was HUGE. outdoor activities and participation was big
fresco
the art of painting on freshly moist platter
Cultural Borrowings
the alphabet and system of writing come from the greeks and Phonecians
Thales
the first great Greek thinker - "All events, even extraordinary ones, can be explained in natural terms that can be understood by humans."
oligarchy
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
cultural identity
A connection people feel with one another.
Peloponnesian Wars
Sparta and the allies of Athens the two side began what was this, a war fought between Athens and Sparta in the 400s BC, ending in a victory for Sparta
tragedy
a dramatic play in which the hero is defeated or dies
How were the gods celebrated?
they built temples, sacraficed animals, honered them at public festival, they built shrines, and poets wrote poems for the gods.
Peloponnesian League
The league that Sparta led after the Persian War
Archaic Period
Greece is out of Dark Age; excelling in art
Its own soldiers
Sparta needed no walls for protection. Instead they depended on what?
alexander the great
son of philip ll; taught by aristotle; conquered great empire
cause of Peloponnesian War
Sparta & their allies attacked Athens & their allies
funerary vase
vase with a hole at the bottom so libation (liquid sacrifice to the gods) could seep into the grave
Mediterrian sea
is by the Ionian sea and is by Ancient Greece
Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea
Excluding the Mediterranean, what are three seas that were considered liquid highways?
What were the major government forms in Ancient Greece?
1st Monarchy - FAIL
2ed Oligarchy - FAIL
3rd Tyranny - FAIL
4th Democracy - SUCCESS
What happened at the battle of Thermopylae?
a traitor told Persians of another way around. Many Greeks retreated but 300 Spartans stood ground and died.
Reason
thinking
legislature
lawmaking body
Macedonia
...Birthplace of Alex
Heroic
brave and bold
19.multicultural
19.ruler of many culture
Aesop
Greek writer of fables.
league
a group of allies
Troy
located in Asia Minor
Xenophobia
fear of foreigners--Sparta discouraged visits from foreigners because they feared talking to outsiders would make them weak and disobeodient (Sparta)
plague
a highly contagious, widespread disease that is often fatal
phalanx
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
Citizen
A member of the state
Mt. Olympus
home of the gods
Plato
Another famous philosopher and a student of Socrates. He used logic to argue a belief. His writings dominate European history for 1,500 years. Along with this, he established Athens school, the Academy which lasts for 900 years.
Sparta
The largest ancient Greek city-state, located in southern Peloponnesus
myth
A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Epicureans
School of philosophy aimed at controlling senses
Philosophy
System of ideas, thoughts, and beliefs
Hellenic
greek or beautiful, named after Hellena, godess of beauty
describe the Battle of Salamis
Greek victory
influence
change, or have an effect on
Hellenistic Culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire
Stoicism
Founded by Zeno who proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that god establish to run this universe. Promoted social unity.
What was the name of Alexander's Horse?
Bucephalus
herodotus
"father of history"; wrote about the persian wars
Dorians
the Spartans were descended from this group of warriors
The Iliad
epic poem about the Trojan War
Ptolemies
One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Egypt
Parthenon
building on the Acropolis, built for the goddess Athena
King Minos
Legendary King of the Mioan Civilization in Crete
Eratosthenes
tried to calculate Earth's true size using geometry
The Egyption cultural capitol of the Greek world
Alexandria
Athleticism
physically active and strong; good at athletics or sports
Arisrotle
studied at Plato's school in Athens who became tutor to Alexander the Great
Athenian commander at naval battle of Salamis, gave credit to all Greeks not just Athenians
Themistocles
Socratic Method
way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves
Linear B
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay.
assembly
a group a people meeting to discuss something
who was plato
student of socrates. wrote the republic . in his ideal society all citizens would be farmers/artisans, warriors or the ruling class
Knossos
the main city of Crete. Mino's palace was there.
mythology
a body of stories about gods and heroes that try to explain how the world words
Terracing
carving small, flat plots of land from hillsides then farming on them
Iliad
Last years of Trojan War focus on deeds of Greeks especially Achilles
acropolis
a high rocky hill where early people built cities
greece had an irregular coastline which provides:
many good natural harbors
pronaos
The space, or porch, in front of the cella, or naos, of an ancient Greek temple
Persian wars
a series of wars between Persia and Greece in the 400's BC
Demagogue
a leader who stirs up the feelings and fears of people to gain power
nomad
A member of a tribe who moves his cattle from place to place for pasture; a wanderer.
Mycenaean Civilization Date and Location
Dates: 1400-1100 B.C.E Location: North-East part of Peloponnese in Argolis, about 1.5 hours away from Athens, and it is an imposing site on top of a rocky hill.
What happened to Minaon Civilazation
They were conqured by Alexander
What were the human characteristics of ancient greeks affected by their location?
farmers, shipbuilders, and traders
Olympic Games
contests that were held in the city of Olympia. the Greeks began them about 3,500 years ago.
Uses for Myths:
1. To explain natural causes 2. to explain the creation of the world 3. to teach people some moral lesson 4. to explain some historical event 5. to explain some religious practices 6. to reveal the common hopes and fears of man
Humans are strong in contrast to the gods
True of False
False they are weak
A single ruler, such as a king, queen, or emperor, who holds all the power in a country or empire.
Briefly describe/define a monarchy.
Why was the male nude the favorite subject of Greek sculpure?
in this highly patriarchal culture, male beauty was the ideal; expressed self-assurance, with flexible bodies and smooth muscles
what was the main strategy or battle plan that led to victory in the peloponnesian war
persians provided sparta with money to build a fleet of warships
Euripides
wrote "Medea"
Stele of Hegeso
Classical
greatest Greek philosophers
Plato
the mycenaeans were from
mycenaea
Euclid
mathematician who developed geometrty
Alliance
When nations form together.
King Phillip II
king of Macedonia
What is bartering similar to?
Trading
persepolis
persian capital, walls depict people bringing pieces of earth to the city
Phidias
Athenian sculptor who supervise the building of the Parthenon. Built a statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the seven wonders of the world
Sophists
School of thought. Provided higher education for money. They traveled a lot. Rejected belief in the gods and godesses.
socrates
athenian philosopher who developed a form of questioning
Messenia
Spartan neighbors who the Spartans subjugated during the second Messenian war (660-650 BC)
Arthur Evans
British archeaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos in Crete to find what he called Minoan civilization (1851-1941)
arete
the Greek ideal, to strive for excellence, to show courage, and to win fame and honor
Hades
brother of Zeus; god of the underworld
Archon
A chief in the democracy of Athens
PELOPINESIAN WAR
WAR CAUSED BY DELIAN LEAUGE
"BATTLE OF THE ELEPHANT AND WHALE"
SPARTA WON W/ THE HELP OF PERSIA
Alexeadria
an egyptian city that became the greatest center of trading and learning
Draco
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense
Warrior from Riace
Golden age athenian art-classical. w
Darius
before the Battle of Marathon, Athens sent ships and soldiers to help Ionia, and this Persian king vowed to destroy Athens in revenge
Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
parchment
material made from thin animal skin used for windows and as paper
Hostility
Feelings of hate or acts of war
Dorian Invasion
Came from North and conquered Laconia...turned conquered people into slaves (called Helots) with a brutal control system.
when one is murdered for political reasons
Assassination
Athenian democracy
male citizens over 18 years. direct majority bote. Magistrates. and the council of 500
mercenary
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
Homer
Epic poet, author of the Illiad and Odyssey.
oracle
a holy person whom believed they could communicate with the gods
Hephaestus
(Greek mythology) the lame god of fire and metal-working in ancient mythology
______ & _______ helped spread Hellenic culture?
Trade & Commerce
Seleucus
___ took most of the old Persian Empire after Alexander died
The Pheacian alphabet
This was adopted in 800 B.C.
Epic
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
the Greek Dark Ages
after collapse of Mycenaean civilization: declining population and food production
Golden Age
A time where Athens developed an advanced culture and became a center of aet and learning
Doric
collum that looks like a door on its side
Peloponnesian War
431-404 B.C. : Athens' attempt to rule of Greece; Sparta attacks and Athens fall ---> end of Golden Age
Peninsula
A ________ is an area of land nearly surrounded by water.
The wars taught the Greeks that it could make sense to fight not only for one's own home but also what?
homes of others
city state or polis
comsisted of a city and its surrounding area
Battle of Salamis
A sea battle that was between Athens and Persians
How does democracy change in a time of war
Your own ideas
What is a fable?
It is a short story that conveys a moral lesson, often by animal characters that possess human characteristics.
It is an open area that served as a market and place for people to assemble.
What is an agora?
Write 3 facts about Greece that are not on the test.
a.) Most Athenians ate little meat, even wealthy families only ate meat during religious festivals.
b.) Spartan culture was the most valued strength.
c.) Every Spartan was in the hands of the government.
21.tragedies
21.serios plays
dying gaul
Ionic
has scrolls
militarism
heavy military presence
Philosopher
lover of wisdom
pHILIPS CONQUEST
Fifth EVent
where do they trade
agora
Bucephalus
name of Alexander's horse
What did Aphrodite represent?
Love
Cratia / Kratos
People ruled
Mycenaeans
civilization that conquered the Minoans and improved Greek civilization, sea based trade
agriculture
grapes, olives, wheat, and barley
rhetoric
the art of persuasive speeking
Sophism
a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone
tyrants
people who gained power by force
Marathon
where a battle took place-Darius arrived by sea; Greeks were outnumbered, but won. A messenger ran from the battlefield to announce victory, then died. The 1st marathon-26.2 mi.
pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
What greatly influences Western civilization?
Athenian culture
oration
important speech given on important occasion
Party of the Shore
working class Athenians
Europe
continent of which Greece is located
pediment
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof
Stoic
pertaining to the philosophy that people should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity
Golden Section
ratio which provided a visually pleasing appearance in art & architecture
Odysseus
King of Ithica. Devised the trojan horse plan that finally ended the Trojan War after 10 years.
Trojan War
A possibly mythological war fought between Greece and Troy
Achilles
a mythical Greek hero of the Iliad
commodity
Something that can be bought or sold
Mycenaens
People located on the Greek Peninsula. "Bridge" to later "Greeks." Had tribal organization. Location on peninsula has evidence of forts & military defense. Fought originally with thrust swords but upgraded to slashing swords.
Fables
short stories that teach the reader lessons about life or give advice on how to live.
Aphrodite
he Greek goddess of sexuality and love
literature
Greek Myths- about gods and heros, Epic Poems- celebrate heroic deeds- such as in the Iliad and Odyssey written by Homer, Lyric Poems- concerned with feeling.
Theseus
Son of King Aegeus, hero of the Minotaur legend; killed Minotaur with help of King Minos' daughter, Ariadne
thermopylae
the Greeks sent about 7000 soldiers to gaurd the pass, for two days they held off the Persians but on the 2nd day, a traitor led the persians through a secret pass so they could attack from behind. Most of the Greeks retreated but 300 Spartan soldiers stayed and fought.
Amphora
a two-handled jar used for the storage and transport of wine, oil, dried fish, and other commodities
Polykleitos
Sculpture that had to be made to perfection.
Apollo
god of sun, music and poetry (temple Delphi, Holy city)
Council of 500
Randomly chosen group that proposed new laws
aristophanes
known fo rwell versed in poking fun ant self importance
Both
Who had slaves did most of the farming? Athens or Sparta? Both?
epic poem
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
naturalized citizens
Someone who is born elsewhere but who passes a citizenship test on the Constitution and the history of the U.S.
Homeric myths claimed that Greeks were all descended from...?
a common ancestor
Elements of Geometry
basis for courses in geometry; written by Euclid
What is a chirame?
an attacking weapon on a boat
monarch
a single ruler such as a king, queen, or emporer who holds all the power in a country or empire
the laws introduced by Solon that helped Athens become
a leading democracy
The purpose of Eugenics
to make stronger children, therefore a stronger military for Sparta
What did the Minoans do for art?
built palaces with frescoes
achilles and ajax playing dice
exekias ancient greece archaic vulci italy
Battle of Marathon
in 490 B.C., King Darius sent army to attack Athens; Athenians defeated them; Pheidippides ran 26 miles with the news
What were the characteristics of the Hellenistic Age?
Everybody was happy. Work was concentrated in cities. Sea trading was big. Emotional art was popularizing as well as science and math. People went to more comedic plays than tregic ones. Women had much more freedom. Famous philosophers came to light during the Hellenistic Age. Streets were like grids. Everybody was in it for themselves, it was a free-for-all.
A huge volcanic eruption, a 200 feet high Tsunami, and the clouds of ash
How did the Minoans die?
what were the consequences of the persian war
they felt confident and free . athens was the leader of the delian league . they started to use military force
Hera
Mother of gods
Athena
the goddess of wisdom
vendor
a seller of goods
stoicism; most popular (during Hellenistic age); Happiness= Will of God, Bear your fate
Zeno
9. Sparta
Ancient Greek city state.
ally (allies)*
'friends' or truces between contries
thucydides
Historian who wrote about the Pelopponesian War. He showed the need to avoid bias.
antiquity
the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe
Three Important greek values
Honor, Courage, Eloquence
Aulos
Instrument used by Cult of Dionysus
slavery
condition of being owned by, and forced to work for someone else
True or False- Greek architects based the design of their buildings on a figure called the Golden Rectangle.
True
Pelponnesian War
The war in Pelponesia that the Spartans won against the Athenians
Outnumber
To have more soldiers, ships, or war machines than someone else has
Early/High Classical
450BC
(a little of both early and high)
Oligarchy(AH-luh-gar-kee)
A government in which only a few people have power
ship builders, traders and farmers
three human characteristics (occupations) of people in ancient Greece
tribute
a regular payment made to a powerful state or nation by a weaker one
Tyranny
Ruled by one person who is not a lawful king. The citizens have no power.
Bribe
To pay someone to do something in a certain way
Alexandeer the Great
The son of Philip of Macedon. He created the first global Empire, though he never conquered Persia. He was one of the greatest military leaders of all time.
Athens and Sparta Clash
Athens continued to grow in wealth, prestige, power
Other city-states began to view it with hosititly
Especially Sparta
Instead of trying to avoid war, Sparta and Athens pressed for it
Both groups believed they would win
Sparta declared war in 431 BC
The Rise of the Polis
Polis or polies is another meaning for city-states. It was natural for small city-states to evolve because Greece was divided up by mountains. Citizens could have an important say in their community's issues,
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