Ancient Greece Vocabulary_4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Helot
Slaves
labyrinth
Maze
mercenary
hired soldier
Ilaid
Trojan War
Helots
Spartan slaves
plague
a widespread sickness
athens
developed a democracy
poli
a greek city-state
polis
greek city state
12.helots
12.slaves owned by state
aristocrat
wealthy upper class (nobles)
Barbarians
Wild or uncivalized people.
peloponnesus
southern half of greece
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
Aesop
writer famous for his fables
Agora
the marketplace in ancient Greece
Athenians thought that Macedonians were what?
barbarians
Alexander the great
king of Macedon
Pisistratus
Athenian tyrant (560-527) remembered for encouraging athletic contests and literary efforts.
Parthenon
the temple honoring the goddess Athena, built on the acropolis above Athens
Pericles
Pericles was a skillful politician, speaker, general, and a sort of president. He dominated Athens and created a direct democracy. Along with this, he took over the Delian League and used money to strengthen the Athenian fleet. He also took the money to beautify Athens, making other city-states jealous.
Fates
Three sisters that determine peoples' fate.
Hellenistic
Describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great
tyrant
Someone who illegally takes conmtrol of a government
Cleisthenes
the most important leader after Peisistratus. created a new council of 500 citizens to help the assembly and gave citizens more powers.
Eretria
8th century Athenian building project that had statue of Apollo Daphnephoros, showing the ideal male.
Phalanx
In Ancient Greece, military formation where foot soldiers stood so shields overlapped, creating a wall.
Sparta
the largest ancient Greek city-state, located on the southern Peloponnesus , an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess, Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves (Helots) for agriculture, discouraged the arts. Duty, Strength, Discipilne over Indivduality and freedom and beauty
when were the Myceaeans dominant?
1400 BC-1200BC
Aeschylus
first tragedy (plays based on suffering of hero which end in disaster) writer; considered founder of drama; oldest writer
Athens or Sparta? This city-state enjoyed going to the theater
Athens
Plato
Plato was born an Athenian aristocrat. He thought at first that he would enter politics, but then, decided not to. Plato was the student of Socrates, and learned a great deal from him. However, unlike Socrates, Plato disliked the democracy style of Athens and preferred the oligarchy government of Sparta. Plato was 40 when Socrates died, and at that age, he opened up his own school, called the Academy. From memory, Plato recorded dialogues and conversations between Socrates and fellow Athenians. He also wrote the earliest book on political science, called the Republic.
epic poem
a long poem about ancient heroes
oracle
a temple where priests and priestesses in ancient Greece gave prophecies; also the priest or priestess giving the prophecy
Alexandria
City which was the center of commerce
Where did Alexander plan to rule from
Babylon
solon
helped athens take a step towards democracy
The Iliad
epic poem about the Trojan War
Melos
famous Greek members of Delian League- who resist Athenian empire power. Athenians destroyed them.
Aristotle
Greek thinker that wanted people to use reason to govern their lives
philosopher
someone who uses reason to understand the
world; in Greece, the earliest philosophers used reason to explain natural events
monarchy
government ruled by a single person, called the king
The father of Greek history ( Historian )
Heroditus
Tragedy
drama in which the protagonist is overcome by some superior force or circumstance
acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Darius and Xerxes
Persian ruler; ruler after Darius
Attica
a peninsula in east-central Greece on the Aegean Sea in witch Athens was built
leader of Athens famous for his speeches in praise of democratic government
Pericles
philosophy
the study of basic truths and ideas about the universe
Greek Architecture
The art of designing and building structures. The temples dedicated to a god or goddess was the most important (parthenon). They used large column much like the White House and the Capitol.
geography of Greece
Mostly a mountainous peninsula jutting out into the Mediterranean Sea. Includes about 2000 islands in the Aegean and Ionian seas. Three-fourths of land covered by mountains.
ostrakon
a broken piece of clay pottery used for writing. In Athens, most ostrakon that was found was used as tablets for inscribing the name of candidates for ostracism.
oligarchy
a system in government when a few people rule
tribute
a payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one.
who was socrates
believed absolute standards did exist for turth and justice. told greeks to question themselves . was put to death for corrupting the youth
mortal
some one that dies, human. not a god
Minoans
A civilization that was from 2500 BC to 1450 BC that took place in Crete. Men and woman curled their hair, wore gold jewelery, and wore metal belt for narrow waists. The loved to dance and had many sporting events (boxing matches). In their religion, there were many goddesses, more than gods. The chief deity was known as the Great Goddess or Earth Mother. She was known to cause birth and growth of all living things. They earned their living by sea trading. By 2000 BC, they dominated the eastern Mediterranean. Also, they carried goods and tried to keep pirates away. They did not build walls around their cities. Their peak was 1600 BC- 250 years later it collapsed. Historian think that either there were Tsunamis that destroyed the coast or the mainland people (Mycenaeans) took over.
Western Civilization
the modern culture of western Europe and North America
Sappho
famous women lyric poet - most poets were men.
Iliad and Odyssey
mythical beginnings of Greek history, a unifying force to the Greek people and language, and the beginning of the Western literary tradition
merchant
a person who makes money by selling goods
Delian League
an alliance of city-states in ancient Greece, with Athens as a Leader
democracy
a form of government in which citizens govern themselves
Greece had many ports for trade which promoted:
cultural diffusion
Corinthian order
Most ornate of the orders- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with leaf carvings
King Minos
Minoan King who kept the Minotaur on the Island of Crete
Decimal System
a counting system based on the number 10
trireme
A Greek ship with three rows of oars, one above the other, on each side.
Women in Athens
No share in public life, managed entire house, took care of children, prepared food
His generals divided the empire.
What happened to Alexander's empire after his death?
Xerxes I
king of Persia who led a vast army against Greece and won the battle of Thermopylae but was eventually defeated (519-465 BC)
Archons
9 rulers who served a 1 year term in office and appointed all other officials and made all the laws. The laws were never written down and were interpreted and applied by judges, or a group of nobles.
What were the secrt weapons of Zeus during the war with the Titans?
The Cyclopes and Hecatoncheries
The development of city-states divided the Greeks because the Greeks saw themselves as citizens of one particular city-state and not as part of the Greek civilization. They tended to distrust anyone from another city-state.
How did the development of city-states DIVIDE the ancient Greeks?
How do we know that the Minoans were confident that the sea would protect them?
Their cities didn't have walls
What two seas are at a latitude which produces a moderate climate with more than 320 days of sunshine a year?
The Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea.
Mycenae
1st Greekspeaking people with a recorded history
Archon
chief official
trilogy
three-play series
Hero and Centaur
Geometric
Hippocrates
a greek physician
Thermopylae
narrow coastal passageway
Olympic Games
Olympic Games
crimson
a deep, dark red
Reason
clear and ordered thinking
Logic
reasoned and reasonable judgment
Trading
to exchange goods
aristophanes
writer who wrote the clouds
civilization
complex, highly organized social order
Mount Olympus
home of the gods
Pythagorus
Greek philosopher who created Pythagoream Theorem
Military
life in sparta revolves around
homer
blind poet: wrote iliad and odyssey
Aristarchus
an ancient Greek grammarian remembered for his commentary on the Iliad and Odyssey
Persian Wars
Battle at Thermopylae:300 Spartans fight til death
Battle of Salamis: tricked Persians into sailing through narrow strait, ships were destroyed
Kalapodi
Classic temple built on Archaic temple, built on middle Haladic cult building. Pre-second millennium)
Symposium
gathering of men featuring eating, drinking, entertainment and intellectual discussions
Aristocracy
privliged class whose poistion is based on wealth and social position
iron
the discovery of this material ended the Dark Ages, because it was cheap and ordinary people could afford it
Poseidon
brother of Zeus; god of the sea
harbors
sheltered place along a coast; for ships and fishing boats
infanticida
to abandon a weak or sick baby
Peisistratus
Greek tyrant who seized power and divided estates among landless farmers
Hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
Persians
Ruled the most powerful government of the western world and the persian war.
"epicurean"
a person devoted to pursuing human pleasures, especially the enjoyment of good food
Respect
a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard
Bronze Age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
vote
to choose a leader and pass laws
a temple built and dedicated to goddess Athena
Parthenon
epic
a long poem that tells about important events in the life of a hero or heroes
Philip III
Macedonian king; son of Alexander the Great
Golden Age
They shared a common language and gods
Blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
What was the final stage of government in Athens?
Democracy
marathon
a city in the Attic Peninsula where the greeks defeated the Persians
Bronze helmets
These were used to intimidate the army. As Mr. Flegel would say,"Sun Tzu would be proud."
Tyranny
a form of government in which the ruler is supported by the middle class, and often rises to power through illegal means
Olympic Games
Sporting Events played in honor of Zeus
Olympics
Sports to honor gods, every 4 years, only greek men, prize was originally an olive wreath, started with just a foot race, Pentathlon- revealed best all- around athletes
Senate
Council of men over 60 years of age- suggested laws
Peloponnesian War
a war between Athens and Sparta that threatened to tear all of Greece apart
What makes Alexander "great"?
Well educated. Well educated in military. Conquers most of the known world at a very young age. Founds Alexandria. Responsible for initiating Hellenistic culture. Kind and respected his troops. Wanted to unify his empire but he died at a young age.
Orator
An ________ is a person who is a skilled public speaker.
Paris
Prince of Troy who fell in love with Helen, and was ordered to kill once he was born because of his mothers nightmare, Agelaos raised him as a son, judged Aphrodite to be the fairest
What two virtues were prized by the Greeks?
sophia and arete
religious beliefs
to honor their gods by trying to do things well
Greek Myth
DO NOT have a lesson or moral to teach the reader
What was the importance of the Hellenistic world?
Spread of learning and culture-Greek philosophy, literature, art and culture becomes the standard of the ancient world, adopted by many groups; Major Religious Developments- spread of Judaism; rise of mystery religions
what did Theseus do
The son of a Athens king. He kill the minotaur
which was the first known ancient Greeck civilization?
A. Myceneans B. Persians C. Minoans D. Thebians Answer: C. Minoans
Persia
...
myth
a story
Asia Minor
...
athena
goddess of wisdom
conduct,
duty, and judgment
Columns
Doric ionic corinthian
Ionic
Smooth, tall, curved capital
2700-1450
time b.c. of minoans
776 b.c
First recorded Olympics
Alcibiades
Athenian nobleman who persuaded assembly to embark on the Sicilian expedition, a well-connected man often associated with controversy, was banished from Athens many times, switched sides during the Peloponnesian War from Athens to Sparta and back to Athens, latter helped by his infusion of Persian money, murdered in Thrace
Pediment sculptures, Temple of Zeus
Early Classical
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
assembly
all male citizens passed laws
Arkhein
to begin, rule, command (Gk)
Monotheistic
The belief of one god
Epicureanism
a Hellenistic school of philosophy that developed in Athens about 300 BC and stressed the importance of simple pleasures
ostracism
make someone live outside the city-state
Straits
narrow water passages, Troy controlled the ones connecting the Mediterranean and Black Seas
Delphi
holy city built to honor Apollo
mountainous
this word best describes Greece's geography
Democritus
philosopher who said that everything was made up of atoms (small particles)
Hospitality
kindness in welcoming guests or strangers
What penninsula is Athens located on?
Attica.`
ARISTOCART
A MEMBER OF RICH POWERFUL FAMILY
citizen
a person with certain rights and responsibilities in his or her country or community
Dorian
A civilization that is uncivilized and less advanced compared to other Greek cultures. They conquered the Mycenaeans after their army failed. After destroying and pillaging the Mycenaean civilization for many years, the Mycenaean village was destroyed. The Dorians had no art, writing, and trade, causing the economy to collapse. This time is known as the Dorian Dark Age. No written record exists during this period, resulting in a period of silence in Greek history.
Odyssey
an epic, or long storytelling poem about the Trojan War; o
Alliance
formal agreement bet. 2 or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense, Athens formed with other greek city-states to defend against Persia: called this Delian League-->Delos
The Rebublic
Book on politics written by Plato
Demeter
goddess of grain and agriculture and Zeus' sister
bull-leaping
a famous fresco (wall painting) shows this activity that may have been a sport or religious act.
Dorians
were barbaric invaders from north of Greece who were like the Mycenaeans before they became somewhat civilized: warlike and barbaric
confederacy
a league of alliance of confederate nations
Draco
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)
Barbarian
A person considered by the Greeks as uncivilized
fresco
a painting done on fresh plaster with water colors
direct democracy
system of government in which citizens participate directly in the day-to-day affairs of government rather than through elected representatives
Macedonia
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
Colony
A settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland
philip II
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great
there are no _________ lines in the Parthenon
straight
Hephaestus
was the lame god of fire and blacksmiths. His symbols are often a blacksmith hammer, and anvil, and an axe. He was the son of Zeus and Hera or, in some accounts, of Hera alone. He limped because he was born lame, which caused his mother to throw him off Mount Olympus. Or in other accounts he interceded in a fight between Zeus and Hera, and Zeus took him by the foot and threw him from Olympus to the earth far below; Roman name Vulcan
Achilles
A Greek who fought bravely during the Trojan war-Was killed during the Trojan war by an arrow in his heel
a political system governed by a few people
oligarchy
Iliad/Odyssey
two epic poems written by Homer that show Greek values
Oligrchy
Rule by a few usually those with wealth( aristocracy)
Trojan War
Long war in which the Mycenaeans attacked the city of Troy
Olympians
supreme gods who lived on the peeks of Mt. Olympus
Role of Minoan Women
equal to men, hunted w/greyhounds, joined in the sports
Phip the second
Philip the second and his son alexander took over and unified the Greeks about 335 B.C.
Helen of Sparta
the most beautiful woman. Cause of the Trojan War. Married Menelaus but ran away with Prince Paris of Troy.
ostracize
to banish; to shut out from a group or society by common consent
How were gods viewed? Perfect or imperfect?
• Anthropomorphic- fallible (imperfect)
Battle of Marathon
in 490 B.C., King Darius sent army to attack Athens; Athenians defeated them although outnumbered
closed society
a society in which you are born into a class and must permanently remain in that class
Citizen of Athens
To be a citizen of Athens, one had to be a male 18 or older-the man's father and mother's father would have to have been citizens too (only 15% of the population)
Homer / Iliad and Odyssey
Who is a Greek example of a bard? (singing poet)
What poems did he compose?
What were the goals of Philip II and Alexander and what methods did each use to achieve those goals?
Philip II wanted to build a strong army, unify the Greek poleis, and destroy Persia. Alexander Wanted to unite Europe and Asia, Greece and Persia. Philip II used Greek-style Phalanxes. He also, Conqured poleis, married daughters of important people, and bribed leaders into getting control of the poleis. Alexander the Great conquered Greece and took over Persia. He adopted Persian customs and even wore persian clothing.
heritage
background, lineage
Knossos
Minoan capital city
catastrophes
great and sudden disasters
rhetoric
language to persuade others
greece
-located in southern europe
-mountain barriers and seas seperate the greeks into competing city states
Erechtheum
most sacred temple on Acropolis
Did Athenians have much freedom?
Yes
Immortal
Someone or something that lives forever
Henrich Schleiman
Discovered Troy and Mycenaean ruins.
ecclesia
The popular assembly of Ancient Athens.
Hera
wife of Zeus; protectress of marriage, children and of home
thucydides
wrote the history of the Peloponnesian War
citizens
persons who have certain rights and responsibilities in his country or community
slavery
condition of being owned by, and forced to work for, someone else
Oracles
A place where advice was asked from the gods
city-state
has its own government and wasn't part of any larger unit
The Parthenon was a temple to which goddess?
Athena
King Darius
king of Persia who tried to invade Greece but was defeated
6 characteristics of a civilization
1. Stable food supply
2. Specialization of labor
3. A system of government
4. Social levels
5. Highly developed culture
6. System of writing
Xerxes
After Darius II died at the Battle of Marathon, so his son took over and organized a one million man army to attack Greece. 300 Spartans fought them and stalled for time at the Battle of Thermopalae. Then the Persians and the Greeks fought at the Battle of Salamis. The Greeks won.
Draco's Legal Code
Based on the idea that all Athenians were equal under the law
Dealt very harshly with criminals (usually murder)
Death was the penalty
Debt slavery- debtors worked as slaves to repay their debt
2 details about Greek Plays
Only men could act and they wore masks
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