6D Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Unstable Explanatory Style
posistive ion
between two structures
- abnormal swallowing
Cranial Cavity
Contains the brain
NA+, CL-, HCo3-, Osmolarity
Philosophy means....
"love of wisdom"
act on target cell
The pons develops from the
Secretory cells
communcation through chemical messengers occurs when one cell releases a chemical into the interstitial fluid - secretion
What regulates migrating myoelectric complexes in the intestines?
A transmembrane protein that helps form aqueous channels that transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other
glucocorticoid released from adrenal cortex
Components of Renal System
Ureter, urethra
Hormone that decreases sodium reabsorption?
initial breakdown of polysacharrides in the mouth is done by?
salivary amylase
Myelin is formed by
Schwann cells; oligodendrocytes
What does the term “half-life” represent?  Generally, which hormones have a longer half-life, steroids or peptides?
Lipophilic messenger (hydrophobic)
Steroids, eicosanoids, thyroid hormonesStorage in secretory cells - noneSecretion - DiffusionTansport in blood - bound to carrier protienlocation of receptor - cytosol or nucleusSignal transduction - alter transcription of mRNA Response - slowduration - longhalf-life - long
Location of somatosensory
Parietal lobe of brain
What hormone is suppressed less effectively in patients with ulcers?
effect of neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory - T or F
Hydrophillic Compound
(literally, “water loving”) A compound that readily absorbs water or readily dissolves in water.
histoxic hypoxia:
cells cannot use own oxygen
Depolarization that are largely restricted to the dendrite and maybe the cell body and upper part of the axon are known as
Graded potentials
Tx of hypoglycemia
- give them sugar
Ependymal cells?
Stem cells of the brain
Atrial Systole
Contracts firstCompletes filling of ventricles
________________ (the metabolism of glucose to pyruvate and the re-oxidation of NADH to NAD+) occurs in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria (due to the mitochondrial shuttles that transfer electrons across the mitochondrial membrane).
Slow glycolysis
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
calcium binds with what in smooth muscle?
Which parameters are associated with increased resistance?
reduced flow
Albumins make up what percent of plasma proteins
Gall Bladder
stores and concentrates bile, until after a meal
a hormone (cholecystokinin) stimulates release of bile into the small intestine after a meal
AIR in the pleural cavity causing partial or complete collapse of the affected lung
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently.
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
Which of the following does NOT produce graded potentials? 235) _____ A) the release of a neurotransmitter onto a cell body B) light impinging on a photoreceptor C) arrival of a suprathreshold stimulus at the axon hillock D) touching a sensory receptor E)
primary visual cortex is in the
occipital lobe
Regulation of Urine concentrationCounter
– current multiplier mechanism• An osmotic gradient is produced by the solute going back into the medulla and cortex. Medulla more salty then the cortex.• This gradient results in water moving back into the blood. Water is coming from the collecting duct• This will result in the production of a concentrated urine• This is the function of the Juxtamedullary nephons• Counter-current – means that the flow of the filtrate is moving in opposite directions and the loop of henle is close to the blood flow.• Multiplier – sodium chloride is pumped out the ascending limb, but that salt remains in the medulla, so it becomes saltier.• Water – in descending limb water moves out by osmosis and into the vasa recta. This water does not remain in the medulla, but ends up back in circulation.
Having the same osmolality, equal to that of a reference solution
spinothalamic tract
in tegmentum, brings info about pain/temp
secondary protein structure
alpha helix- coiled
beta pleated sheet- folded in pleats
Anatomy of a retina
three layers: outer-photoreceptors middle-bipolar cells inner-ganglion cells
- osmotic diuresis due to glucose- excess urination
acts as a biological catalyst and speeds up the rate of reaction
Describe peripheral proteins
Adjacent to membraneProvide anchoring sites for cytoskeletonattach by charge interaction (H bonding)
Substances regulated by aldosterone in collecting tubules?
Na+, K+
In the heat balance equation, the _____________ component is always negative, and the metabolic component is always positive.
The ___________ in the brain monitors the blood for toxins.
a bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion
what will we use to dilate the eye?
how many rings dopyrimidines and purines have each?
pyrimidines, 1purines, 2
Positive balance
Gain is exceeding loss. total amount of substance is increasing.
institutional review boards
monitor research to ensure ethical treatment of research participates
Respiratory FailureImpaired diffusion
Condition in which gas exchange between the alveolar air and pulmonary blood is impeded b/c of an increase in the distance for diffusion or a decrease in the permeability of the respiratory membranes to the movement of gasescauses: interstitial lung disease, ARDS, pulmonary edema and pneumonia
Broca's area
in frontal lobe, usually in left hemisphere
responsible for construction of meaningful language, writing, speaking or signing with correct syntax
pulses paradoxus
this occurs in the respiratory system and the pulse decreases instead of increases due to cardiac tamponade
What disease results from a defect in the neural network of the myenteric plexus?
Parts of ear
Outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
– P wave and QRS wave – contraction of the chambers- as the atrium/ventricles contract, blood would move out of the chambers
Red cell morphology
-Biconcave discs (allows for mobility and higher [hemoglobin])-Anisocytosis, macrocytes, microcytes, burr cells, polkilocytosis, schistocytes-Low hemoglobin, membrane abnormalities, hemoglobinopathies-Formed (erythropoeisis initiated by erythropoeitin) from undifferential stem cells in the bone marrow-Stem cell to normoblasts to reticulocytes to erythrocytes
what does the apneustic center do?
blocks pneumotaxic center
What is the major inhibitory neuron of the CNS?
I band
consists of the remaining portion of the thin filaments that do not project into the A band, with a Z line right in the middle of it
pathology of autoimmune hepatitis
- genetically predisposed person exposed to environmental agent triggering autoimmune response- autoimmune destruction of liver cells causes necrosis (necrotizing inflammation)- destruction of liver cells progresses to cirrhosis- may progress to liver failure
layer of cells which covers an exposed surface or lines an internal cavity or passageway.
Mesolimbic dopamine system
- Dopaminergic neurons in midbrain send axons into limbic system within forebrain -involved in behcaior and reward-Schizophrenia may involve overactivity of mesolimbic dopamine pathways-Some addictive drugs activate dopaminergic pathways in limbic system:nicotine, cocaine, morphine, amphetamines, alcohol
Ejection fraction is stroke volume divided by -----.
end diastolic volume
In the heat balance equation, if the skin temperature is greater than the ambient temperature, then the radiant, conductive, and convective components will be negative. By contrast, if the skin temperature is less than the ambient temperature, then the r
Phospholipid molecule
polar head with nonpolar tails; when phospholipids are placed in water they form a spherical bilayer.
peristaltic reflux or law of the gut does not occur in absence of ____?
myenteric plexus
Describe motor units:
Each somatic motor axon branches to innervate numerous muscle fibers; the motor neuron and the fibers it innervates are motor units.
sensory adapation
is a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulaiton
- a measure of memory that access the amount of time saved when learning material fro a second time.
What do the utricle and saccule monitor?
Linear Acceleration (gravity)
volume loading HT
this type of hypertension is defined as an incerase in BP & Co which leades to renal failure; Aldosterone--> increases Na+--> which increases absorption-->increases BP & V
three types
steroid that can RAISE level of blood sugar by stimulating gluconeogenesis in liver
also ANTI-inflammatory response
cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone
Which of the following is not an effect of luteinizing hormone?testosterone production by the Leydig cells of the male
uterine contractions
all of the above are effects of luteinizing hormone
uterine contractions
Renal Plasma Clearance
Renal plasma clearance – the rate that a substance is completely removed (cleared) from the plasma. This substance is removed by the kidneys.i) Gives information about the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)• Indicates volume of filtrate produced per minute• Important to know for the use of drugsii) Also tells if kidneys are not functioning properly• A plant derived substance known as inulin is used to determine GFR.• Inulin is a carbohydrate and would be injected into the blood. It is filtered out, not reabsorbed, not secreted and not metabolized. Goes to the kidneys for removal.• PC (plasma clearance) = GFR = 125ml/min• In 1 minute the kidneys will have removed all of the inulin in 125 ml of plasma
What are the 5 types of energy?
1. Radiant
2. Mechanical
4. Thermal
5. Chemical
Atomic mass
number of protons added to the number of neutrons
information-processing model of cognitive development
the model that views cognitive development as a process that is continuous over the lifespan and that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving
how much loss of hepatic fx is needed for failure to occur

The Posterior Lobe

The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases two hormones, both synthesized in the hypothalamus, into the circulation
posterior pituitary hormones (stored hormones)
Conditions that cause edema by decreased plasma proteins?
nephrotic syndrome, liver failure
In an electrocardiogram (ECG), the T wave is indicative of ____________
ventricular repolarization (recovery).
How does increased PCO2 affect the curve?
Shift to the right
Which group of elements makes up more than 90% of the body's mass?
O, C, H
Lacteals of the villus
drain into lymph ducts, which will eventually empty their contents into blood vessels
A stranger tells you about a person who is short, slim, and likes to read poetry, and then asks you to guess whether this person is more likely to be a professor of classics at an Ivy League university or a truck driver. Given these two choices, you incor
The representativeness heuristic
How does emphysema, fibrosis, anemia, and exercise effect lung diffusing capacity?
Emphysema- decreases b/c destruction of alveoli results in a decreased surface area for gas exchange. Fibrosis/pulmonary edema- DL decreases b/c the diffusion distance increases (membrane thickness). Anemia- decreases b/c the amt of hemoglobin in RBCs is reduced. Exercise- DL increases b/c additional capillaries are perfused with blood, which increases the surface area for gas exchange.
In a neuron, where is the greatest concentration of voltage-gated sodium and voltage-gated potassium channels? 204) _____ A) dendrites B) axon hillock C) axon D) soma E) axon terminal
B) axon hillock
what happens if testosterone levels are low?
Hypothalamus: GnRH- Ant. Pituitary: LHstimulates Leydig cells to increase T release - Pulsatile secretion based on pulsatile secretion of GnRH
What happens in quiet breathing
“Breathe quietly.” The volume for air that moves during a single inspiration or expiration is known as the tidal volume (VT). Average tidal volume during quiet breathing is about 500 mL. The primary muscles involved in quiet breathing (breathing at rest) are the diaphragm, the external intercostals, and the scalenes.
Elemental molecule
A molecule formed by 2 atoms of the same element
H₂ = hydrogen molecule
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
- master biological clock; serves as a pacemaker for body's circadian rhythms- cluster of nerve cells bodies in hypothalamus above the optic chiasm- cyclic changes in their concentration change the neural output from the SCN (block their own transcription)- changes in neural output produce cyclic changes in effector organs through the day- daily changes in light intensity are the major environmental cues used to adjust the SCN master clock (receptors in the retina)- SCN works in conjunction with the pineal gland to regulate circadian rhythms
How common are positive feedback loops? What bodily systems are they involved in?
rare- blood clotting and ovulation
1st place in bone that is still cartillage that turns to bone
Center of ossification
What is a neurotransmitter?
a chemicals ecreted by a presynaptic neuron. it BINDS to a postsynaptic neuron.
Three factors that increase calcium within single unit smooth muscle
increase norepi, epi leading to stimulation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor → increase IP3 leading to increase in calcium

increase angiotensin II stimulatin Ang II receptor → increase PLC leading to increase calcium
depolarization open L type calcium channel
Describe the significance of hormone cencentration in terms of priming, and downregulation:
Sometimes priming effects (caused by the upregulation of receptors) can cause sensitivity of a gland to cause further stimulation of hormone production. ex. small amounts of GnRH secreted by the hypothalamus increases the sensitivity of anterior pituitary cells to further increase GnRH stimulation. In priming, increased numbers of receptor proteins for the hormone being primed are inserted in the plasma membrane. Sometimes prolonged exposure to high concentrations of polypeptide hormones can desensitize the target cells, and subsequent exposure to the same concentrations of the same hormone produces less of a target tissue response. This is partly due to the fact that high concentrations of hormones can cause a decrease in the number of receptor proteins in their target cells- a phenomenon known as downregulation.
Diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer
requires no energy expenditure by the cella carrier protein undergoes a conformational change, to flip the particle to the other side of the membrane
Does fibrosis accompany an increase or decrease in compliance?
Decrease (greater elastance- inverse relationship).
What is the Blood Brain Barrier?
The barrier between cerebral capillary blood and the CSF
depolarization ( AP of ventricular myocardium)
• -90 mV  25 mV• Explosive influx of Na+• No graded potential – goes strait to action potential
three factors that bind cells together...
1. glycoprotein as an adhesive
2. contoured fit
3. special membrane junctions are formed
what is the course of chron's disease
- variable- exaacerbation and remission
Describe gustatory pathway starting with CN's
CN's - solitary nucleus (medulla) - thalamus - gustatory cortex in parietal lobe
VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS allow the diffusion of what?
NA+ and K+ during the ACTIONAL POTENTIAL.
the mechanism of active transport through cellular sheets is?
active transport on one side and either simple or facilitated diffusion on the other side
Draw a neuron, label its parts and describe the function of its parts:
Dendrite- receptive area that transmits electrical impulses to the cell body
Cell body- enlarged portion that contains nucleus
Myelin sheath- insulating covering of axon, essential for saltatory conduction of impulses
Axon- conducts impulses away from cell bidy
Synaptic terminals- release neurotransmitters to stimulate dendrite to produce or inhibit action potentials
Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood: men vs women
13% of men, 3% of women
Multiunit Smooth Muscle (rare):
1. Smooth muscle cells within a smooth muscle are organized into different functional units
2. Each unit (i.e., group of smooth muscle cells) separately stimulated by nerves of ANS
     a. such contractions are called neurogenic (nerve produced)
3. Each unit functions independently of other units
     a. similar to skeletal muscle
4. Rare; found in:
     a. walls of large blood vessels
     b. large airways to lungs
     c. eye muscles related to distance vision
     d. iris of eye
     e. base of hair follicles (goose bumps)
Hb saturation and loading curve featuresName the shape, and what process does it describe
- S shaped - Shows the property of cooperative binding
is alveolar ventilation greater or less than pulmonary ventilation?
less than due to anatomic dead space
what is a prehepatic cause of high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood
- excessive destruction of rbcs
Which cells conduct faster - at depolarization or hyperpolarization
At depolarization fewer channels are in resting state, so fewer available for AP
What are the two sphincters of the stomach? What is the function of a sphincter?
pyloric, and lower asphagial sphincter- regulate stuff going in and out of an area
Describe the three components of the circulatory system
The heart-a muscular pump that drives the flow of blood through blood vessels; 2. Blood vessels-conduits through which the blood flows and 3. Blood-a fluid that circulates around the body, carrying materials to and from the cells
An increase in the concentration of products relative to reactants does what
tends to push a reaction in reverse
The enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of cAMP is called ________ and is activated by ________. 148) _____ A) phosphoprotein phosphatase : a Gi protein B) phosphodiesterase : a Gs protein C) phosphodiesterase : a Gi protein D) adenylate cyclase : a Gi protei
E) adenylate cyclase : a Gs protein
within the operating range of an in vivo skeletal muscle in isometric contraction, at what relative muscle lengths (short, long medium), are minimal, maximal and middle levels of active tension attained?
shortened muscles have maximal active tension
intermediate muscles have middle levels of active tension
lengthened muscles have the lowest levels of active tension
what are completely digested in the small intestine lumen
- monoglycerides and free fatty acids, but proteins and carbs need further digestion
Fats are more highly energized (reduced) than carbohydrates. Therefore, __________________
fats yield more ATP per molecule than carbohydrates.
Explain the nature of postsynaptic inhibition:
In the brain it is produced by GABA, in the spinal cord it is produced by glycine. EPSPs and IPSPs to a postsynaptic neuron, can summate in an algebraic fashion. The effects of IPSPs reduce or eliminate the ability of EPSPs to generate action potentials in the postsynaptic cell.
What is in plasma that is not in serum?
fibrinogen, factor II, factor V, factor VIII
7 types of hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones
Describe what happens to 300 mM of D glucose      
(5% dextrose solution) once it enters the body
It is initially iso-osmotic (as it would be in a lab), but soon because hypotonic to RBC, since most of the glucose is metabolized into carbon dioxide and water.
How many axons do most neurons have? What is an exception?
A single axon; interneurons of the CNS
who is at risk for stress ulcers and why
- hospital ICU pts - bc mechanical intubation, burns, major trauma, sepsis, severe liver failure
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