Ancient India Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ba
Atman
-Individual spirit
-Atman(self) becomes one with Brahma
King Kanishka
Kushan King
Urdu
Language of northern india
Vaishya
Commoners in Caste System
theocracy
government run by religious leaders
3. Shiva
destroyer
(basic trinity of Brahman)
Nirvana
State of, escape from suffering
Hinduism
Guru
A teacher, a spiritual guide
Bhagavid Gita
-conversion between Arjuna and Krishna
-Tells us about caste system and Moksha
Gupta Empire
4th - 6th C CE
Jainism
Asceticism
The process of self-denial and self-immolation, to attain enlightenment.
Rajah
princes that ruled large city states
Dehli Sultanate
refers to many dynasties in India
Mahabharata
-Longest epic of all time, put together by India
- Greatly affected Indian culture and lifestyle
Ramayana - plot
Incorporating much earlier sacred material from the Veda, the Ramayana relates the adventures of Rama, who, together with his three half brothers, collectively made up the seventh avatar (incarnation) of the Hindu god Vishnu. Rama was deprived by guile of the throne of Ayodhya and forced into a long exile with his wife, Sita, the prototype of noble womanhood. When Sita was abducted by a demon, Rama allied himself with the king of the monkeys, Sugriva, and the monkey general, Hanuman, and fought a mighty battle in Lanka (Sri Lanka). Finally, Sita was recovered, and Rama was restored to his kingdom. The Adhyatma Ramayana, a popular work of more recent date, tells how Sita's mother (the earth mother) rose from a great chasm to reclaim her daughter.
Aryans
Group of people who migrated into the Indies Valley of Central Asia
Ramayana
Sanskrit Epic - King Rama rescues wife Sita
Reincarnation
Rebirth into a new life after you're death. It is the ultimate goal of all three religions to escape this.
A time period in which Aryans migrating in with the Vedas being written...
VEDIC PERIOD
Who established the 1st empire in India and imposed a degree of political unity?
CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA
Gurdwara
in a sikn temple, serves meals to all faiths (community kitchen)
What does Mohenjo-Daro mean in Sanskrit>, the ancient Indian language?
Mound of the Dead
Who are the Brahmin?
PRIESTS AND FAMILIES THAT PRODUCE PRIESTS
Hindu Kush
a wall of mountains between the Indian subcontinent and the rest of Asia
How were the streets made?
They were paved with tan-colored bricks
Ramayana in Hindu culture
According to Hindu mythology, Rama is an avatara, an incarnation of Vishnu or God. The main purpose of his incarnation is to demonstrate the ideal human life on earth. Ultimately, Rama slays the rakshasa king Ravana and reestablishes the rule of religious and moral law on earth known in Hinduism as dharma. It has been said that Brahma promised Valmiki, so long as the mountains and seas endure, so long shall the Ramayana be read by men.
How do you reach Nirvana?
You reach Nirvana by following the Eightfold Path: rules for how to think, speak and behave.
What modern day convience did they have in the ancients cities?
a sewer system, complete with manholes.
How did Buddhism challenge Hindu ideas?
1.  Buddha did not think strict rituals were necessary for enlightenment (No more animal rituals).
2.  Buddha opposed the caste system.
What was the structure at the west end of the city called and what was it used for?
A massive fort called the citadel.
Who did the Harappans trade with and what did they get?
stone seals from people in Iran, blue stone from Afghanistan and beads from India.
Sudasa
Aryan-Vedic King
Moksha
State of release
Karma
Value of actions
Jain
Renunciation of material world
Buddhism
religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. The buddha taught the way to find truth was to give up all desires.
Chandragupta Maurya
-an able administrator
-established the Maurya empire
Menander
Bactrian Indo-Greek King, became buddhist
Who were the Kshatriyas?
ARYAN WARRIORS
Guptas
ruled India during the golden age
Meluhha
Mesopotamian term for India (Indus Valley)
Aryan religion merges from polytheism (and ritual sacrifices) to ______.
MYSTICISM
Dalai Lama
Buddhist leader who heads the government in Tibet
Khalsa
the physical successors to the final living Guru
King Ashoka
Buddhist King, Conquest of Kalinga, Embassy to Ptolemy, Rock and Pillar edicts
Ahimsa
Won’t harm any living creature, (ex: not walking on ants)
What is Brahman?
"UNIVERSAL SOUL"
IDEA THAT UNIFIES ALL THE BODIES IN THE WORLD TIED TOGETHER BY BRAHMAN
raja
Prince who led an Aryan tribe in India
caste
social group that a person is born into and can not change
dharma
in Hinduism the divine law that people perform the duties of the caste
1. Brahma
- Creator, actual god
(basic trinity of Brahman)
How many people once lived in Mohenjo-Daro?
Over 40,000
Hinduism
Brahman
 
The one, true reality. The life force that surrounds everything and is everything. He is seen as three different forms of functions. After achieving moksha, a person becomes one with Brahman
Who is someone who lives a simple lifestyle in prayer and meditation?
ASCETISM
Who was a part of the Harappan Civilization that were good farmers and had an urban lifestyle BUT declines because of environmental disasters?
DRAVIDIANS
Baghavad Gita “Lord’s Song”
Part of Epic Poem MahabharataAbout warfare between kingdomsKrishna - Avatar of VishnuGives a large amount of religious instructionInstructs king Arjuna on heroic and moral conductHas become a work of universal importanceClassic texts date to 4th /5th Centuries CE
What surrounded the citadel?
thick walls that protected against floods and enemy attacks.
What is the Aryan Caste System?
1. BRAHMIN
2. KASHATRIYAS
3. VAISHYAS
4. SHUDRAS
5. UNTOUCHABLES
Guru Nanak
-In a river for three days, it was thought he was dead, god enlightened him
-traveled all over to spread the message of god.
Jainism
Five Vows
The five vows that a Jain takes to guide their lives (only monks keep the last two).
Avoid bringing harm to any living creature
Always speak the truth
Refrain from taking anything that is not given to you
Renounce all sexual pleasures
Renounce all attachments
Under the religion of Jainism, the founder, Mahavira, pairs _____ and _____.
ASCETISM AND NON-INJURY
suicide through starvation is final act of ascetism
What is the importance of Ashoka?
MAURYAN EMPEROR; ACCEPTED BUDDHISM AND SENT OUT MISSIONARIES TO SPREAD IDEA
What was builit next to the citadel?
An enormous grain warehouse, where farmers store barley and wheat.
What happened to the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa around the year 1600B.C. and why?
Around 1600 B.C. both cities were abandoned. Possibly due to an earthquake that changed the course of the Indus river.
What was one of the most striking thing about Mohenjo-Daro?
the exactness of the measurements used in making and building things.
Why do they think that Mohenjo-Daro had a strong, central government.
It took a lot of planning to build the city and Harappa had almost the same layout at Mohenjo0Daro
Brahmin
Priest
Ujjain
?
eight-fold path
?
"middle way"
?
Monsoon
a seasonal wind
Asoka
Chandragupta's son
means "without sorrow"
ruled for 35 years
won a bloody battle and caused him so much sorrow and created a turning point in his life
- gave up war
- gave up violence
-freed prisoners
- restored their land
- converted to Buddhism
moderation
an avoidence of extremes
e. Technology
i. Tools
plow, wheel
1. Shipbuilding / navigational skills
2. River traffic (barges)

ii. Military & Conflict
1. Protected everywhere BUT northwest
2. Aryans
3. Persians (513BCE)
4. Alexander the Great (326BCE)
lapis lazuli
blue stones; trade item
Shiva
no concerned with human matters
powerful and responsible for both creating and destructing forces in the universe
developed from the god Rudra the "wielder of the thunderbolt"
Vaisyas
herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants.
Characteristics of Aryans
Nomadic Herders
Fight
Party people
Clay Model
made from terra cotta
migrate
move from one place to another
present day India
Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India
Tibet
the former headquarters of Buddhism and capital for the Dalai Lama
Brahma
Creator of everything; not widely worshipped
Buddha
founder of buddhism; the "Enlightened One"
Kalidasa
most famous Indian poet and playwright
Harrapan--Diffusion
1st Civ. Indus Valley. Traded w/Mesopatamia. 1st Complex Cities. Long Dark Age
Kshatriya
The second caste consisting of rulers, warriors, and landowners; their job was to become skilled with weapons
Mohenjo Daro
site of the Indus Valley Civilization
Monsoons
Strong winds that blow across the region at certain times of the year.
Caste System
Complex form of social organization that began to take shape after the Indo-Aryan migration, System that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven., , a system of social classes in which people are separated into different social classes that determined their role in society: Brahmins (priests), warriors, peasants or traders, and shudras (people that did work that the Aryans did not want to do)
the aryans went from nomads to ____to_________
herders,Farmers
a. Differences in Paths
i. Role of teachers vs. Individualism
1. Hinduism (both)
2. Jainism (Sky vs. white-clad)
3. Buddhism (Mahayana vs. Theravada)
4. Taoism (both)
ii. Textual vs. Experiential (practice) Emphasis
1. Hinduism (both)
2. Jainism (practice)
3. Buddhism (practice)
4. Taoism (practice)
Indus River
crosses the Himalayas and empties into the Arabian Sea
all of sudden it was abandoned
Shakti
Shiva's wife who is also a destroyer and creator
she is kind and cruel
Hindu beliefs
no one single founder; worship many gods and goddesses; more than one path to truth
Harappan civilzation
Civilization that grew from the Indus River Valley. This was the first civilization
Subcontinent
Large landmas that juts out from a continent
d. Accepting Nature – All
i. Acceptance of diverse paths (Jainism is exception)
ii. Common methods to enlightenment, but many paths to enlightenment
iii. Polytheism more accommodating to competing ideas
What is the Gupta Empire?
A great Indian Empire
Indus River Valley
2500 BC, Indus and Ganges Rivers, people rely on rivers and monsoons, Civilization vanished after 1000 years (Harappa & Mohenjo Daro), advanced cultures w/planning & leaders and cotton weaving. , located in modern Pakistan; also known as Harappan Culture (including Mohenjo-Daro); highly advanced and organized: sewer system, grid streets, uniform building construction, all examples of centralized government, polytheism
How were asoka and Buddha similar?
Both were against violence.
2. Religious learning (Ed. tied to religion
a. Nature of religious “education”
i. Metaphysics/ontology
ii. Morality/ethics
b. Textual (books)
i. Rigveda (Aryan)
ii. Vedas
iii. Sutras (Buddhism)
iv. Baghavad Gita (hindu)
v. 8-Fold path (ethics & mental discipline)
vi. Code of Manu
c. Experential
i. Yoga
ii. Martial Arts
iii. Meditation
iv. Tithankaras (religious teachers)
Eightfold Path
as taught by the Buddha, the path one must follow to reach nirvana
today's caste system
it is less rigid: people in different castes can have more interaction then they did before
Improvements in irrigation and agriculture
What made the Harappan civilization grew
b. Religion & Culture & Life
i. Plentiful & Peaceful = Gods that Provide
1. Gods of Natural Forces
2. Purpose is Enlightenment
3. Enlightenment Is to live in harmony with universe & nature
ii. More basic concerns were solved by nature & geography
What is a stupa?
A Buddhist temple with a dome roof built to house sacred from life of the Buddha.
Himalayan Mountains, Hindu Kush, and Indian Ocean
All provided physical barriers making invasion difficult
Why did Siddhartha Gautama leave home at age 30?
To find answers about human life
What do the SOLs say about Monotheistic or Polytheistic Hinduism?
"Belief in many forms of one major deity"
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