Ancient India 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Brahmin
Priest
Vedas
?
Surparaka
?
Tamralipti
?
outcastes
?
Pattala
?
Kasi
?
Cotton
Harappan trade
caste system
?
India
kite shaped subcontinent
Vishnu
The preserver (Hinduism)
Buddhism
India's second major religion
Planned cities
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Sudras
servants and landless farmers
Harappa
ancient city on Indus River
Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama looked inwardly instead of outwardly for the cause of suffering
he meditated under a fig tree for 49 days and was able to understand the roots of suffering
means "enlightened one"
Shiva
Destroyer; not concerned with humans
Plateau
raised area of level land
a. Harappin example (literate)
i. Complex engineering
ii. Urban planning (grid streets, underground sewer, tract housing)
Shudra
The fourth caste consisting of craftworkers and laborers/agriculturalists; their job was to be servants and workers of low status
Convert
Change in one's beliefs; in particular, change from one religion to another.
Sanskrit
important for development of IRV civilization
migrate
move from one place to another
metallurgy
the science of working with metals
Aryan Society
Aryans dived people by occupation
Roman Trading networks--Diffusion
Often thru ocean traffic
Brahman
The one supreme power, or divine (Godly) force, that everything is a part of
reincarnation
constant circle of birth, death, and rebirth
Asoka
Warrior ruler that became a Buddhist and improved roads
Middle Way
also known as the Eightfold Path
selfish desires for power, wealth, and pleasure cause humans to suffer
helps Buddhists to be wise, behave correctly, and to develop their minds
private devotion
brings soul closer to brahman
show devotion by offering their personal god food, gifts. and prayers at a home alter
Great Bath
only for privileged people, 12x7x2.4 meters, 2 staircases
Mohenjo-Daro life
city with merchants; houses with yards; unknown lanugage and religion
who did the aryans integrate with?
local indians
Eightfold Path
1. Right Views
2. Right aspirations
3. Right speech
4. Right conduct
5. right livelihood
6. right effort
7. right mindfulness
8. right contemplation
Monsoon
A strong wind that brings heavy rain to southern Asia in the summer
karma
belief that the end result of a person's good and bad acts decide the person's rebirth
Gifts of Ancient India
Hinduism, Buddhism, cotton cloth, zero, decimal system
avatar
Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form
class or caste
refers to people performing special duties
Nirvana
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
subcontinent
A large landmass that is smaller than a continent
maditation
the focusing of the mind on spiritual ides
Textiles
indians were first to turn cotton into thread to be used in bright colors
d. Diffusion
(Diffusion happens w/the NW)
i. Trade
1. (Env) Products dicated by environ
a. Spices
b. Rice
c. Dyes
d. Textiles/weaving
2. Geo (Trading partners)
a. Harappin → Mesopotamia
b. (later) Persia → Mesopotamia
when did the Mohenjodaro exist?
2700 BCE - 1000BCE
Siddartha Gautama
founder of buddhis; known later as The Buddha
Mohenjo-Daro
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system, marketplace, and large public "great bath."
Soapstones
n. a massive variety of talc with a soapy or greasy feel, used for hearths, washtubs, tabletops, carved ornaments, etc.
The Vedas
Shows Aryans as warriors who fought in chariots w/ bows and arrows
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Hindu teachings about afterlife
faithful are rewarded with a higher position; bad are punished; perfect life you are one with brahman
Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass
provided invasion routes into the Indian subcontinent.
Who was Candragupta Maurya?
Founder of the Maurya dynasty and the first emperor
Who did Buddhism expand to Asia?
Asoka sent Buddhist missionaries to spread Buddhism throughout Asia
How did Asoka's life change after becoming Buddhist?
He became a peace-loving ruler dedicated to improving the lives of his people.
What caused people from a lower social class to support the Buddha's teachings?
The Buddha opposed the caste system
what is the main point of the government in harappa?
Evidence points to large middle class, well-organized, peaceful
siddha
?
white-clad
?
Upanishads
?
manumission
?
guru
spiritual teacher
Siddhartha Gautama
?
Veneration
special regard for
4. Family structure
a. Patriarchal
b. Women
i. Institutionally inferior
Ritually unclean
ii. Behind the scenes women exert great power
citadel
fortress in a city
Hinduism
Has no single founder
Granary
A place to store grain
Caste
A social class of people.
Raja
an Aryan leader or prince
Two Emperors of Mauyra Dynasty
Changdragupta
Asoka
Greeks--Diffusion
Reinforced Global Trade networks. Impact on Kushan period art. Impact mostly faded upon Greek withdrawal.
Monotheism
The belief in only one god
meditation
deep, continued thought that focuses the mind on spiritual ideas
enlightment
in buddhism, the highest spiritual state that can be achieved
Lakshmi
Goddess of Wealth and Beauty (Hindu)
a. Common Metaphysics
i. Reincarnation (Samsara) -- Except Taoism
ii. Karma –
iii. View of some gods as symbolic of “characteristics”
iv. Denial of Self Liberates the Soul
v. Moksha/Nirvana – All but Taoism
Non-dualism (jar metaphor)
Seals
Stone carved with pictographs , pictures used to stand for objects, sounds or ideas.
Maurya Empire
An Indian empire founded by Chandragupta beginning with his kingdom in Northeastern India and spreading to most of Northern and Central India.
winter monsoon
blows from the northeast, spreading dry air across the country
Chandragupta
(not related to Chandragupta of the Mauryan Dynasty), founder of the Gupta Empire, smaller Indian kingdom which was easier to control for 200 yrs, his son took over after his death
Himalayas
highest mountain range in the world; separates India from the world
inoculation
the practice of injecting a person with a small dose of virus to help him or her build a defense to a disease
Two major dynasties of India
Maurya and Gupta
Deccan Plateau
dry, few rivers, monsoons, rains provide most of water supply, granite from volcanoes, hard time growing crops
Harijan
"child of god" Gandhi's term for an "untouchable"
secular
pertaining to the world or to things not sacred or religious
Vedas & Upanishads
hymn and sacred writings of Hinduism
Meditate
Focusing the mind inward in order to find spiritual awareness or relaxation.
Bodhisattvas
Future Buddhas. As the ideal types for Mahayana Buddhism, beings who have experienced enlightenment but, motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it
Harappan Achievements
1. had indoor plumbing. 2. high quality tools, 3. developed weight and measurement system. 3. developed India's first writing system.
Harappa's government system
Was very well organized and structured
1. Geography
a. Its Big (almost as big as western Europe)
b. It’s Geographically Isolated
i. Oceans on 3 sides
ii. Mountains on North
iii. Accessible in NW (Indus Valley / Thar Desert
c. Big River Deltas
Brahmaputia River
Good for farming, good nutrients in water, monssons fill up the land
Sewer System
A network of pipes that disposes of sewage, or waste water
public wells
Used by both the Harappa and Mohenjo Dara
Golden Age of India
Known for its art and literature
Hindu Goal:
to free the atman by becoming one with brahman
what were some contributions from harappa?
sewer system, cotten, undeciphered writing system, buildings-earliest, bricks uniform & unchanged for 1000 years, weights & measures, used carts
Harappa and Mohenjo Dara
Two cities lay on the Indus river. They were 300 miles apart but very similar
Medical achievements of Gupta dynasty
1. Use of herbs
2. Setting bones
3. Vaccinations
4. Simple surgery
Size and shape of India
It is a large and sometimes referred to as a subcontinent
Th great Bath
39 feet long and 8 feet deep, built of water proof brick used for bathing
What did they think happen to the Mohenjodaro?
They think invaders destroyed the city
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