Immune System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 
highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and cancers that take advantage of an immune system in collapse
 
arises from loss of helper T cells
Agglutination
An antibody-mediated immune response in which bacteria or viruses are clumped together, effectively neutralized, and opsonized.
epitope
antigenic determinant, the small accessible protein of an antigen that a lymphocyte can bind tol
Leukocytes
A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.
interferons
antiviral proteins secreted by T cells; they also stimulate macrophages to ingest bacteria
What to neutrophils and monocytes produce?
cytokines
plasma cells
The antibody-secreting effector cell of humoral immunity; arises from antigen-stimulated B cells.
What consumes waste and foreign material, such as aged or damaged blood cells and some infections bacteria and viruses?
Phagocytes
T-Lymphocyte
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.
Antigen
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response.
Membrane Attack Complex
-A molecular complex including complement proteins that generates a -nm diameter pore in a bacterial membrane, causing the cell to die.
Histamine
A substance released B injured cells that causes blood vessels to dilate during an inflammatory response.
inflammatory response
nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
when a paper cut rises
passive immunity
Short-term immunity conferred by the administration of ready-made antibodeis or the transfer of maternal antibodies to a fetur or nursing infant.
A virus contains only _________ or ___.
ribosomes
DNA
Interleukin 1
A cytokine secreted by a macrophage that is in the process of phagocytizing and presenting antigen. It in combination with the antigen, activates the helper T cell to produce IL2 and other cytokines.
Humoral Response
The type of immunity that fights bacteria and viruses in body fluids with antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph, fluids formerly called humors.
memory cells
B lymphocytes that do not become plasma cells but remain dormant until reactivated by the same antigen.
immunity-related
cell-mediated immune response
activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells
neutrophil
The most abundant type of white blood cell. These cells are phaocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
interferon
A protein that has antiviral or immune regulatory functions
The simplest form of a genetic entity is?
virus
Antigen Presenting Cells
Cells that ingest bacteria and viruses and then destroy them. Class II MHC molecules in these cells collect peptide remnants of this degradation and present them to helper cells.
MHC Molecule
A large set of cell surface antigens encoded by a family of genes. Foreign MHC markers trigger T-cell responses that may lead to the rejection of transplanted tissues and organs.
universal recipient
blood group AB; no natural blood group antibodies in serum
What does the T in T cells come from?
Thymus 
Rh factor
A protein antigen on the surface of red blood cells. Classified by habving this as positive and the lack of this protein as negative.
heavy chain
One of the two types of polypeptide chains that make up an antibody molecule and B cell receptor; consists of a variable region which contributes to the antigen-binding stie, and a constant region.
The B lymphocyte matures in the ____ ______ and gives rise to ________-producing plasma cells.
bone marrow
antibody
universal donor
person with type O blood who can give blood to anyone because it has no antigens
membrane attack complex (MAC)
A molecular complex consisting of a set of complement proteins that forms a pore in the membrane of bacterial and transplanted cells, causing the cells to die by lysis.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
they are crucial in the clearance of a virus but some cases of tissue destruction from CTL is more damaging than the virus itself 
the two branches of acquired immunity
the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response
A compromised immune system happens when?
the virus infects and destroys key cells in the immune system
how many antigen receptors does each cell have?
about 100, 000 that all recognize the same epitope
How do scientists figure out how antibiotics work?
get a certain bacteria and put the anti biotic around agar, and if there is a clear zone(zone of inhibition), then it works.
Antibodies a.k.a.
Immunoglobulins
Antibodies are made
of protein
Phagocytosis
The ingestion of invading microorganisms by white blood cells referred to as phagocytes.
Immunoglobins
Genes encoding antibodies. Proteins that specifically recognize and help combat viruses, bacteria, and other invaders of the body
pathogen
any agent that causes disease
allergen
any substance that produces an allergic reaction (an over reaction by the immune system)
Tonsils
first to encounter pathogens that enter via the nose and mouth
O blood
-antigen: none
-antibodies: A, B
-can safely receive: O
universal donor
Natural Killer Cells
Non-specific respnseDestroys virus infected cells by lysing the cell membrane
antibodies
compounds that kill bacteria without harming cells
Variable region
The site that specifically recognizes a particular antigen
Opsonization
An immune response in which the binding of antibodies to the surface of a microbe facilitates phagocytosis of the the microbe by a macrophage
clonal selection
antigens bind to specific receptors, causing a fraction of lymphocytes to clone themselves
Perforin
One of the proteins released by cytotoxic T cells on contact with their target cells. It forms pores in the target cell membrane that contribute to cell killing.
humeral immune response
-defense against free bacteria, toxins, and viruses in body fluids
-B cells and T cells
T cell(CD8) activation
1)A macrophage presents the antigen
2)CD8 T cell binds to it
3)An activated helper cell specific for the same antigen recognizes the macrophage/CD8 cell complex
4)It secretes chemicals to activate the CD8 cell
5)The CD8 cell divides
AIDS
viral disease that attacks a person's immune system
immune deficiency is from improper development of immune cells or tissues which are congenital or inherited
primary deficiencies
B cell
originates and matures in the bone marrow; responds to antigens
Inactivation of antigens
Antibodies bind to them
followed by macrophage phagocytosis & antibodies stimulate complement proteins
Complement
a group of proteins that help to destroy microbes by rupturing their membranes
What is the function of the Immune System?
Protection
Which cell clones contain memory cells?
T cell clones
Immunity
the ability of an animal to ward off internal threats
Antibodies can be transferred
from one individual to another, providing passive immunity
class II MHC molecules
mainly made by dendritic, macrophages, and B cells. Bind to antigen fragment derived from foreign materials that have been internalized through phagocytosis or endocytosis
Nonspecific immune system cells
Immune system that does not differentiate between one infectious agent and another. Has two lines- internal and external.
What is the response called that recognizes something as foreign and acts to destroy or neutralize it?
the immune response
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
the infectious agent that causes AIDs; HIV is an RNA retrovirus
B cells divide into what?
1) Plasma cells-secrete antibodies for current infection(effector cells)
2) Memory cells for next exposure
organs of the immune system
lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus, spleen
exertion, stress, and the immune system
extreme exercise and stress cause fluctuations in hormones, leading to increased susceptibility to disease
How does lymph enter the node?
thru a number of afferent vessels
What is the function of crypts?
to trap bacteria and other foreign material
What are the five major classes of immunoglobulins (Ig)?
IgM, IgG, IgD, IgA, and IgE
How do crypts destroy bacteria once they are trapped?
The bacteria work their way into the lymphoid tissue and are destroyed there
Antibody Actions
AgglutinationOpsonizationNeutralizationActivation of complement systemActivation of natural killer cells
antigen-presenting cells
display internalized antigens
Anaphylactic Shock
A whole-body, life-threatening reaction that can occur from an acute allergic response within seconds of exposure to an allergen.
immunity
resistance to a specific disease
Thymus gland
makes T white blood cells
basophils
a circulating leukocyte that produces histamine
Two main categories of specific immmunity?
Inborn
&
Acquired
fever
releases chemicals that increase the body temperature
pathogen
anything that causes a disease. EX. some bacteria, ALL viruses, some fungi
Pyrogens
A polypeptide that produces fever by causing metabolic changes in the hypothalamus. Pyrogens are either exogenous (produced by infectious agents) or endogenous (produced by cells in the body such as macrophages).
first line of defense
-nonspecific defense
-skin, cilia, gastric juice
Effects of antibodies
1. direct attack
2.complement activation
3.production of local change
4.agglutination
5.precipitation
6. neutralization
7.lysis
B-cell/Aantibody Production
millions of different clones produced during fetal developmentEach line has cell surface receptos specific for a certain antigenthe lie dormant until activated by their specific antigenActivated B-cells differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells
a protein substance developed by body in response to and interacting with a specific antigen
antibody
Leukocyte
A cell that develops from the marrow of certain bones of vertebrates; all leukocytes (also known as white blood cells) perform vital functions that defend the body against infection and disease.
Viral Neutralization
Antibodies bind to antigens and block their activity by covering surface proteins that may hook to host cell
Helper T cell
stimulates the proliferation of B cells and cytotoxic T cells
Properties of Antibodies
Y shaped proteins
specific to a particular antigen
there are 5 classes - immunoglobins (each does something different)
inactivate antigens by binding to them
mast cells
a vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
Interleukin 2
a lymphokine protein, secreted by T cells in response to antigen and interleukin 1, that stimulates the proliferation of T cells.
types of T cells
-cytotoxic T cells: destroy cancerous/body cells infected by viruses
-helper T cells: activate B and T cells
-suppressor T cells: shut down immune response
-memory T cells: long-term, future immunity
Mechanisms of non-specific inflammation
1.injury or infection
2.histamine released which increases capillary permeability
3.tissue becomes red,swollen, painful
4. WBC invade area
5. attack occurs on pathogens
6. clotting mechanism is activated to seal off area
7.fibroblasts invade and form fibrous capsules around the area
8.heling occurs inflammation subsides
What part of the lymphatic system picks up the leaked fluid throughout the system where it eventually gets returned to the blood vascular system?
lymphatic capillaries
hydrochloric acid (Hcl)
chemical made in the stomach that helps break down food and kills bacteria It is often called stomach acid.
an antigen is
A foreign molecule that elicits a specific response by lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T cell
T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it
What kinds of antigens stimulate B cells?
extracellular antigens (bacteria)
Antibody Mediated Immunity(AMI)
What is the enlarged terminus of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the digestive viscera?
cisterna chyli
Cytotoxic T Cells
T cells that can recognize and kill other cells.
cell mediated immunity
the type of immunity that functions in defense against fungi, protists, bacteria, and viruses inside host cells and against tissue transplants, wiht highly specialized cells that circulate in the blood and lymphoid tissue.
Activation: Alternate complement pathway
Non-specific binding to CHO chains on bacteria
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
a gene family coding for the plasma membrane self proteins that must be complexed with the antigen in order for T-cell recognition to occur.
If an antigen originates outside the cell, how is it destroyed?
macrophages ingest them by endocytosis, then they are fragmented and combined with class II MHCs and transported to the membrane
How is it indicated that lymphocytes are becoming immunocompetent?
by the appearance of specific cell-surface proteins that enable the lymphocytes to respond (by binding) to a particular antigen
How many large ducts in the thoracic region is lymph returned through?
2 - in the thoracic region
Antibodies are what your body makes in response
to an invader or cells with antigens on their cell membranes
NSAID's
non steroidal anit-inflammatory drugInhibits prostoglandins and histamines
monocytes
provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms; become macrophages
fungi
eukaryotic organisms that absorb organic materials from the remains of dead cells; some fungi are pathogenic
second line of defense
several nonspecific mechanisms
Phagocytes
complement
interferons
inflammatory response
Chemokines
secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes, attracts phagocytes
eosinophil
exocytosis of enzymes to destroy parasites, secreted during allergic reactions
In the Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion technique, if an antigen reacts with an antibody, a thin white line forms called a what?
precipitin line
Degranulation
The emptying of granules from the interior of a mast cell into the extracellular environment.
Vasodilation
dilation of blood vessels as a reaction to histamine secretion; allows for easier movement of white blood cells
active immunity
immunity conferred by recovering from an infectious disease
Helper T-cell
lymphocyte that activates cytotoxic T cells and stimulates B cells to produce antibodies
Lymphocytes become immunocompetent within primary lymphoid organs. B cells become immunocompetent in the ________ and T cells become immunocompetent in the______________.
Bone marrow and thymus
Precipitation
antigen binds to antibody and an insoluble complex forms
What phagocytes are found within the lymph nodes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream?
macrophages
allergens
any substance, often a protein, that induces an allergy: common allergens include pollen, grasses, dust, and some medications.
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
Mast Cell
A large connective tissue cell that contains histamine, heparin, and serotonin, which are released in allergic reactions, or in response to injury or inflammation
antimicrobial proteins
contained in saliva, tears, and any secretions that are found on mucous membranes
ex: lysozyme
b cell receptor
y-shaped molecule consisiting of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, with sulfide bridges linking them together.
Neutralization
An immune reponse in which an antibody binds ot and blcks the ativity of an antigen.
Autoimmune diseases
an immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against itself.
What are the five basic groups of immunoglobulins?
1.IgM
2.IgG
3.IgA
4.IgE
5IgD
Helper T-cells
enhance activity of cytotoxic t cells, b cells, and macrophages by releaseing cytokines
A patient has been immunized against chicken pox. What type of immunity is this?
Artificially Acquired Active
Some of the cells are arranged in globular masses in the cortex and are known as what?
germinal centers
step 4 of the inflammatory response
complement helps phagocytes engulf foreign cells
stimulates the mast cells to release histamine
helps lyse foreign cells
1._________ help to protect against viral infections and can detect and destroy some cancer cells. 2.__________ develop into cells that produce antibodies (plasma cells)
1.T cells (T Lymphocytes)
 
2.B cells (B Lymphocytes)
 
Key Concept
Lymphocytes formed in the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues are able to transform into specialized cells called B cells and T cells. B cells provide humoral immunity by reacting to the presence of antigens to produce antibodies. These antibodies then target antigens for destruction. T cells, which proliferate at the direction of thymic hormones, attacked infected cells and provide cell-mediated immunity.
What is a functional system that recognizes something as foreign and acts to destroy or neutralize it?
the adaptive immune system
step 3 of the inflammatory response
phagocytes arrive and engulf pathogens and damaged cells
What are some examples of autoimmune diseases?
MS, myasthenia gravis, Graves' disease, glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 (or insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
the name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specified reductuion of T cells and the apperance of characteristic secondary infections
How is the Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion technique begun?
Antigens and antibodies are placed in wells in a gel and allowed to diffuse toward one another.
Intact skin is a barrier that cannot normally be penetrated
by bacteria or viruses, although even minute abrasions may allow their passage
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