Immunology AP Bio Set Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
mother's first milk
colostrum
T lymphocytes mature in
thymus
Y-shaped globular protein molecule consisting of 4 chains; 2 heavy and 2 light chains with constant and variable regions
antibody
AIDS stands for
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
developed from monocytes; migrate through blood or reside in tissues; kill and digest large numbers of germs using their lysosomes; display mhc II molecules on their surface; act as antigen presenting cells (APCs)-presenting a piece of foreign antigen on
macrophages
lymphocyte; humoral response-produce antibodies
B cells
fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity; special B and T lymphocytes are slected by binding to specific pathogenic molecules; once selected, B and T lymphocytes become metabolically active and make millions of copies of themselves
clonal selection
second line of defense; further enhance blood flow to area
prostaglandins
type of antibody that facilitates release of histamine in allergic responses
IgE
permanent immunity; individual makes own antibodies
active immunity
second line of defense; triggers vasodilation which increases blood supply to an area, bringing phagocytes
histamine
cells that fight current infection
plasma cells
the third line of defense is maintained by
lymphocytes
three types of antibodies are
IgG, IgA, IgE
cytotoxic T cells are also called
CD8 cells
helper T cells are also called
CD4 cells
caused by HIV, a retrovirus; attacks cells that bear CD4 (helper T cells) molecules on their surface
AIDS
in ___ line of defense, inflammatory response is initiated by chemical signals and characterized by redness, swelling, and warmth; the goal is to attack and isolate invading microbes
second
acute, extreme allergic reaction, life threatening, results from sudden dilation of blood vessels which results in precipitous drop in blood pressure
anaphylactic shock
second line of defense; group of proteins that helps to destroy microbes by rupturing their membranes
complement
blood type A: antigen present on surface of red blood cell=___antibodies in plasma=___
A; anti-B
cells that circulate in the body permanently, imparting specific lifelong immunity against a particular virus, such as polio or measles
memory cells
type of antibody that is most abundant circulating antibody
IgG
blood type B: antigen present on surface of red blood cell=___antibodies in plasma=___
B; anti-A
cytokine secreted by a macrophage after it phagocyizes and presents antigens on its surface
interleukin 1 (IL-1)
a mother transfers some of her antibodies to her nursing child in colostrum. this is an example of ___ immunity
passive immunity
these lymphocytes are a cell-mediated response
T lymphocytes (T cells)
these lymphocytes are a humoral response, produce antibodies
B lymphocytes (B cells)
cytotoxic T cells are part of the ___ line of defense
third
cytotoxic T cells proliferate into
plasma cells and memory cells
a mistake in the immune system where the body does not properly distinguish self from nonself; the immune system attacks its own body tissue
autoimmune diseases
helper T cells are part of the ___ line of defense
third
example of ___ is when helper T cells become activated by class II MHC molecules and interleukin-1 to release interleukin-2, which further increases activity of helper T cells to stimulate other cells
positive feedback
blood type AB: antigen present on surface of red blood cell=___antibodies in plasma=___
A and B; none
cytotoxic T cells are stimulated by
antigens and helper T cells
blood type O: antigen present on surface of red blood cell=___ antibodies in plasma=___
none; anti-A and anti-B
nonspecific barriers to germs (first line of defense)
skin, stomach acid, mucous membranes producing lysozyme, cilia in respiratory system
two types of T lymphocytes are
cytotoxic T and helper T cells
helper T cell binds to ___ molecules; releases ___
class II MHC; interleukin-2
type of T cell that sets off an alarm to immune system that microbes have broken through the body's line of defense
helper T cell
we only become aware of this protection when the system goes awry (autoimmune diseases) =characteristic of
capacity to distinguish self from nonself
___bind to cytotoxic T cells; ___ bind to helper T cells
MHC I molecules; MHC II molecules
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