Immunology QUiz Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
rituximab
cd20
NK Cells
Lymphocyte
HLA
 
DR3
DM Type I
IFN-alpha
Inhibits viral replication
CD4+ and CD8+
CD4+
Disease association: Anti-smith
SLE specific
IgA, IgG, IgM
Opsonization (3)
C-ANCA
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic Ab
a/w Vasculitis
inducable hemopoesis
hemorrhage
-20x regular rate

infection
-up phagocytes separetly
CXCL8
Chemotactic factor recruits neutrophils, basophils, T-cells
Define allograft
transplantation between genetically different individuals of the same species
Secreted by Th1 cellsstimulates macrophages
y-interferon
How are MHC genes expressed?
Co-dominantly
Antacids - Decrease __ absorption
MMF
neutrophil
PMN, polys, segs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, role-pahgocytosis 60-70% of WBC population
IL-10
Stimulates Th2 while inhibiting Th1
an antifilarial agent effective against Wuchereria and Loa loa in humans, heartworms in dogs, and lungworms in cattle and sheep. It causes the disappearance of worms from the blood due to phagocytosis by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Used
diethylcarbamazine
Polymerization = pores.
C9 polymerization info:
Fas
T-cell membrane bound receptor mediating cell death.
which immunohglobin is implicated in type 1 hypersensitivity
IgE
 
 
Ligands for B7 costimulatory molecules
expressed on APC (2)
CD28
CD152 (CTLA-4)
Name the type of hypersensitivity: poststrep glomerulonephritis
III
Mannose receptor
Lectin on the macrophage surface
Exogenous
Antigens that originate outside the cell
Risk dependent on source of BM
GVHD
HLA DR5 =
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, pernicious anemia --> B12 deficiency
Collectins
A family of proteins including mannose-binding lectins, that are characteried by the presence of a collagen-like domain and a lectin (carbohydrate-binding) domain. Collectins play a role in the innate immune system by acting as microbial pattern recognition receptors, and they may activate the complement system by binding to C1q.
How many globular head/Fc interactions are required for C1q activation?
2
What antibodies can fix complement?
IgG, IgM
Tumor
NeoplasmA cluster of cells derived from one clone that has proliferated in an uncontrollable manner
an immune-mediated hemolytic disease of newborns
Neonatal isoerythrolysis
Hyper IgM syndrome
Pyogenic infection, x-linked, diminished Ab production bc defect in gene for CD40 so development of germinal centers & isotype switching impaired.
Type of compliment for B cells.
CD19
autologous bone marrow transplant
adult stem cell transplantation
Restores ability to make WBC in individuals w/o HSCremove bone marrow and freeze
hi dose chemotherapy to destroy HSC
return HSC removed earlier
Granulocyte CSF
push cells to granulocyte lineage: neutrophil and eosinophils
() is responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells, smooth muscle contraction, histamine release and chemotactic signals.
C3a
Immnoglobulins
B cell surface receptors, bind to pathogens and act as pathogen-recognition receptors. Effector B cells called plasma cells secrete soluble forms of these immunoglobulins called antibodies.
B Cell
produces antibodies, involved in the adaptive immune response, formed in the bone marrow
T cells are opsonized and removed from circulation via the RES (like Lymphocyte immune globulin)
OKT3
Decreased IL-1 secretion from macrophages by corticosteroids results in
Inhibition of CTL
What kind of cell expresses the following on its surface: IgM, B7, CD19, CD20, CD40, MHC II
B-cells!
Immediate Hypersensitivity
The type of immune reaction responsible for allergic diseases and dependent on IgE plus Ag-mediated stimulation of tissue mast cells and basophils. The mast cells and basophils release mediators that cause increased vascular permeability, vasodilation, bronchial and visceral smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation.
IgA
-found in external secretions, such as breast milk, saliva, tears, mucosal surfaces
-has 2 subclasses: IgA1, IgA2
Where is CD40 expressed?
Constitutively expressed on APCs
Lymphoid lineage
Produces lymphocytes (B cells, T cells, NK cells)
Lypopolysaccharide
An oligomer of lipid and carbohydrate that constitutes the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria LPS acts as a polyclonal activator of murine B cells, inducing their fivision and differentiation, into antibody producing plasma cells
4 examples of cytokines we talkeda about:
TNF
What does TH1 secrete to downregulate TH2?
IFN-y
Induces macrophage differentiation in bone marrow
IL-3 + GM-CSF
where is the imcompatability in Rhesus incompatibility
D group
Ab effector functions against pathogen
neutralization (prevent bacterial adherance)
opsonization
complement activation
ADCC (could also be mediated by eosinophils)
This class of antibodies is the only one that can cross the placenta
IgG
Where does the scrotum drain to?
superficial inguinal LN
Complement defects
patients suffer blood stream and other infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitides or gonorrhea.
The different classes of antibodies are based on what?
The heavy chain
T lymphocytes
These cells recognize antigens with a high degree of specificity, but only if the antigen is presented by another cell
isotype switching
same V region can become associated with another C region --> giving it different effector functions; occurs as a result of recombination between highly repetitive sequences (switch regions) located 5' to each C gene (except delta)
What is Type IV hypersensitivity?
Delayed(T cell mediated) type
Sensitized T cells encounter antigen & release lymphokines activating macrophages
The classic pathway is activated by:
IgG or IgM
In which cell types does somatic hypermutation occur?
Dividing centroblasts
What are the genes involved in making a heavy chain?
V,D,J
Prozone area
If the concentration of antibody is too high to cause agglutination
constant during response.
4 major points WRT adaptive immunity
How is FeLV diagnosed?
ELISA, IFA and blood work
Name 5 clinical presentations of cellular immunodeficiency.
Opportunistic infections, oralpharyngeal candidiasis, pneumocystis pneumonia, TB, intestinal parasitosis.
4th step extravasation
Movement of neutrophil toward center of infection in tissue via gradient of CXCL8.
T cells
1) T lymphocyte 2) cell mediated immunity 3) matures in the thymus gland
Mechanism of deletion/negative selection of BCR
BCR recognizes and crosslinks with multivalent self antigen with high affinity, leading to apoptosis
Composition of subunit vaccines
consist of single or multiple fragments of organism
can be proteins, peptides, carbs
can be fragments cleaved from organism or can be expressed in recombination form (ex: Guardasil)
This enzyme adds N nucleotides without needing a DNA template
Terminal transferase (TdT)
Found on the surface of many B cells and in serum; unclear function
IgD
CTLA-4
on the surface of Helper T cells and transmits an inhibitory signal. Polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases.
IN class 2 MHC, which chain contains the binding site for the T cell coreceptor CD4?
Beta 2
Dendritic cells
The cell that is most important for the initial activation of CD4 T Lymphocytes
Immune Response Stage 5
(5) The Adaptive Immune Response- lymphocytes (T & B cells) recognize a specific small part of the pathogen- specific lymphocytes are activated, mature to effector cells & kill or eliminate pathogen
Interleukin-5 (IL-5)
Cytokine produced by Th2 CD4+ T cells and activated mast cells, which stimulates the growth and differentiation of eosinophils and activates mature eosinophils.
IgG subclasses
IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and their heavy chains are called gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, gamma 4
Which molecule of the immature T cell is lost?
DEC 205
IgA in breast milk is an example of what type of immunity?
passive
Which two immunoglobins have the same paratope?
IgM and IgD
Lectins + 2 examples
receptors and plasma proteins that recognize carbs.
hemochorial colostal IgG transfer; primates and rodents:
10% with 90% in utero
What does C3b do?
Covalently binds to pathogen's surface and tags for destruction.
3 T cell activation inhibitors
Cyclosporine A, Tacrolimus, and Rapamycin
Cause and symptoms of MS
cause- Ag is myelin basic protein

symptoms
progressive demyelination
blurred vision
paralysis
Bence Jones Proteins
def.
light chain dimers in the urine of some patients with myeloma;
Where does the upper limb and lateral breast drain?
axillary lymph nodes
Which of the immunoglobulins are involved in mucosal transport?
IgM and IgA (mostly A)
Mechanism of action for Mycophenolate mofetil
Interference in synthesis and metabolism ofRNA
Which immunoglobulin prevents bacterial attachment to mucous membranes?
secretory IgA (picks up the secretory component from epithelial cells before secretion)
Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation
A pathway of complement activation triggered, in the absence of Ab, by the binding of microbial polysaccharides to circulating lectins like plasma mannose-binding lectin (MBL). MBL is structurally similar to C1q and activates the C1r-C1s enzyme complex (like C1q) or activates another serine esterase, called mannose-binding protein-associated serine esterase. The remaining steps of the lectin pathway, beginning with cleavage of C4, are the same as the classical pathway.
How are TH2 cells immunomodulatory?
They produce Il-10, which regulates Th1 cells
What does CD40-L null mice produce?
Short clonal expansion upon immunization with antigen (signal 2 is required for proliferation!)
What is the function of the lymph node? Does it have a capsule?
Encapsulated
functions: nonspecific filtration by macrophages, storage, and activation of B and T cells, antibody production
What is the first step of SPECIFIC immunity?
Macrophage phagocytoses antigen
IFNa and IFN-b in FeLuk:
inhibit replication and induce an antiviral state while increasing MHC 1 expression
3 autoimmune diseases associated with type III hypersensitivity
Subacute bacterial endocarditis, mixed essential cryoglobulinemia, and systemic lupus erythematosus
Mechansim of action of desensitization in type I hypersensitivity reactions
expose to increasin amounts of allergen
induce desensitization or exhaustion of allergen-specific T cells and B cells
How do conjugates in subunit vaccines work? why are they needed?
needed because polysac. vaccines poorly immunogenic in young children
conjugating a protein (often toxoid) to polysaccharides (this make T cells help B cells produce Ab's)
What activates the alternative complement pathway?
Molecules on the surface of microbes (ie. endotoxin)
After capture by professional APCs, where do the protein antigens of microbes go?
They are concentrated in the peripheral lymphoid organs
whwn the phagosome fuses with the lysosome
phagolysosome - digestion of microbe
Common forms of virus transmission are:
-inhalation of droplets
-in food and water
-direct transfer
-bites of arthropods
Where is the medulla found?
On the inner side of the thymus
What happens to anergic self-reactive B cells?
They are excluded from lymphoid follicles
What are antibody idiotypes?
they are specific for a given antigen - Ig epitope determined by antigen-binding sites (idio = unique)
(aka: the uniques variances in the Ig where antigens bind)
What class of MHC can a CD4 cell recognize?
MHC class II
Flourescence-acivated cell sorting (FACS)
Cells are recognized and sorted due to different Ags on their surfaces, their size and method of flow cytometry.
SCID victims are deficient in
enzymes involved in the V(D) J recombination of TCRs and Ab CDRs (complimentary determining regions)s
4 things M-theta cells release for contact (type IV) hypersensitivity
IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and NO
Mechanism of action of antihistamines
block H1 and H2 receptors on smooth muscle cells, blood vessles, and in the nose
List some surface receptors PMns have that can recognize common pathogen antigens.
Mannose, sialic acid, glycan, LPS, C3b
Name the cardinal signs of inflammation in Latin and English.
Rubor - redness
Calor - heat
Tumor - swelling
Dolor - pain
Functio laesa - loss of function
What occurs after ligating the activating Fc-gamma receptors?
Once ligated a cascade of sterotypic changes are initiated which include phagocytosis, actin polymerization, exocytosis, reactive oxygen species production.
Negative selection of T-cells is where those that ___ are apoptosed, because otherwise they might be autoreactive.
bind too strongly to self-peptide:MHC complexes
WHich immature T cells are selected to survive?
Those that recognize self MHC
What are antibody isotypes?
IgA, IgE, IgG, IgD, IgM - the Ig epitope common to a single class of Ig (5 classes; determined by heavy chain)
When were Class II HLA molecules originally defined?
When using the mixed lymphocyte reaction.
How do tumors evade immune response?
lack of distinct antigens(self), MHC I down-regulation to block CTL presentation, loss of expression of antigens that elicit immune response
Testing for T cell response to MHC
put responder cells from MHC-A mouse with irradiated stimulator cells from MHC-A mouse in a test tube
see if they react (T cells do not react in this situation)
However, if the stimulator cells were from an MHC-B mouse, T cells would respond
Site of B cell localization and proliferation
Folliclelocated in outer cortex of LN1 - dense and dormant2 - pale, central germinal centers, active
What does MHC restriction mean?
It refers to the property of T cell, in which different clones of T cells can see peptides only when these peptides are displayed by individual's MHC molecules
How does the immune response affect cytosolic processing of proteins?
IFN-gamma induces the expression of 3 new proteosome subunits that preferentially cleave proteins so that they bind with greater affinity to MHC I molecules. Subunits: LMP1, LMP7, and MECL-1. This is an adaptation that is targeted by viruses
What is the process of isotype switching direced by?
CD40L and cytokines when there is positive reactions between B and T cells
What occurs in the follicle of a lymph node?
B cell localization and proliferation
in the outer cortex primary follicles are dense and dormant (have not seen antigen) secondary follicles have pale central germinal centers and are active (lymphocytes have seen antigen)
What are the principal cells that are involved in humoral immunity?
APCs, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes
Can activate COMPLIMENT CASCADE:
1. MBL binds C2 and C4, cleaving them into C2a, C2b, C4a, and C4b.
Most abundant Ig at birth
IgG (until 3 months and then IgM takes over)
Where are nearly all of the cells of the immune system derived?
From the pluripotent hematopoetic stem cells of the bone marrow. Each cell type is derived based on the stimulatory signal received by the stem cell.
How does mRNA processing of mu and delta constant regions proceed?
After VDJ regions have been joined. Splicing at poly adenylation sites found following the mu region and one following the delta region. Spkcing at pA1 gives IgM and pA2 gives IgD
How can NK cells help in mediating responses against extracellular pathogens?
They can secrete IL-4 which supports the development of TH2 cells
If primed cells don't receive a second signal within a certain time, what happens?
The cell will become anergic, or unable to be activated
what is the exception to the rule that MHC Class I antigen presentation is from intracellular proteins?
cross presentation when APC, dendritic cell, takes up external antigen and degrades it in phagolysosome to present to MHC class I
If a patient has a low CH50 what might that indicate?
That the person has an autoimmune disease.
What happens to the survival of B cells when the BCR gene is deleted?
The percentage of B cells in the spleen and lymph nodes that survive lowers dramatically
What are the parts of an antibody?
Fab - where the antigen binds - light and heavy chains are involved
Fc - part that fixes complement - only heavy chains are involved: determine what type of antibody it is (made up of only constant regions)
What are the regions of protein interacting with antigen that are variable due to recombination called?
CDRs three for TCR and three for Ig with fourth hypervarialbe chain of unknown function
Why do we need to have an adaptive immune responses?
-In order to have the capacity for specificity
-To have memory for the case of reinfection
-Have a system that is capable of fine tuning itself
What fits into the MHC pockets and is responsible for anchoring the peptides in the cleft?
side chains of amino acids of the peptide antigens
How many segments of V, D and J are there in a human?
There are 51 V segments, 27 D segments and 6 J segments
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