Ancient Rome Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to punish
Christian Holy People
Who are saints?
The ruler of an empire
ancient region and roman providence
What was a Roman soldier called?
lawmaking body and most powerful branch of government
region in southwestern asia that became the ancient home for jews
What language did the early Romans speak?
To sell something to the higest bidder
Men who were farmers,traders, and made things for a living
roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part
elected leader of ancient rome who represented the plebians
An underground room used for a burial site
A person who has total control over the people
a person who has been elected by citizens to speak or act for them
a story that contains a message or truth
oppressive ruler with complete control over the state
What is a dictator?
eastern orthidox christainanity
a branch of christainanity that was developed by the byzantine empire
Long era of peace; Roman Peace
What was the Pax Romana?
The "revered or the majestic one"
What does the name Augustus mean?
269-275 CE
Pax Romana
Roman piece.
Roman Numeral: D
Historian of Julio-Claudian emperorsStarts his history the year Octavian dies
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Tarquin the Proud
Last Etruscan King
mountain range in northern Italy
officials are arranged according to rank
Roman, daring, military leader that fought in Carthage while Hannibal was in the countryside of Italy.
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
What religion did Constantine change Rome's religion to?
greek city states were in the
Julius Caesar
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45). On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself.
Roman Republic
The romans established a new government called a Republic or a thing of the people and this was established to keep from one individual from getting too much power.
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
an island in the Mediterranean Sea west of the Italian Peninsula; has rich farmland
a person of refined upbringing and manners
the stucture / theater where Romans were entertained / gladiator fights
Who did Mark Anthony have a relationship with?
63bc -14 ad ancient Roman emperor whose rule began a long period of prosperity and peace called the Pax RAoman or the roman peace for the roman empire
10 officials that guarded the rights of the plebeians
Representative Democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis
aeneas is from troy, needs to escape, leaves with son ascinius, father anchises, wife creusa; looks back & realizes wife has been left behind; meets dido, by will of god dido loves him, he leaves she commits suicide; aeneas marries princess, her dad dies & he becomes king
"All roads lead to Rome" ..... the road system aided in travel and trade as well as the abilty to maintain a long lasting civilization
Gaius Marius
What man encouraged poor people to join the army?
Settlement of 27 BCE
Political arrangement between Octavian and the Senate, Augustus makes himself Tribune and Consul permanently
an elected official who led the Roman Republic
served in pairs (two served together)
via appia
was key trade route to greece, impedes on some greek colonies
This man lost the fight over the name of Rome.
dictator durring war is good becuzzz
they make quick decisions
12 Tables of Law
first written Roman law code, placed in a central market place called the forums. showed strict separation between Patricians and Plebians
Where did the aqueducts get the water from?
from the mountains
Name two people who fell in love with Cleopatra
1. Mark Antony
Common people.
Jesus Christ
second Triumvurate businessman
Seaport of Rome
Well-trained civil servants; administered day-to-day operations of the empire
a count of people
Jewish places of worship
Plebs gain rights
509 BCE-450 BCE
(architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright and used to support a structure
Contributions from Rome
architectural design--the arch
republic form of government
major road networks
three leaders in Roman Republic
italian penninsula
where italy was located
crops of Italy
grain, olives, grapes, vegetables
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
person who registerd the population for the tex and voting purposes
Atilla the Hun
"the scourge of God"
trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought in arenas as entertainment
Emperor Theodosius
Made Christianity the official religion of Rome.
Also called Jesus Christ, Christ Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth.born 4? b.c., crucified a.d. 29?, the source of the Christian religion.
Hannibal barca
Carthaginian General who invaded northern Italy by bringing elephants over the Alps
City founded by Romulus and Remus
christian holy book; contains sacred writing for the religion
A milestone (from the Latin milliarium) is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile. They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median
one of the stacked cylindrical stones that form the shaft of a column
a roman Senator, leading instigator of the plot to kill Caesar
preferred over Tiberius and lvoed by people, Grandson of Marc Antony and Octavia, popular soldier and family man suddenly murdered in Anticoch
witty language used to convey insults or scorn
The leading general from Carthage in the 2nd punic war. led 60 war elephants & 60,000 men over the alps & attacked Rome. He marched up and down Italy for 13 years but couldn't capture Rome.
civil war
an armed conflict between groups within one country
Beginning in the 700s BCE,first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization
led Jewish people out of Egypt, received the 10 commandments from God
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
What was the chief occupation of Rome?
people trying to attack Rome from outside boarders
slave who led revolt; destroyed two armies; found gladiator weapons, stole them, and fought way out; goes to rome, gets 70,000 fighter with him; slaves were gladiators
2nd Punic War
Carthaginians defeated the Romas Army
The Art of Love
- Basically a manual for sexual seduction
- Augustus exiled him because he thought it was over-the-top
- Described the difference between love and lust

- Basically a history of mythology and religion
A system of government with a ruler who has absolute power.
One or two supreme heads of state during the Roman Republic that were elected each year.
, A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
A physician who lived in Rome during the AD 100s, wrote several volumes that summarized all medical knowledge of his day. For centuries people regarded him as the greatest authority in medicine. (pg.180)
socratic method
way of teaching developed by socrates that used a question and answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
assembly of centuries
voting population of senate, comprised of citizens over the age of 18
an ancient kingdom and later a Roman province in S Europe between the Carpathian Mountains and the Danube, corresponding generally to modern Romania and adjacent regions.
an arena in ancient Rome :also the show held there
Marcus Aurelius
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
the power of one branch of government to reject bills or proposals passed by another branch of government
the chief residence of the popes in Vatican City, now also including a library, archives, art museum, apartments, and administrative offices.
new testament
the second part of the Christian Bible, which includes the Gospels and other writings of the early Christian church 31
(New Testament) one of the original 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospel
Scipio Africanus
rome's great war general who defeated hannibal at zama (called africanus because zama is in africa)
group of about 600 soldiers in the Roman army
Romance language
any language that grew out of Latin (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian)
opus caementa
roman cement with stone or brick in it
three good emperors
the three good emperors were vespasian who was consul of africa and a decorated general,claudius who gave more priveleges to women and he improved the roman judicial system,and trajan who gave money to the poor to lessen the gap between the poor and rich and he reduced taxes
People who choose to die for a cause they believe in
In ancient rome, a person who fought o the death in an arena for the entertainment of the public; usually a slave.
gaius gracchus
declared a public enemy for trying to better the homeless people and committed suicide.
a channel built to convey water from a long distance
Unlike the Greeks, where were interested in ideas, the Romans were more interested in?
using knowledge to build things
who were patricians and plebians and what were the tensions between them?
patricians were wealthy landowners
plebians were artisans , shopkeepers, etc.
plebians complained about having so little power in the roman republic.
Attila the Hun
405-453, was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea
Cornelius Scipio Africanus
The roman general that won the battle of zama at the end of punic war #2.
Fall of the Roman Empire
Empire divided into two, invasions by Germanic tribes and by Huns, moved capital to Byzantium, Conquest of invaders.
Latium Plain
A Plain on the west coast of Italy on which the city of Rome was built.
Describe 3 possible reasons why the Roman empire declined in power.
a.)Army of unreliable mercenaries who worked only for pay.
b.)The economic problems such as high taxes, high food prices, and inflation.
c.)The vast size of the empire made it difficult to rule.
d.)Corrupt emperors who stole money from the treasury.
Rome enjoyed peace and prosperity
during all of the period of the five "good emperors."
What were Checks and Balances? How did the Roman republic check the power of its leaders?
Balanced power on a system on which they check so they don't have corruptions. They could remove them.
Founded Rome
to satisfy
Lingua franca
Trade language
messenger of the gods (Hermes)
Which Roman military commander's actions became an example of using an army to seize power?
One who causes senseless destruction
book about the interpretations of Torah
"baths;" a large imperial bathing complex open to the public
edict of milan
who-constantine; when-313; where-roman empire; why-proclaimed religious tolerance
a small quadrilateral constellation in the southern hemisphere near Virgo. Also there was device used on roman ships
immense palaces, temples, and stadiums and showed Roman dignity
Jesus' teaching scared Roman Empire authorities and they had him killed this way
Punic Wars
Wars between Carthage and Rome.
a follower of a person or belief
city, Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79. and rediscovered in 1709 by a well digger, rooms there covered in phallic symbols
someone who had authority over all other bishops in thier area
A general who became emperor after Diocletian and ordered his workers to work the same jobs they had until they die because of inflation.
Originally a member of the first triumvirate but dies in battle.
an official who can administrate laws, judge, arbiter
Octavian accepted the title of _______ or exalted one.
small river at southern boundary of Caesar's command place 'crossing the Rubicon'
The land in the eastern Mediterranean region populated by Jews at the time of the Roman Empire
When did the Rome republic end
44 B.C.
Historian of Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebians and repulics of Rome
59 BC
julius was appointed consul; marries calpurnia
apennine mountains
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy.
Gaius Marcus
Allowed people in poverty or jobless to join the military for a bonus in retirement of farmland. For this promise, he was elected for 6 consulships.
A third group to settle in Italy between 1200 and 800 B.C. This group had a great cultural influence on the Latins/Romans.
Queen of Egypt; Used Ceasar & Mark Antony to stay in power; gave Ceasar a son & Mark Antony twins.
roman girl who tried to betray the city to the Sabines in return for what they wore on their left arms (their jewelry); when she opened the city gate, they beat her with their shields instead
Hagia Sophia
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople built by the order of Justinian
Centuriate Assembly
all the citizen soldiers are members of this assembly for life and they select the council to make the laws
leader of huns, sacked many cities and tried to get to rome but stopped in his tracks by the pope
the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit, also rules enforced by the government
gained control and divided Rome into 2 parts, the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire
elected by hte assembly and keep law and order.keep track of finances
the governor of Asia in charge of attacking Mithridates (~70BC). He believed that life should be enjoyed thoroughly. Although he was successful during previous campaigns, he repelled Mithridates (Third Mithridatic War) out of Armenia until the Roman soldiers mutinied. He earned the hatred of Equestrian investors who got Roman agents to betray and cause a mutiny. Pompey was send out to solve the crisis. Theme: class struggle/imperialism.
a mythical Greek warrior who was a leader on the Trojan side of the Trojan War
Roman statesman regarded as a model of simple virtue
Quintus Fabius Maximus (The Delayer)
-Cunctator means "delayer" in Latin, refers to his tactics during the Second Punic War.
- was consul many times, became a legendary figure, the model of a tough, courageous Roman, and was bestowed the honorific title, "The Shield of Rome"
A member of one of the noble families of the ancient Roman Republic; upperclass
Marcus Lepidus
Caesars right hand man and pt of second triumvirate but stripped of power by O and MA, goes into seclusion as Pontifus Maximus
Hamilcar Barca
was Hannibals father, was a general in Carthage's army and he told Hannibal to always hate the Romans and seek to destroy it.
a place of assembly for the people in ancient Rome
Romulus and Remus
Traditional story of how Rome began. Twins abandoned and rescued by a wolf. Grew to found and build Rome. Romulus later killed Remus, to gain total power over rome. (some kid:))
What did the Edict of Milan do?
made christianity legal
What were the Roman Laws written on?
12 Bronze Tables
Organization of Positions in Roman government
1. Senate
2. Assemblies
3. Magistrates
Forms of Roman entertainment
Theatrical plays such as comedy and tragedies, Chariot Races, Gladiator Battles
The Plebeians gained the right to elect who?
Officials known as tribunes
Battle of Cannae
Worst Roman defeat in Punic wars-- 2nd Punic War; 216; Hannibal kills them all; As a result, Rome loses lotsa allies and NOBODY wants to fight Hannibal for 10 years.
-1st Double Envelopment
Babylonian Captivity
the period of the exile of the Jews in Babylonia, 597-538 b.c.
The groups of the third Punic war
Hastati, front (young guys 18-22)
Principes, middle, well experienced (23-35)
Triarii, old (over 35)
adriatic sea and ionian sea
two seas located to the east of italy
What was the outcome of the 1st Punic War?
Rome won expelling Carthage from Sicily.
What was one problem Rome was facing during the Punic Wars?
Farms were ruined during the 2nd Punic War because the soliders were away too long fighting so their farms fell apart.
x slave
a letter
a wise saying
44 BCE
Julius Caesar assassinated
goddess of the hearth
Who was Hannibal?
Carthagian military general.
The Roman god of war
a building material invented by romans
afterlife and polytheism
2 beliefs of etruscans
Archimedean Screw
historical machine that transfers water from a low body of water into a irrigation ditch.
Human-made channel for carrying water long distances.
A wealthy descendant of Rome's earliest settlers
defeated mark antony to become princepts, or first citizen
Label these Items on a map:
Mediterranean Sea, Europe, Africa, Tiber River, Rome, Sicily, The Alps, Carthage.
Fall of Rome
contributing factors: military interference in politics, civil war and unrest, moving the capital and division of the empire, low confidence, disloyalty, contrast between rich and poor, poor harvests, gold and silver drain, inflation, threat of attack
(Roman mythology) god of the sea
an underground cemetery, esp. one consisting of tunnels and rooms with recesses dug out for coffins and tombs.
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
a belief in more than one god
a belief in more than one god
rubucon river
where ceasar was claimed a traitor
expanded the empire to its greatest extent; implemented the construction of many public works - roads, canals, bridges
twelve Tables
the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law
a mt range on the italian penninsula
Julius caeser
A military commander who became Dictator
Second Punic War
Rome takes Spain from Carthage; Hannibal and the elephants
What is the mountain range that lies northeast of Rome?
A Roman apartment that the poor lived in
ordered to go to court for a reason
a curved structure used as a support over an open space, as in a doorway
An island in the Mediterranean Sea off the tip of the Italian peninsula
pax romana exact date
27 BC to 180 AD
the naval battle in which Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian's fleet under Agrippa in 31 BC
Mark Antony
went with Octavian after Brutus and his followers in a civil war; married Cleopatra; was told that she was dead and killed himself
four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
Eastern Roman Empire
another name for the byzantine empire
person belonging to a group seen as primitive and uncivilized
crossing the rubicon
according to the Oxford English Dictionary, as a technical term in air navigation to refer to the point on a flight at which, due to fuel consumption, a plane is no longer capable of returning to its airfield of original takeoff.
Agrippina the Younger
prob killed Caludius after bein forced to marry him, her uncle
Lex Frumentaria
State must buy and ration grain to Romans
one of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catgolics consider him to the first pope, or bishop of Rome
Period of 5 good Emperors
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, known as the Five Good Emperors, were a series of excellent emperors who ruled in Rome from 96-180 CE. following the Flavian Dynasty. So called because they succeeded in winning the support and cooperation of the senate, which is something their predecessors had failed to accomplish.
baths of caracalla
The Baths of Caracalla (Italian: Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla.
a set of basic laws; a written plan of government
Who is Jesus of Nazareth?
A spiritual leader who teaches forgiveness
Five good emperors
this was a group of leaders who decided to hire a leader when they took over in case something happened to them or when their reign was over.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
two brothers that believed the cause of Rome's problems where from the decline of the small farmer; brothers were killled and failed to bring reforms
Murder of Caesar
Event that occurs on the Ides of March in 44 BCE. This event was committed by Brutus, Cassius, and other senators who thought Caesar was becoming too much of a king.
The commercial activity was possible because of what two factors?
location around the Mediterranean and its road network
List the reasons for the fall or Rome
social - people were unequal
political - the government was corrupt
economic - the empire was poor
military - germanic tribes invaded
Describe Rome at the height of its glory
It had the most beautiful monuments and public buildings.
What did Romans do after conquering a territory?
They often built a new city to serve as the capital of the province.
dictator of rome
walls of earth
The Twelve Tables
The laws
Dates of the monarchy
a large country estate
A sharp rise in prices.
a unit of an empire
first emperor to persecute Christians
Mystery Religions
secret rituals and promises
Under who's reign was Jesus born?
Roman government
Led by an Emperor, Republic
accused of being coconspirators; one, praetor, other of high standing
the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology as the twin sons of the Vestal Virgin Rhea Silvia, fathered by the god of war, ars. According to the tradition recorded as history by Plutarch and Livy, Romulus slew Remus over a dispute and became the first King of Rome
Center stone in an Etruscan arch.
What year did Augustus die?
AD 14
Roman (a) were taken at public athletic or health clubs that were much like todays spas
Constatine the Great
Made christianity a state religion
Circus maximus
Oval track that could hold approximately 200,000 Romans to watch chariot races
from Latin munera (burden), citizens w sin suffaglo=>citizens w voting
grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caeser
Foreign solders who serve only for pay.
A loose group of governments working together
well read, from the north, sacked rome
History of Roman Government:
1st: Monarchy
2nd: Republic
3rd: Empire
Jupiter's wife and the goddess of marrige
Conquered People
When Ancient Rome conquered another city, the city was allowed to keep own customs and government but they had to pay taxes and acknowledge Roman rule
where gladiators fought to death as well as the persecution of Christians
Paul the Tarsus
..., Founder of Christianity; helped spread the religion beyond Jewish communities.
Roman alphabet
most of the languages of western europe are written in the roman alphabet
part of a tree, part of a government/family
Someone who gives up their life for their beliefs.
A large pipe or channel designed to transport water from a remote source over a long distance
Girls and boys learned to write and read. Was highly valued.
History of Roman Government
First: a monarchy
Second: a republic
Third: an empire
Areas outside of Italy that the Romans controlled
the murdering pf someone by secret or sudden attack
technology during pax ramona
aqueducts, solar system, civil laws
Who were the first people to settle the Italian penisula?
Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. They created the laws, regulated the budget, and seeked the general welfare of the state. But they serve for life. Created the empire's military knowledge through experience of the members of the Senate. Laws are vetoed or approved by the Assembly of tribes.
How many years did the Roman Republic last?
465 years
ebro river
This river is located in northern part spain; where carthage must stop its conquest
name of the brothers who supposedly founded Rome
Romulus and Remus
constantine's edict of milan
what ended the persecution of christians?
Where did the Romans get the domes from?
The Romans
in Rome, a social class made of minor landholders, artisans, and small famers
farmers, road builders, traders
Ancient Romans were often ________, ________ ________, or ___________.
Bread and Circuses
Roman gov't giving the poor free bread and entertainment w/ the Coliseum
economy, trade and tranportation
roman roads and the mediterranean sea allow for efficient movement of goods; trade is centered on provinces, rome relies on provinces for goods; trade occurs as far as china - silk road; still agricultural based economy - latifundias - indentured servants increasingly tied to the land
Result of the Second Punic War
Carthaginians gave up their land in Spain, warships, and paid indemnity
Marcus Aurelius and his meditations
was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors.
In the earliest days of the Roman Republic, plebeians
could not hold office or be senators.
huge estates
good luck charm
Roman Empire
509 BCE-476CE
masion carre, 50 bc
a place of worship
a hired solider
"hired solider"
Roman name for Demeter
Goddess of nature, fertility, childbirth, wildwood, moon, forests, animals, mountains, woods, and women.
historian who wrote about Augustus
Military Decline
no patriotism/ disloyalty. mercenaries
magistrates that registered citizens according to wealth, appointed candidates to the Senate, and oversaw the moral conduct of all citizens
customs and beliefs that people inherit from an earlier time, people or culture
Optimates vs. Populares
Traditionalist movement vs. aristocratic leaders favoring the people
Etruscans influence?
Introduced alphabet and number system
dictator for life
title given to Caesar
very practical, lots of bridges, aqueducts and roads, influenced jefferson
country in ancient Italy(Rome); name comes from latins, the ancestors of Rome
1st Roman Emperor
Augustus (the revered one)
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
Rome, Italy
11'6" high
Teachings of Jesus
Monotheism; basic Jewish beliefs; personal relationship with god; heaven
He was Caesar's political rival, and feared Caesar's ambitions. Was defeated by Caesar's troops in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt. He was also a brilliant general/military leader from his command in Spain.
Eastern Acquisitions
Territory to the east acquired differently
Some of it given to Rome willingly
Some taken by "defending" city-states against enemies and then setting up as tribute states
People who served higher class Romans without a choice
Who was Octavian?
Caesar's adopted son and heir
a person who dies for a particular cause
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
of or relating to or characteristic of or located near the Mediterranean Sea
opening of the earth, out of which steam and other gases, ashes, and melted rock may escape from time to time
Stands for how many years have passed since the birth of Jesus.
10 Theories on Rome's Decline
1.Barbarian invasions,2.Decline in Morals and Values,3.Environmental and Public Health Problems,4.Excessive Military Spending to Defend the Empire,5. Inferior Technology,6. Inflation,7. Political Corruption,8.Rise in Christianity,9.Unemployment,10.Urban Decay
Who were the First Triumvirate?
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
A government by 3 persons who share responsibility and authority
All the people of a town country or the world.
When Octavian won the Battle of Actium what did that leave him as?
First emperor
Justinian & Theodora
Roman emperor and his wife in the Eastern portion of Rome that tried to rebuild Rome but eventually founded the Byzantine Empire.
roman roads were built using. . .
gravel, sand, and stones
What were the Twelve Tables?
The earliest written collection of Roman laws.
Ides of March
March 15, 44 BC the day Ceasar was murdered
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
..., a battle that took place between Constantine I and Maxentius, This battle was the starting point for a campaing that eventually allowed Constantine to become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
Causes of the breakdown of the Roman Republic
Plebeians were unhappy, gap between rich and poor grew wider, slaves worked on estates, Gracchus brothers were murdered.
What caused the 2nd Punic War and what was the effect?
Cause: Hannibal invaded Rome by crossing the Alps
Effect: Rome attacks Carthage, defeates Hannibal and Rome became dominant power in Mediterranean region
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