Ancient Rome 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pope
father
Province
A territory
Princep
Political leader
Epistle
a letter
Who conqured Britian?
Claudius
Senate
a lawmaking council
"lawmaking"
Virgil
greatest of all poets
Spartacus
led famous slave revolt
Alps Mountains
north of Rome
Cincinnatus
Best-known early Roman dictator.
Who ruled the west?
Octavian
pont du gard, 50 bc
Vandal
A person who destroys property
Cicero
Roman consul and great speaker.
hadrian
built roman defenses in britain
Galen
doctor, lived in A.D. 100
censor
in charge of public morality
Dictator
A ruler who has absolute power.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
basilica
In Roman architecture, a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other.
tribune
an assembly in government that represented the plebians
hannibal
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
circus
entertainment held in an outdoor atena
Pietas
loyal to your own family; devotion
Constantine
Established the new capital city, Constantinople
Ostrogoths
raided italy leading to its fall
legions
large military units the roman soldiers were organized into
tribunes
group that represented plebians in government
centurion
A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων), also hekatontarch (ἑκατόνταρχος) in Greek sources, or, in Byzantine times, kentarch (κένταρχος) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
Oculus
the round central opening in a dome
Consuls
the two most powerful officials in Rome.
Colosseum
a large amphitheater built in Rome around AD 70; site of contests and combats between people and animals.
triumphal arch
In Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road. In Christian architecture, the arch framing the apse at the end of a church nave.
Plebeian
a member of the roman lower class
Pantheon
The most important building in the world.
Tarquinius Priscus
5th king estruscan Circus maximus begins sibylline books
A spiritual leader who would restore the ancient kingdom and bring peace to the world
Messiah
Ambrose of Milan
bishop who excommunicated emperor Theodosius, provididng a precedent for future assertions for the chuch's autonomy and authority
Etruscans
they were already highly civilized and came into Italy around 750 BC. They established a series of small city-states in the northern and central areas of the peninsula, rule over the native Italic people by the virtue of their superior weaponry, architecture (use of the arch) and organization. Etruscan kings ruled over Rome, (monarchy, one ruler)
Which emperor competed in more than 700 gladiatorial games?
Commodus
calendar
Julius Caesar measured time with this invention.
Pax Romana
50 years of peace in Rome
Third war
rome defeats carthage, lets them survive to pay back debts
Kato pushes in senate to completly wipe out carthage since they are afraid of them rebelling
cripled carthage so they can't come back to attack
made Christianity the official religion of empire
Theodosius the Great
Repbluic
A form of goverment which citizens elect repersenitaves to speak or act for them.
gaul
an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands
Plebian
an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic
nobleman
a man of noble status or birth
Constantinople
A city established as the new eastern capital of the Roman empire by the emperor Constantine in AD 330, now called Istanbul.
Gospel
the written body of teachings of a religious group that are generally accepted by that group
Forum
term for an open courtyard that was the most important public area in a Roman city
toga
a one-piece cloak worn by men in ancient Rome
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Marius
military hero who tried to reform the army by signing up any citizen. They served for pay and booty.
Praetorian Guard
they evolved from the bodyguards that protected a general. Augustus established several units from his own troops and they became the later emperors' personal elite force.
republic
a type of government in which citizens who have the right to vote and select their leaders
aeneas
a mythical Greek warrior who was a leader on the Trojan side of the Trojan War, also married a local princess found in rome
Venus
Goddess of love and beauty, mother of Cupid and Aeneas. like aphrodite
contribution
the act of giving or doing something positive
Representative
A person who is elected by citizens to speak or act for them.
Describe his adulthood
Elected military tribune in 72 B.C. Elected quaestor in 68 B.C. He was elected consul in 60 B.C. Declared himself "Dictator for life".
henry IV
thought king should be able to chose pope the pope banished him he asked for forgiveness then he became king again
Byzantine Empire
an empire of lands formerly part of the Roman Empire with its center at the city of Constantinople
1st punic war
Rome won, carthage wanted to conquer sicily. rome took sardinia and corsica
Nazareth
a town in israel where Jesus spent his youth
martyr
one who chooses to die rather than to give up religious beliefs, or who suffers greatly to further a cause
Western Roman Empire
the western part after the Roman Empire was divided in 395
Etruria
An area of Italy north of Rome and Latium, home to the Etruscans.
naples and sicily
colonies set up in southern italy for trading
Cornelius Scipio Africanus
The roman general that won the battle of zama at the end of punic war #2.
dido of carthage
The founder and queen of carthage, who fell in love with aneas and killed herself when he abonded her.
attila the hun
405-453, was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea
cause of Punic Wars
1. the first war fought b/c wanted control over Sicily 2. the second war fought to protect Rome from attacking Hannibal 3. the third war fought so Rome could defeate Carthage once and for all
We call the rule of three Romans in 60 B.C. the _____ __________
First Triumvirate
What is a dictator?
a ruler who has total control of the goverment
The First Punic War
(264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic.
It split into two parts- east and west. Many people attacked Rome and Romans were not ready to defend. Change of capitol.
What marked the end of the Roman empire?
average
normal
Magistrates
elected officials.
Theodora
Justinian's wife
Helena
Mother of Constantine
Rome
Center of Italy
patricians
romes earliest settlers
Cleopatra
A famous Egyptian Queen
476 CE
Western Rome Falls
Apostle
a follower of Jesus
Omen
A sign from the gods.
Plebelian
common farmers artisans and merchants
What title did Octavian receive?
Augustus
Mercury
The Roman god of messages
Romulus
(Roman mythology) founder of Rome
Pax
Romana Economy: local, regional, and long distance trade
Octavian
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC, and defeated Cleopatra and Antony and inherited Caesar's wealth.
Censors
Registered citizens according to their wealth, appointed candidates to the Senate, and oversaw the moral conduct of all citizens
Emperor Constantine,AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.
Constantinople
circus maximus
site of roman chariot races
Latins
First people in Rome; peaceful farmers
Diocletian
a emporer and solider of Rome
patrician
a descendent of Rome's earliest settlers
Epicurean
A person fond of luxury and pleasure.
Brutus
statesman of ancient Rome who (with Cassius) led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar (85-42 BC)
Aqueduct
A pipeline which carries water from mountain springs to fountains and baths in Rome
Wine and olive oil
What Roman merchants traded.
Pompeii
Ancient city southeast of Naples that was buried by a volcanic eruption from Mount Vesuvius
roman: powerful government body made up of 300 men
senate (particans)
Gaius Gracchus
more political rights for equites. food for homeless people. resettlement of homeless people. comitted suicide
persecution
a policy of arresting, injuring, or killing members of a religious or ethnic group
Tiberius
tribune, worked on land reform, killed by Senate
Nero
Killed his mother, he 'fiddled when Rome burned', he commited 'suicide'
Census
the registration of citizens and their property for the purpose of taxation, conducted by censors.
parable
a simple story that contains message or truth
Paul
Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
Edict of Milan
Law that granted religious freedom
architecture during pax ramona
pantheon, arches, colosseun, paintings
Veto
The power of one government branch rejecting the other's law or action
Consul
An elected official who led the Roman Republic.
Gladiator
A person the trained to fight another person to the death for public entertainment.
Tariffs
Taxes placed on goods brought into the country
judiasm judiasm
(Fill in Blanks) Since ______ existed longer ago than christianity, ______ was allowed and christianity wasnt
Legion
A section of the army including about 5,000 soldiers
actium
location of naval battle, on the west coast of Greece, in which Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra
Age of Augustus
The Golden Age for Roman literature.
barabarian invastions
huns moved in, displacing other groups and forcing them to move in and intermarry, intolerance resentment grew
Representative Democracy
decisions are usually made by small group of people. People are elected by citizens to be leaders.
Reasons for Decline
Corruption, Too Big, Attack of Barbarians
crucify
To put to death by nailing to a cross.
Hadrian's Wall
wall built by hadrian, split rome from britania, kept soldiers and barbarians from entering roman lands
messiah
in Judaism a leader sent by god, and Christianity, a savior
What year did the plebeians force the patricians to have the laws written down?
450 BC
Persecution of Christians
Christians seen as an opposition to Roman rule; refused to worship Roman gods
Mural
a painting that is applied to a wall surface
basin
(Idea) An area of land drained by a river and it's tributares
livy
Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people
Tiber River
River that the city of Rome sits at the mouth of
mercenary
a soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army
Puteoli & Ostia
2 of the largest port cities in Rome
The ancient Roman caledar,which had three hundred sixty five (365) days in a year and an extra day every fourth year, is the
basis for the one used today
Why did Chrisitianity spread so quickly throughout the Roman Empire?
people liked the idea of everyone being equal and having a better life after death
In the earliest days of the Roman Republic, plebeians
could not hold office or be senators.
One of the reasons Caesar was killed was because he
ruled for too long and ruled like a king.
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