Ancient Rome 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
plebeians
poor
Spartacus
A Gladiator
Rome's language
Latin
Disciple
follower of christ
Currency
System of money
Tepidarium
the warm bath section
The Celts
Natives of Britain
Etruscans
commerically active, architecture, writing
Villas
country house or estate
legatus
commander of a legion
Tribune
The officials chosen by plebians
epistle
especially a long, formal letter
Inflation
A rapid increase in prices
Colosseum
arena--where gladiators and animal fights
Alp Mountains
Europe's highest mountains.extending in an arc from the Mediterranean coast to the Balkan peninsula
Aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Ionian and Mediterranean Sea
Italy's south border
Palestine
region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the Jews; the ancient name for Judea; in recent times; the British protectorate that became Israel
diocletiant
ruled western eastern half
stopped the decline of the empire
retired civil wars for 8 years
AD 313
Constantine makes Christianity the official religion throughout his lands. Jerusalem now becomes the center for Christians
Representative
The citizens of Rome elected reresentatives, or people who acted for them, to run their government.
Patrician
Member of a wealthy, upper-class family.
Tacitus
Roman historian that presented the facts accurately he concerned with the Romans lack of morality
Caesar
came from old distinguished family, populare, teams up with Crasseus to advance each other's career,
Magistrates
prators: court judges; districute and decide taxes; some are military commanders
Absolute ruler
one who has total power
cleopatra
Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was an ancient Greek[2][3] queen and the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
Cross vault
formed when two barrel vaults intersect at a right angle
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
1st Triumvart
Crassus, Pompey, Caesar, not legally sanctioned, Caesar gets power hungry and dominates, Pompey and Crasus get consul again w/out Caesar
consul
in ancietn rome, official from the patrician class who supervised the government and commanded the armies
The Twelve Tables
The written laws of Rome.
persecution
a policy of arresting, injuring or killing members of a religious or ethnic group
patriarch
a principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity
jesus
founder of christianity, thought of as the "messiah" by some. preaches jewish beliefs. his death leads to the foundation of christianity.
Caesarion
son of Julius Caesar and Cleoptra, could not become emperor because he was killed by Octavian
284 CE
Diocletian divides empire into 2 parts
Which group actually took Rome and burned down most of the city?
Vandals
Polytheism
a belief in more than one god
Apennines
(Place) A mountain range that extends down the Italian Peninsula
Aeschylus
525 BCE; founder of tragedies; wrote 90 plays, 7 survived
justice
what Romans wanted the laws to provide
Diocletian
tried new economic reforms; split the Roman Empire into East/West
Gual
An ancient region and Roman province that included most of present day France.
Basilica
a Roman building used for public administration
Barbarians
The name the Romans gave to the Germanic Tribes because the Germanic language sounded like unintelligible babble to the Romans
Hadrian
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.
Senate
Composed of 300 people, was the most powerful branch of government. Dominated by patricians and could choose dictator in time of war
Sulla
Rival of Marius, He marches on Rome and takes control of the senate, he kills all who oppose him. Tries to reestablish a new senate.
dictator
a person in the ancient Roman Republic appointed to rule for six emergency, with all the powers of a king
Market
a place where goods are sold and traded
Praetors
they were second to the consuls; were primarily judicial officials (judges); they had to be at least 39 years old.
consuls
in anceient rome one of two cheif government officials a preson apointed by a interests in a foreign city.
Caesar Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.
Census
an official count of people living in a place
crucifixion
nailed to a cross and left to die
carthage
an ancient city on the northern coast of africa
republic
a form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to make all government decisions
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Province
the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation
fresco
to paint (a picture) on fresh, moist plaster, as on a wall
What is the island off the coast of southwest Italy?
Sicily
When did people first settle in Rome?
the 900s BC
province and provincials
Comes from Latin word provincia which means to conquer
Essay: Describe how political upheavals, economic problems, and military problems led to the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire.
This is in your notes!
When did the empire fall?
476 AD
-Lasted almost 1000 years
Historical source
a person or thing that tells them about the past
coloniae
small military bases set up in a place far from Rome
Nerva
- although he was one of the best emperors, he couldn't control the army and was very old
- called the father of the country
- during his reign, no senators were put to death, and he built aqueducts, adopted Trajan,improved the roads, made less inheritance taxes
Stopped civil war
pontifex maximus
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins
L. Iunius Brutus
One of first consuls. swore to protect Rome and to defeat Tarquins
Battle of Cannae
Worst Roman defeat in Punic wars-- 2nd Punic War; 216; Hannibal kills them all; As a result, Rome loses lotsa allies and NOBODY wants to fight Hannibal for 10 years
Eastern Roman Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
Last Punic War
Rome still saw Carthage as an enemy so they killed 1/2 a million people. They put salt on the ground and Carthage was destroyed. The Romans then controlled the entire Mediterranean.
Attila the Hun
A king of the Huns in the fifth century. His forces overran many parts of central and eastern Europe. His armies were known for their cruelty and wholesale destruction. He was called the "scourge of God."
Roman civilization was complex
people set up a form of government led by the wealthy people and a senate and believed in many gods
Which of the following describes how Romans worshipped?
They honored gods and goddesses who often had Greek counterparts.
Ocatvian declares rebulic at end and become Ceaser Augutus
What is the result of the Battle of Actium?
TOGA
...
Julius Caesar:
...
Pater Familias
...
pyrrhus
king of Epirus
brutus
friend of lucretia's dad
municipal
relating to a city
Veto
To over power something
elevation
height above sea level
Checks + balances
Balances all power
Virgil
Epic poem who wrote Aonold
Greece
A country in Meditarranean Europe
Tribunes
Officials elected by the Plebeians
tunic
loose, sleeveless, knee-length garment belted at the waist
romes laws are simualr too
our laws
Judea
land in the eastern Mediterranean region populated by Jews at the time of the Roman Empire, ruled by Titus and destuction of temple financed colosseum
Hannibal
King of Carthage, took elephants across the Pyrenees Mountains
First Triumvirate
Crassus, Pompey, Caesar political alliance; fell apart when Pompey's wife/Caesar's daugher Julia died/Crassus and Pompey argued
Huns
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Acropolis
Protective fort in center of city
Domes
Round symmetrical hills that are pushed up by a plume of salt, oldest material in center
forum
A public square in ancient Rome
Octavian
Caesar Augustus, was the fist Roman Emperor
Livy
historian of the Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebeians and patricians of Rome
martyrs
people who would willingly die for their beliefs
Empire
Rome controlled most of Europe and parts of the middle east and north africa under one ruler and emperor
Gaius Marius
populares, sided w social reformers, redistribute land, popular from victories (more loyal to than govt), opened army to everyone, took R 87
Romans roads
allowed for faster travel, especially for the roman army
Martial
Roman poet. Wrote poems about early Roman empires.
Aqueduct
a structure that carries water over long distances
Sig:The invention of the aqueduct was very useful with carrying water over long distances and helping maintain its cleanliness
Pompey
Member of the First Triumvirate that conspired with the Senate to limit Caesar's power.
patricians
wealthy landowners who held most of the power, made laws
peninsula
land surrounded by water on three sides
Augustus
the 1st emperor of Rome, Caesar's adopted son
Janus
Roman false guardian of doorways and gates that is: the protector.
sewer
A pipe or channel for carrying away water and refuse, usually underground.
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Titus
gave money and aid to Pompeii and Herculena, sacked temple in Judea, leaves no heir
Pompeii
city was lost to history for about 1500 years
Constantinople
A city established as the new eastern capital of the Roman empire by the emperor Constatine in ad 330, now called Istanbul; 41 degrees N 29 degrees E.
Mark Antony
Fell in love with Cleopatra; cheated on Mark Antony's sister; started a major battle; later he and Cleopatra committed suicide
By ______ Romans had defeated and conquered virtually all of Italy
218 B.C.
legendary hero from Troy who fled to Italy and formed an alliance with a group called the Latins that fought the other people of Italy and married the daughter of the Latin king
Aeneas
Augustus Caeser
-the Senate gives Octavian the title of the Augustus, or Exalted One, and declared him first citizen
-The republic comes to an end
-The age of Roman Empire begins
Law of Twelve Tables
written laws
described rights of Patricians and Plebeians
Roman Senate
A council of wealthy and powerful romans that advised the city's leaders
Appian Way
an ancient Roman road in Italy extending south from Rome to Brindisi
The oldest and most powerful branch of the Ancient
Senate
2nd Punic War
Hannibal led his troops across the Alps and marched up and down the Italian peninsula for 10 years. After losing over half of his troops, Hannibal was defeated by the Romans.
hamilcar barca
was Hannibals father, was a general in Carthage's army and he told Hannibal to always hate the Romans and seek to destroy it.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern part of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the western part
messiah
a savior sent by god is called a ___
*Notes*
Roman law was based on the law of fairness.
representative democracy
a government in which people vote for (elect) a smaller group of citizens to represent them and to make rules and laws for everyone
historical sources
A person or thing that tells about the past.
How did Roman persecution of Christians affect Christianity?
Persecution caused Christians to become more organized and it strengthened Christianity.
What was General Marius' legacy?
The process of recruiting armies from the urban and rural poor who swore an oath of loyalty to them, not Rome, which placed a large amount of power in the hands of individual generals.
Role Of The Twelve Tablets
Written Laws
Kept in forum for all to see
Plebians were unfairly arrested for laws that they didn't even know existed
So-made the 12 Tablets
Why did the first Punic war begin
Rome and Carthage both wanted Sicily so they had a war.
A dictator was appointed in the ancient Roman Republic when
the consuls couldn't agree and it was considered an emergency
/ 137
Term:
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