Ancient Rome 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
500-27bc
republic
Republic
Political System
princeps
the emperor
veto
"I forbid"
Circus
______ means ring
Villa
Large country estates
were was Carthage
northern Africa
How did Nero die?
Suicide
Gaius Cassius
plotted Caesar's assignation.
emperor
leader of an empire
elegant, country estate homes
villas
Heresy
teachings appearing to contradict basic teachings of the church
Legionary
A soldier in a legion(singular)
1st triumvirate
caesar, pompey, and crassus
constantine
Roman emperor 324-337: named Constantinople as the new capital; legally sanctioned Christian worship.
assembly
democratic side; citizen-soldiers were members; appointed cosuls and made laws; less power than senate; organized by plebeians; elected tribunes; made laws for commoners; later for republic
plebians
common farmers, artisans, merchants who made up most of the population; had voting rights but with restrictions
First Punic War
Between Rome and Sicily
concrete
a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water
jesus
preached of christianity believed by christians to be the messiah
A council of representatives. Advised consuls. Only upper class could join.
Senate
Domes
Round symmetrical hills that are pushed up by a plume of salt, oldest material in center
Temple of Fortuna Virilis
Republic
75BC
Rome, Italy
Ionic Columns
Christianity
emperors were fearful that this religion would take away their power
Claudius
recongized as new ruler, average, married his niece Agripinea
Persecute
-to punish others for their beliefs.
vestal virgins
chosen from tranditional patrician families at a young age; 1- years as novices; 10 years of teaching novices; guarded the sacred fire in a temple; performed rituals; baked the sacred salt cake
Janus
Roman god of doorways and passages
Lots of coastline but
harbors weren't good
praetorian guard
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: Prætoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors.
Hannibal
He famously led his forces, including elephants, across the Alps and into Rome, where he terrorized Roman forces during the Second Punic War
Augustus
name Octavian took when he became ruler of Rome
Masada
The Jewish hilltop fortress that held out against Rome for 3 years. When the Romans finally reached the fortress all of the people had killed themselves rather than face the Romans.
patrician
memebers of romes noble family they own farms and have plebeians work the land for them
aqueduct
a structure that carries water over long distances
A ruler with absolute authority, such as Julius Caesar.
Dictator
dictator
a ruler who is unconstrained by law
toga
a loose, robe-like outer piece of clothing
etruscans
founders of rome. provided the romans with the alphabet, engineering, metal work, and calendar.
Antoninus Pius
promoted art and science, legal reforms, the construction of public works such as the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and new provisions for orphans
disciple
a follower of a person or belief
Coliseum
marvel, 160 feet tall building built by emperor Vespasian. they took animals from Africa to fight humans for entertainment for the crowd to keep the Romans busy
Monopoly
occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain g-d's.
Tiber River
A river flowing southward from north-central Italy across the LAtium plain, and into the Tyrrenian Sea.
messiah
someone who would bring justice and freedom; savior
aedile
in charge of public works and entertainment
Tribune
in ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights
assassination
the murdering of someone by secret or sudden attack
Geography of Rome
Italian penninsula, South had better natural harbors, Tiber river-Rome, (good becasue it was in the center), 20 miles from sea(good becasue it was enough away from people attacked, close enough to trade), located on seven hills. Apenines separated the east and west costal plains, and Alps protected the north. Passes allowed merchants and Armies to cross overland, and the climate allowed long growing seasons. Wooded hills caused timber cutting and iron mining.
verism
often used by the Romans in marble sculptures of heads. Often described as "warts and all", shows the imperfections of the subject, such as warts, wrinkles and furrows.
Social Structure
Family was the center, women were almost equal, a lot of slaves, big difference between rich and poor.
pax romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Julius Caesar
Originally born to a patrician family that had a good name but no wealth. From early on he identified with plebeians and tried to present reforms. Was part of the first triumvirate.
What are romance languages?
Languages that developed from Latin
Martyr?
People who die for their faith and thus inspire others
Nero
was cruel and and used rome's money for his own pleasures
Greeks
the early Romans were impressed by the advanced culture of the ________ migrants who had settled in southern Italy and Sicily between 750 and 600 BCE. Overcrowding at home caused these colonists to leave their homes in Corinth, Thebes, and other cities and settle in foreign places.
diocletian's reforms
doubled size of army, set fixed prices, restored prestige by claiming divine descent, divided empire into eastern (greek speaking) and western (latin speaking) halves
other: persecuted christians and copied persians
Sulla
Rival of Marius, He marches on rome and takes control of the senate, he kills all who oppose him. Tries to reestablish senate as roman body of control. Is friends with pompey
Scipio
general who devised a plan to attack carthiage
Julius Caeser
General that conquered Gaul and later became a dictator of Rome (48-44 BC)
Punic wars
A series of conflicts between rome,and carthage in the 200 B.C, ending in victory of rome
Old Testament
the Christian Bible's first part which contains the same books as the Jewish Bible
Dicatator
A leader who has complete control of the government.
Consul
one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic
Phoenicians
first society to make extensive use of the alphabet, passed it on to Greeks, it was later adapted by Romans
First style painting
also called the masonry style because the aim of the artist was to imitate, using painted stucco relief, the marble panels
Mt. Vesuvius
Volcano in Pompeii that erupted in 79 AD, covering the city in ash and volcanic rock,
crassus
richest man in rome, and was part of the first Triumverate
kingdom
rome began as rule by kings, but some abused their powers. The last king, Tarquin the Proud, was driven fromt the throne in 510 BC and then came.....
a soldier who serves for pay in a foreign army
mercenary
Crucifixion
died on the cross for the forgiving of sins
What is the conflict of orders
When the plebians rebel
carthage
An ancient city on the north coast of Africa
Roman science
- GALEN: physician who wrote down all Roman medical knowledge
- PTOLEMY: scientist who believed the Earth laid in the center fo the universe
Edict of Prices 301
..., Diocletian issued this order to slow inflation by freezing wages and setting maximum prices for goods.
defeated
to lose, to be beaten in a war or game
diocletian and constantine
Who tried to restore order to the roman empire?
Romulus & Remus
The son of Mars and eponymous founder of Rome who, with his twin brother, Remus, was reared and suckled by wolf
Those about to die salute you
The famous phrase uttered by gladiators prior to fighting
The Second Punic War
Also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 202 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.
Strategy of paying off barbarians to stay away
Selling tradeable items such as salt,silk,wood, and gold
laws of the twelve tablets (tables)
The Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum, or, informally, Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law
How did Antony and Octavian split up the land ?
Antony got the east and Octavian got the west
rex
king
Punic Wars:
...
Plebeian
Ordinary citizens
ostia
Seaport of Rome
skirmish
a brief battle
death
lucretia not afraid of
Octavian
first emperor of Rome
Legion
heavy armed foot soldiers
Roman Senate
Council of wealthy people
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome
twelve tables
the laws of plebians
509 BCE
Romans overthrow Etruscan ruler
Patriarch
Bishops who gained honorary title
aristocrats
members of a privileged class
Suetonius
Roman historian who recoded Emperial history, repreats lots of facts
Catilinarian Conspiracy
Electoral corruption prevented two consuls from entering office; Catiline conspired to kill senators/take over seats
apostle
A person sent on a mission
Rome's Accomplishments
building bridges, aquaducts, arches, ampatheater seating, the largest empire the world has every seen.
representative
one elected to represent the people
census
A count of a country's people
(a) was their largest industry
(a)= making cloth
Aeneus
A famous trojan Prince who founded their city/ Rome
Pyrrhic Victory
win at battle, but high cost
Senate
group of 300-600 patrician men who made laws for rome
Pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Tarquin
According to legend, the seventh and last Etruscan king of Rome who was expelled for his cruelty.
Caligula
Roman emperor. Believed to be insane for much of his role.
Greco-Roman culture
Greek and Roman culture mixed together
some laws
innocent till proven guilty, equal treatment, proof with accuser
Romulus Augustus
Last Roman emperor; 14 years old
Romulus
raised by wolf, then farmer. Settled Rome, killed Remus and became 1st king
Ceres
Roman false goddess of agriculture and grain.
gladiator
a roman athlte usally a slave, crimana, or prisoner from war who was forced to fight for entermaint to the public
Aqueducts
Romans used Arches to bring fresh water to cities. Engineering + Gravity.
protectorate
A weak country under the protection of a stronger country.
Galba, Otho and Vitellius
3 emperors in 69 AD.,
Imperium
This meant "the power bested by the state in a person to do what he considers to be the best interests of the state," (A Jones).
yous:house of congress nade up of 100 members
senate
Which Roman emperor was the 1st to convert to Christianity?
Constantine
Years Of Ancient Rome
509 BC - 476 AD
Patricians
a person of noble or high rank, aristrocrat
Consuls
1. 2 officials who commanded the army and directed the government 2.term was 1 year 3. could only serve 1 term every 10 years---and only serve twice 4. one consul could veto the others decision 5. chosen by Centriate Assembly--group soliders
Cult
A small religion that is not big enough to be a religion.
representive
a person who is elected by the citizens to speak and act for them
formed a giant "backbone" through the It
Apennine Mountains
Citizenship
Men who join the military for 26 years get citizenship as well as their descendants. The Roman emperors gave entire communities citizenship. The Roman citizenship started spreading throughout the empire, reaching Gaul, Greece, and North Africa.
deification
the elevation of a person (as to the status of a god)
Who was the god of war to the Romans?
Mars
direct democracy
a government in which people vote to make their own laws
Dictator for Life?
Caesar was going to be dictator for life.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
two brothers who attempted to reform the roman government.
Cleopatra
(31 B.C.) - She was the queen of Egypt known as a Ptolemaic ruler. She became queen when her dad died and she and her brother was not old enough to rule. She and Julius Caesar had an affair and they had a child together and named it Caesarion. Caesar and Cleopatra may have wanted to rule together but he was assassinated before they got the chance. Later she became married to Marc Antony which was supposed to be a peace maker between Rome and Egypt and Antony was still going to rule with Octavian. Octavian did not approve and attacked Egypt. Cleopatra and Marc Antony decided to kill themselves rather than having it done by Octavian.
Vault
a set of arches that support a roof of a building
Licinius Crassus
a wealthy man who was part of the first triumvirate
- agreed to use his wealth and influence to secure Caesar's consulship, and in return Caesar would lobby for his political agenda.
How did Octavian become Augustus?
He defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra and became sole ruler of Rome. He became the 1st emperor of Rome and was given the title Augustus by the Senate in 27 B.C.
mayors of the palace
in 700 AD the power passed from kings to these
describe the early government of Rome
In the early government of Rome they had a republic which means citizens choose a leader to run the government. The leaders were called consuls.
Caesar's death and his adopted son's victory marked
the last time a leader's son took power
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