ancient rome quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Patricians
Nobles.
tribunes
All pleibans
Epistle
A letter.
Veto
vote against
Crassus
First Triumvirate businessman
Pax Roman
Roman peace
Horace
Poet, wrote Saterice, Hoeds
Virgil
Author of The Aeneid
Paterfamilias
Head of the family
Romulus
1st King of Rome
Etruscans rule Rome
753 BCE-509 BCE
mural
a painting on a wall
How did christianity grow
Monasteries, missionaries
Plebeian
Landowning Roman citizens (as distinguished from slaves) in Ancient Rome
Twelve Tables
codified laws of Rome
octavian
nephew of julius and heir
Sardinia and Sicily
large islands in Italy
patrician
member of the landholding upperclass in ancient rome
tribune
Elected leaders who represented the plebians, and had power to veto any action of the senate.
Scipio
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
Lucius Verus
Co emperor to Marcus Aurelius.
Quaestors
public finance and record officials (roughly a treasurer). They had to be at least 25 years old.
Gladiators
People who fought for the entertainment of others
Constantine
wrote edict of Milan (allowed religious freedom in Rome) and founded Constantinople
cuniculus
diversionary water channels of ancient Italy
Role Of Magistrates
elected Roman Officials
2 most powerful were the consuls-2 jobs:
1) to lead the army & government
2) judged court cases
in power for only one year
*(most became part of the senate afterwards)
inflation
an economic situation in which there is more money with less value
iconoclasm
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
Koran
The holy scripture of Islam, which Muslims believe was written by God (allah) and dictated to Muhammad; also spelled Qur'an
empire
a group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization
Senate
the lawmaking body and most powerful branch of government in ancient Rome's republic
mosaics
pictures made from bits of colored stone or glass
consul
one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government
Cathage
The Romans fought three Punic Wars with this North African city, One of the great empires of ancient Africa situated on a triangular peninsula on the Gulf of Tunis on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Pompey
He was Caesar's political rival, and feared Caesar's ambitions. Was defeated by Caesar's troops in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt. He was also a brilliant general/military leader from his command in Spain.
cult
a system of religious beliefs and rituals
Was slavery popular in the Roman empire?
yes
Gaul
Caesar started the Gallic war against ___________, which is present-day France.
Plebians
were the remaining Roman citizens who were less important. They were the artisans, shopkeepers, or owners of small sections of land. They could not hold political office.
Herodotus
484 BCE; father of history; told stories in clear and dramatic ways
legend
story handed down from earlier times, which may be no more than partly true
Republic
government in which power rest with citizens who have right to vote and select their leaders
architecture
the act or process of designing buildings
Colosseum
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events and gladiator matches took place.
Martyr
A person who dies fo a particular cause
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
(138-78 BC) Roman general and politician; he became consul in 88 BC, led to a civil war against Marius and his followers, emerged victorious, and became dictator. (pg. 172)
arch
a curved structure used as a support over an open space, as in a doorway
Marcus Gracus, Brutus
leaders of the assassination plot against Julius Caesar
triumvirate
in ancint rome a three person ruling group
Gladiator
A person who fought another person or animal for the entertainment of an audience in ancient Rome
Rome
a city near the middle of western coast of Italy
Pantheon
was an example of a famous Roman structure. This was also a temple dedicated to the gods associated with major planets. It was built in 27 BC by the Roman general Marcus Agrippa. Destroyed by fire, it was rebuilt a 100 years later during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.
mercenary
a foreign soldier who serves in an army only for pay
Marc Antony
One of Caesar's generals, Falls in love with Cleopatra, He and Cleopatra declare war on Rome in 31 BC which they lose, member of second triumvirate.
Dictator
a person in the ancient Roman Republic appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency, with all the powers of a king
Mercury
Messenger of the gods, god of theives and travelers. like hermes
bethlehem
a small town in jerusalm, where jesus is born
Diocletian
He was a general that became emperor in A.D. 284, introduced reforms
Hadrian
successor of trajan; gave up all of trajan's eastern conquests; personally viewed and investigated empire; philhellene; codified laws; built hadrian's wall that established boundaries for empire so it was easier to manage; rebuilt pantheon
messiah
a savior who would come bring justice and freedom to the land
shrine
sacred place or object devoted to a holy person or god
Pax Romana
a period in Roman history during which no major wars were fought - "the Roman peace"
Causes
of the Fall of Rome: weak leaders and inflation
on March 15[the ides of march] caesar went to a senate meeting where senators surrounded him and stabbed him, the most famous conspirators were brutus and cassius. Caesar was killed because many people felt that he had to much power and that he would try
caesars death
Byzantine Orthodox Church
the early Christian Church in the Eastern Roman Empire of which the emperor was head
Hannibal Barca
crossed Ebro river and caused war. led his army across the Alps and Appenine Mountains
Circus
Gave free grain to the poor at these spectacular events
Persecution
The abuse of a person or a group because of their beliefs.
Province and Provincials
Comes from Latin word provincia which means to conquer
stagnant
a body of water which is motionless or ceases to flow
Province
a unit of an empire or a country; area of the Roman Empire ruled by a governor, who was supported by an army
Western Roman Empire
the western part of the Roman Empire, which collapsed first and the eastern empire which is the Byzantine Empire
Battle of Adrianople
378, victory by the Goths that started the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire,
Roman principles used in US today
Innocent until proven guilty, all citizens are equal under the law, right to know your accuser, cant be punished for opinions
Scipio The Younger
On the way back to rome from the battle of Cannae, he encounters Hannibal's brother and he chops his head off, throws head into hannibals camp. Son of Scipio the elder
Julius Caesar and Mark Antony
Which 2 powerful rulers fell in love w/ Cleopatra?
What negative effects did growing into an empire have on Rome?
Rome collected too many taxes and government officials became corrupt
What would families do if they didn't have sons?
They would adopt them to keep the family name
ordinary citizens
plebeians
Mary
Mother of Jesus
Crucifixion
Execution on a cross.
patriotism
Love of one's country
franks, burgundians, visigoths
in Gaul
Ovid
Wrote the story of Love
Vesta
goddess of the hearth (Hestia)
Seneca
Roman writer who criticized the brutality of the circuses
paul
what-jew from asia minor; when-shortly after death of jesus; where-mediterranean region; why-most influencial role in spread of christianity
Augustus
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
Hannibal
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Cato
Roman statesman, who strongly opposed the First Triumvirate.
consuls
supervised business of government and commanded the armies
Pompeii
Roman town completely destroyed by Vesuvius
structures that carried water over long distances; tunneled through mountain and spanned valleys
aqueducts
Aqueduct
A channel that carries flowing water over a long distance
animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
heresy
belief contrary to the official church teachings.
Theodosius
Gained control and ended the fighting in Rome.
auction
to sell something to the highest bidder
numidia
city that teasted the carthagens to start the third punic war
Angles
An ancient Low German tribe, that settled in Britain, which came to be called Engla-land (Angleland or England).
Lepidus, Antony, Octavian
Who composed the second triumviatne?
Spartacus
Gladiator, led 70,000 slaves into a revolt and he died by being crucified
Peter
Chief among the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, he was a fisherman, originally named Simon (and often called Simon Peter).
Livy
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)
Rome was founded as a ____-_____
City state
58 BC
julius was appointed pro-consul; went to gaul for 10 years
Tarquin
An Etruscan leader and the last king of ancient Rome.
aeneas
led people out of troy, settled on tiber river
Tribal Assembly
Citizens were grouped by where they live, this body elected tribunes and made laws
Praetor
an official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law. imperium
Resevoir
a place or hollow vessel where fluid is kept in reserve, for later use
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia.
founding
753, Romulus and Remus, sons of mars and a latin princess raised by wolves and showed toughness, built the city
other: aeneas (aeneid) after fall of troy
princeps-1st citizen word ''prince''
first citizen and the emperor
The 5 Good Emperors
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Pius and Marcus Aurelius
Cato the Elder
conservative leader in the Senate during the beginning of the Republic. (~200 BC). Every speech ended with "Cathago delenda est!" which means 'Carthage must be destroyed' before Rome can have any power in the world. Theme: imperialism. (3rd Punic War)
Franks
a Germanic people who lived in the province of Gaul (present day France)
Carthage
an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis
Populares
politicians who tried to gain power by favor from the masses
Julius Caesar during his rule
changed calendar,gave grain to poor,land to army
Elagabalus
Emperor at 14, he had only one serious agenda: imposing the worship of he Sun God Heliogabalus (hence his nickname) on the empire, interested in a sex change and sold jobs to the highest bidder
Period of 5 good emperors
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, known as the Five Good Emperors, were a series of excellent emperors who ruled in Rome from 96-180 CE. following the Flavian Dynasty. So called because they succeeded in winning the support and cooperation of the senate, which is something their predecessors had failed to accomplish.
Etruscans
Took power around 600 BC and had a very advanced civilization
Which groups raided the Roman empire during its decline?
Visigoths, Vandals, Huns
Rome was built on the banks of what river?
Tiber
Punic Wars
A series of conflicts between Rome and Carthage in the 200 B.C., ending in victory for Rome
romulus and remus
Romulus and Remus are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder.
Asia, Europe and Africa
continents the empire stretch at the height of its power
Ages of men who served in the army?
17 to 46
gods and goddesses
the ancient Romans believd in many of these
Jesus Christ
He was born in Bethlahem and was named the messiah by some citizens
1st Punic War
Rome and Carthage went to war in 264 BCE and fought over Sicily. Rome defeated Carthage by copying a Carthaginian ship that they had found. Carthage had to retreat and pay their entire treasury to Rome.
What the Etruscans specialized in
iron goods, silver and gold jewlery and lots of trade
King Pyrrhus And His Bad Victories
He had really good stragaties in battle but then the Romans started to dislike him because his strategies did not end up working.
What advantages did the first settlers of Rome's seven hills have?
The hills made the area easy to defend, the soil was fertile and the area had a good source of water.
What are 3 ways Rome was successful at keeping the Empire unified during Pax Romana?
1.) Gave Roman citizenship. 2.) Spread culture. 3.) Provided protection.
Vault
...
census
population count
Payus
Rural or countryside.
augustus of primaporta, 25
chariot races
buggy car races
Juno
Roman name for Hera
Trajan
expanded the empire, started construction of tons of public works
catacombs
Underground burial chambers and passageways
column
(architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright and used to support a structure
Nero*
*Julio-Claudian Emperors
- His rule was controlled by his mother and tutor, but as he gained more power, he had his mother executed
- was successful in Parthian War
- Brits and Jews revolted while he was emperor
- there was a huge fire in rome during his reign and he was blamed for arson, so he said it was the Christians fault-- first ruler to persecute Christians
- he was labeled an enemy of the state and was chased out of Rome
Disciple
Follower of a person or belief
Cicero
excellent orator, no important family or wars, consul 63
Absolute Ruler
Ruler who has total power
Lucius Opimius
Initiated senatus consultum ultimum; caused Gaius to commit suicide
laws of the twelve tables
law code
what does 16 mean in Rome
XVIII
Nero
First Roman Emperor to persecute christians.
What does Pax Romana mean?
Roman Peace
Apennines
Major mountain range running north to south through the Italian Peninsula
Zama
site in northern Africa where the Roman army defeated the Carthaginian army
Grain
imported from Africa to feed the Romans
Druidism
A form of nature worship, Celtic Religion
parable
A story that teaches a religious idea.
Gate of Volterra
First known archway in history
pope
The leader of the Roman Catholic Church
etruscans religion and culture
mysterious origin, anthropomorphism and augury, metalworkers and engineers, making iron tools weapons, and armor made them wealthy
Minerva
The Roman goddess of wisdom and knowledge
Christianity
religion of followers of Jesus Christ. Was not tolerated by Romans at first but than became Rome's official religion under Constantine
ideses
(in the ancient Roman calendar) the fifteenth day of March, May, July, or October, and the thirteenth day of the other months.
peninsula
land shaped like a boot Example is Italy
Mark Antony
Caesars friend, goes to Alpine Gauls but Senate hates him so they declare war on him, kills himself in Egypt
Cleopatra
This person was the Egyptian queen who killed her brother and sister for control of Egypt and allied herself with Caesar and Antony.
Janus
The Roman god of gates and doorways, beginnings and ends. It's thought to have two faces looking in different directions.
legionaries
the foot soldiers in the Roman army who were Roman citizens
42
the answer to life the universe and everything.
an official count of people living in a place
census
Apostles
people who spread the word of the Lord
Diaspora
the dispersal or spreading out of Jews from their home land
Brutus
good friend of Caesar, but then slew him
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
- Dictator
Gospels
All the gospels tell the good news which is the meaning of the word gospel.They present the story of easter faith rooted in the life death and resurrection of the incarnate of the Son of God
Who did Rome fight during the Punic Wars?
Carthage
Role of Women
Women in Ancient Rome were considered as children to the law. They have no legal right, no right to own property, and are subjective to the rule of their father. When married, they are subjective to the paterfamilias of the married family.
Laborer
A person who does hard work with his or her hands.
Battle of Zama
In this Battle, the Romans Defeated Carthage.
New testament
the second part of the Christian bible containing desrctions of the life and teachings of Jeus and his early followers
Why did the Roman republic sometimes resort to dictators?
For emergency powers
rome prospered
they had control of trade routes and esay acess to the mediterranian
Where did the Romans get the column from?
The Greeks
12 tables
12 laws; the earliest Roman code of laws
Continental Climate
A climate that has extreme changes of temperature with very warm summers and more rain than the winters. The winters have near freezing temperatures
Romulus and
Remus
Twin Brothers raised by a wolf, they argued over an omen and where to build their city. Romulus killed
Remus and the city was known as Rome.
Atilla the Hun
This person was the leader of the nomadic tribe of fierce warriors and experienced riders who had conquered most of Eastern Europe at the time. He was originally from Mongolia.
Ten Commandmens
The ten laws of Jesus that both the Jews and Catholics believed in.
art, literature, and language
golden age of latin; virgil: the aeneid glorified rome; ovid: linked greece to rome using mythology; horace: didactic poetry; livy: historian, glorified reign of augustus and rome; siver age of latin: juvenal: satire, poked fun at life in early empire; tactus: historian, criticezed rome and roman culture
ax romana
Arx is the Latin word for citadel. In the ancient city of Rome, the Arx, not always capitalized, was located on the northern spur of the Capitoline Hill, and is sometimes specified as the Arx Capitolina.
Rome's Golden Age
from about 100 BC to AD 14, Latin Literature was big. This time period is known as the Golden Age of Latin Literature. It was during the Augustus Age.
During the decline of Rome, the Roman army
was made up of mercenaries
It grew so Rome had Greece, Macedonia, and parts of southwestern Asia. Rome turned these areas into provinces.
What happened to Roamn territory during the Punic Wars?
after 1600 years, what did the cities of Pompei and Herulaneum reveal?
a picture of of every day life
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