Ancient Rome vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pillage
to rob
system of money
What is currency?
Synagogue
A Jewish place of worship
patrician
Members of Romes noble families
forum
the city market meeting place
Gladiator
In Ancient Rome, a professional fighter
jesus
religuos leader and founder of christainanity
Octavian/Augustus
Who was the first emperor of Rome?
Patriotism
A sense of pride in ones country
republic
A form of government where the citizens get to choose the representative
zama
site in northern africa where the romans defeated carthage
Senate
A governing body in wich Ancient Roman representatives served
aqueduct
a high arched structure built to carry water
Hadrian
Who built a wall in Britain and made Roman laws easier to understand?
carthage
an ancient city on the north coast of africa
Rome/The Romans
Who fought in all 3 Punic Wars? Who won?
Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Who were the leaders in the first triumvirate?
Bulla
Indsdsds
Tribunes
Plebian representatives
veto
vote against
villa
a country estate
latifundia
large farming estates
dictators
rulers with absolute power
Plebians
Lower Class of Rome;
adapt
to fit or suit
centurion
leader of a century
Dictator
A ruler with absolute power
Aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Justinian
famous emperor of Eastern Empire
Zilaths
influenced by etruscans; consuls; model for roman republican office of consul
Crassus
General who defeated Spartacus. Crucified 6,600 slaves on the Alpennine way. He later served in the First Triumvirate.
Commodus
Marcus Aurelius' son
Savage ruler only cared about himself not Roma
27 B.C.
Octavian/Augustus becomes the 1st emeror of Rome
hannibal
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Romance languages
those European languages descended from Latin, namely French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Constantine
Who converts to christianity then issues Edict of Milian proclaiming christianity legal?
Patricians
aristocratic landowners who held most of the power
Consul
Rome official commanded army and directed the government
Engineering
Science of building things. All machines and buildings require precise planning. Romans were very good at this. Built siege weapons, bridges, roads, etc.
cohort
a form of governance with representation by groups present in the governed population
Frigidarium
the cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
strike
refusing to work until your demands are met
Praetorian Guard
secret service of emperors and bodyguards
etruscans
what-inhabitants of area north of rome (shared peninsula with romans); when-between 800-509 b.c.; where-north of rome; why- ruled central italy for a time, romans learned from them
Scipio
Roman General who attacked Carthage in 2nd Punic war.
plebeian
a common farmer, trader or craft worker in ancient Rome
iconoclast
one of the eastern Christians who destroyed religious images in churches in the 8th and 9th centuries
rise of christianity
paul (spread Christianity throughout asia minor), martyrs (people who died for their beliefs, creates a strong, impressive message) constantine (allows christianity)
Gaul
an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands
How did the Romans create similar institutions that resembled the Greeks but also adapted aspects to make their own unique contributions?
...
Palestine
Also called Holy Land. Biblical name, Canaan. an ancient country in SW Asia, on the E coast of the Mediterranean.
optomits
patricians; slow change to keep their power
Colosseum
huge stadium in ancient Rome that could seat 45,000 spectators
Triumvirate
Caesar, Crassus, Pompey group of 3 rulers
Goths
Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire
Vatican
the headquarters of the Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy
Virgel
- wrote Eclogues: a very important man, but Christians twisted it into the coming of the Savior
- wrote The Georgics: Agricultural life of Rome; he felt very dear to the agrarian values that they grew up with
- wrote Aeneid, consisted of the Values that all Romans should strive for: Pietas(respect for authority), Virtus(Fortitude in the face of adversity), and Officium (Doing the duty)
People of the Second Punic War
Scipio and Hannibal
Popes
Bishops of Rome; were seen as Peter's spiritual heirs. (pg. 187)
Nerva
changed land laws in favor of the poor, revised taxation
Roman Republic
The type of government that the citizens used. The citizens vote or select their leaders. Romans vowed to never have a King
Problem with expansion
Farmers lost their jobs because wealthy landowners created latifundia with the use of slave labor.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
inflation
a rise in prices corresponding to a decrease in the value of money
Diocletian
was the last emperor to persecute the Christians
good emperors
this group of emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Circus
an arena in ancient Rome, also the show held there
pope
person that stands in front of a church
peter
one of the 12 apostiles of jesus, roman cathiocs believe he is the first pope
messiah
a wise leader who would establish the king of God on earth
Marc Antony
One of Caesar's generals, Falls in love with Cleopatra, He and Cleopatra declare war on Rome in 31 BC which they lose, and then he and Cleopatra commit suicide after seeing no escape.
Apostle
(New Testament) one of the original 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospel
basilica
A large public building, in or near the forum of a Roman city, which was used as a town hall, held law courts and housed shops
Who built a wall in Britain and made Roman laws easier to understand?
Hadrian
constantine the great
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Julius Caeser
assassinated on March 15, 44 BC( ides of march=middle of the month)
Lepidus, Mark Antony, and Octavian
Members of the second triumvirate
What legal principles lasted long after the Roman Empire fell?
innocent until proven otherwise
allowed to defend before a judge
judge weighs evidence before a decision
monarch
ruler of a kingdom or empire, such as a king or queen
Examples of Romance Languages-Latin Based Languages
French, Spanish, Portugese, Italian, Romanian, English
Flaming cross
Constantine had a vision of this that he thought helped him win a battle
Circus Maximus
The longest race track in Rome, 2000 feet long, holds half a million (500,000) spectators
The Gauls
lived in Gaul, were taken over by Rome, conquered by Caesar's army
Julia the Elder
wife of Marcus Agrippa but forced to marrry Tiberius after MA death
Mucius Scaevola (lefty)
Burnt his hand to prove his bravery and earn freedom after attempting to slay an enemy king in the name of Rome.
Dido of Carthage
the founder and queen of carthage, who fell in love with aneas and killed herself when he abonded her
etruscan rule
in 600 BC: they take over latium (they upgrade life)
The Roman Republic
This was made up of two classes, the Patricians (the wealthy land-owners), and the Plebians.
constantine the Great, made christianity a state religion
christianity was the state of religoin in 324
4 things the Colosseum was used for
mock naval battles, fights between gladiators, struggles between men and wild animals, public entertainment
Death of the Etruscan king Tarquinius
killed in 509 BCE by the patricians and turned it into a republic
the widening gap between the rich and poor
as it expanded, rome was beset by social and economic troubles cause partly by
common
usual
gentile
non Jewish population
Judaea
The Jewish homeland
cunsuls
two cheif officials
territories
Large areas of land
Octavian
first emperor of Rome
Census
the population of people
latium planes
another word for Rome.
legionaries
a group of 5,000 soldiers
Venus
The Roman goddess of love
Emperor
The ruler of an empire
Natatio
giant swimming pool in Roman bath
Military
Problems of Republic: rouge armies; soldiers loyal to their general rather than Rome
Ode
Poems that express strong feelings about life.
Rome
Capital and largest city of Italy
persecute
To seek out and punish people
How many Punic Wars were there?
3
Phoenicians
most powerful traders along the Mediterranean after 1100 BC; never united into a single country, many city-states; greatest legacy, the alphabet
overseer
a person who oversees; supervisor; manager:
aristocrat
Person who has high position in society because of birth.
Lepidus
part of 2nd triumvirate; weakest link; commander of Caesar's calvary; ruled Africa
Rhetoric
The art of effective writing and speaking
Nero
An emperor who came from Augustus' family, the were called the Julio-Claudian emperors.
Paul
A jew who tried to spread Christianity. He was a martyr, original name was Saul.
assembly
was elected by the plebeians to protect rights. it was a branch of the roman republic
Marius
enlisted homeless men to serve in legions
mercenary
a professional soldier hired by a foreign army
Hellenization
Process by which Greek culture is introduced to and ultimately overtakes Rome
Alaric
Visigoth leader who sack Rome, burned records and destroyed the place. Had Europe turn to a Dark Age, all information is lost
Empire
the collection of several countries or regions who have been taken over and are ruled by one governing power.
BCE
Stands for " before the Common Era"
Jury during pax ramona
innocent untill proven guilty
spartacus
Spartacus was the most notable leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
Byzantine Empire
when Theodosius split the empire into 2, this was the Eastern Empire
Arch
A curved structure used as a support over an open space, as in a doorway.
What does the word Patrician mean in Latin?
Father
Pig Sticking
A type of hunt that involves chariots
12 Tables
gave each person what he/she deserved; this detailed many crimes and punishments
civilization
A group of people who share a language, arts, sciences, a culture, a government, and land.
plebeians
one of the common people in roman republic, a person who had no say in government.
what is paterfamilias
father has absolute authority over education, morals, spirits inhabited everything
roman monarchy
the etruscans drained swamp to create forum, political center, when last cruel tyrant died, republic started
Succession Problem
the Roman empire had no clear guidelines about who would be the next emperor if one died without an heir
Peninsula Expansion
Rome began as a small city state
Conquered neighbors on italian peninsula
When did the Romans make a Republic?
264 B.C.
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire makin it the primary religion of the empire
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian church in the western roman empire headed by the pope
In 616 BC, who became the ruler of northern Italy?
Etruscans
Gaius Marius
Roman general who was elected as a consul and brought major changes to Roman Political scenes; encouraged enlisting in army
Emperor Trajan
one of "5 good emperors" / responsible for final expansion of Roman Empire
Senator
a person who works in the law making part of the government
Punic Wars
A series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage over control of the Mediterranean which Rome wins and destroys Carthage permanently
General Marius
Roman General. Created his own army of volunteers that he promised land to after they finished their time in his army.
His men were called Marius's mules!
tiber river
a major river in Italy; Romeis built on its banks
Eastern Half of the Empire
Constantinople remained the center of another empire for the next 1,000 year
Atilla the Hun
king of the Huns in the 5th century, known as the
The Twelve Tables
a law code, legal rights of the Roman citizens
How did geography impact Rome?
The sea allowed for trade, travel, and the climate allowed farming
A dictator was appointed in the ancient Roman Republic when
the consuls couldn't agree and it was considered an emergency
Who was perhaps the greatest of the 5 "Good Emperors"?
Hadrian. He issued a code of laws, making laws uniform throughout the empire. He reorganized the army and also encouraged learning.
grammicus
secondary school
The Julio-Claudians
Emperors from 14-68.
sand
absorbed blood in arena
Romulus
Legendary founder of Rome
people who most influenced Roman culture
Greeks
Cleopatra
Ruler in Egpytian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49 to 45 B.C.
Epicureanism
philosophy founded by Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; taught that happiness through the pursuit of pleasure was the goal of life
Rubicon
a small river which Julius Caesar crossed on his march into Italy that began a civil war
Tribes of the Latium Plain
Sabines, Etruscans, Latins
Diolection
Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part.
First Triumvirate
"ruling group of 3"--consisted of Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey
Janus
(Roman mythology) the Roman god of doorways and passages
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights was known as a
Vandals
poured into southern Spain and Africa; crossed into Italy from northern Africa and sacked Rome
Barbarians
The name the Romans gave to the Germanic Tribes because the Germanic language sounded like unintelligible babble to the Romans
Christianity
the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
bronze
type of tablets used for written code of laws
how were the girls thaught
at home by mother
bishop
A church official who leads a large group of Christians in a particular region
Constantinople
A city established as the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire by the emperor Constantine in A.D. 330 now called Istanbul;
Dark Ages
Period of war and disease that western Europe fell into
Martial's Quote
" Before it gets light, we have the bakers. Then it's the hammering of the artisans all day. There's no peace or quiet in this city!"
Cause of Third Punic War
Rome attacked Carthage 146 BC and burned it to the ground
almost 3 million square miles
the size of the Roman Empire at its height
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