Industrial Revolution 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
trevithick
train
turnpikes
toll roads
proletariat
the working class
Thomas Newcomen
steam engine
Joseph Lister
Surgery- Antisepctic
merchants
invested profits in factories
Richard Wagner
Rise of Valkyries
Urbanization
migration to towns and cities
Charles Townshend
encouraged planting of turnips
Urban
Relating to, characteristic of, or constituting a city.
Population Explosion
Agriculture reduces famine better hygiene and sanitation, lower death rates not higher birth rates
Townsend
Brought Dutch farming ideas to England, including crop rotation and the use of fodder crops
Factory
A large building that housed machines
Steel can be used for?
MachineryShip buildingRailroadsBuilding Frames
"The Rocket"
A steam locomotive invented by Englishman George Stephenson in 1929 which could reach 30 mph.
Philanthropist
Person who works to increase the well-being of humankind through charitable aid or donations.
Adam Smith
believed in Laissez-Faire; wrote "The Wealth of Nations"; believed in the three laws of economics: 1. The law of self interest. 2. Law of competition. 3. Law of supply and demand
Coal is used to...
Power the steam engine
Social Democracy
Gradual transition from capitalism to socialism
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Great Britan
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for the profit, rather then by the state.
Things produced in a Factory System
Factory System
Vertical integration
A company's taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain control over the quality and cost of its product.
industrial revolution
the shift beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine
New Technology
skilled mechanics eat the demands of coming up with inventions and then men to construct the factories
Darby
used coal to heat iron ore which helped produce greater amounts of iron
Laissez Faire
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs; Adam Smith's idea
Andrew Carnegie
Made a fortune in the steel industry
definition of the Industrial Revolution
How work was done differently
Elizabeth Gaskell
wrote Mary Barton (1848), a work of fiction, provides a realistic description of the dank cellar dwelling of one family in a Manchester slum
first major rail line
ran from Liverpool to manchester opened in 1830
Mass Production
When a lot of goods (products) are produced in a short period of time (lowers the price and increases profit)
New Immigrants
After 1885- Catholic, Jewish, S + E Europe, different language, Italian, Russinan, Greek, poor, unskilled, trouble adapting
Joseph Lister
Who is know as the Father of Atiseptic surgery becaseu of his impementation of antiseptic methods?
Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Spinning Jenny, Steam engine, Cotton Gin, Telegraph, Smallpox treatment, Ways to kill germs
Creating antiseptic methods to reduce risks of childbirth
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis saved the lifes of many woment by...
1. Spinning Jinny 2. Cotton gin 3. Water frame 4. Flying shuttle 5. Power loom
Inventions that aided the development of the textile industry...
Farm laborers thrown out of work so they moved to the cities for work
The human toll of the enclosure movement was...
Schornstein
chimney
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Joseph Paxton / Crystal
Palace / London / 1851 

John McAdam
Macadam Roads
old immigrants
-before 1885
John Kay
Machinist; Invented Shuttle
New ways of Power
machine power.
James Watt
invented the steam engine
Henry Cort
Refined pig iron-puddling furnace-heavy rolling mills
louis pasteur
French chemist and bacteriologist.
England's Advantage
The reasons England industrialized first:
Political stability; expanding population; agricultural revolution; ready supply of money; lots of mineral resources (coal + iron ore); fewer gvt restriction on trade; transportation ease; open markets w/ lots of merchants sailing other places
Edison
American inventor who Invented the phonograph and the lightbulb
Crystal Palace
an architectural masterpiece in Londonmade of glass & iron. Home of a famous industrial fair which recognized Britain as the workshop of the world
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
Abolition
End of slavery & slave trade
1825
Year that the steam-powered locomotive was invented
Second Republic
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became president of the Second Republic- Constitution of the Second Republic stated that the Presidency of the Republic was to be held for a single term of four years, with no possibility of re-election, a restriction written in the Constitution for fear that a President would abuse his power to transform the Republic into a dictatorship with a president for life
Marshall Field
give women what they want
corporation
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.
Friedrich Engles
Helped write the communist manifesto, assisted Karl Marx
monopoly
complete control of a product or service
National Road
A federally funded road, stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois
Second Reform Bill
1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more votes
Rocket
invented by George Stephenson. It was a steam engine locomotive that travelled btwn Liverpool & Manchester
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Stockholder
Person who owns part of a company
Laissez-Faire Economics
"Hands Off" Economics. Government has little to no control of businesses. The Invisible Hand will regulate things.
Sir Robert Peel
Politician from Great Britain (1788-1850) a Conservative Prime Minister who created a modern police force, helped to form the Conservative Party after the dissolution of the Tory Party, and he repealed the Corn Laws.
George Westinghouse
rotary system for R&R, airbrake system, signals
Positives
o Money is made
o Trade grows
o Creates jobs
o Creates demand for products
o More goods for prices
o Expand the reach of people (ownership, education, etc)
First International
Group founded by Marx to facilitate communication and cooperation between people advocating for the working classes--not just Marxists. Dissolved in 1876 because of internal conflicts.
patriarchal tradition
the attitude that a household should be headed by a male
cotton gin
invention that gets the small barbs out of cotton to speed up textile production
Revisionism
What is the the version of Marx's theories that appears around the 2nd International?
philadephia system
prisoners are kept away from each other at all times
Marie Curie
French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel Prizes
Samuel Slater
British Mill Worker; Made first cotton spinning machine in US
Steam Power
important source of power at the beginning of IR
People who are not citizens of a country, but resi
Immigrants
bessemer process
a way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through meltedd iron to quickly remove impurities
Charles Darwin
argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years. Natural Selection-natural forces selected those with physical traits best adapted to environment
strip mining
proccess in which rock and soil are stripped from earths surface to expose the underlying materials to be mined
industrial proletariat
New urban working class most of whom had migrated from the poverty stricken countryside to poverty and oppressive working conditions in the huge factories in the cities.
Irish Potato Famine
The potato crops in Ireland became diseased and the Irish starved. Set off the immigration to the U.S.
Factory Act of 1832
1832 British Legislation which limited laws that children could work in textile mills. Inspectors were hired to enforce this Act.
Horatio Alger
rags to riches. books with the same plots
subcontractor
someone who is hired to do all or part of the work for the primary contractor
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
Germans; Believed society was divide into two classes; Communism
difficult farming, ocean transportation, water power
New England was an ideal place for Industrial Revolution because of ?
Who was Samuel Crompton and what impact did he have on the Industrial Revolution?
Spinning Mule; thread stronger, finer, and more consistent.
What does laissez-faire mean? (Kind of)
"let people do as they choose"
Why did the government gave railroad companies land around the railroads?
To encourage rapid construction of the railroads.
Who was James Watt and what impact did he have on the Industrial Revolution?
Steam engine; work faster and more efficiently while burning less fuel
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