Industrial Revolution Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Alexander Fleming
penicillin
Townshend
crop rotation
John McAdam
improved roads
Pierre and Marie Curie
radioactivity
Ernest Ruthford
nucleas and protons
Ivan Pavlov
-Russain Psychologist
-discovered that contioned reflex "automatic" behavior
-dog experiment
Samual Morse
created the morse code
Second Republic
Elected Napoleon Bonaparte III
E.B Tyler
-brit anthropologist
-described the set beliefs and behaviors that society shares
ROBERT FULTON
1807, an American, successfully launched the Clermont, the first steam powered paddle ship, on the Hudson River. Steamboats soon appeared on rivers and along coasts on both sides of the Atlantic and in 1838 the Great Western was the first to cross the Atlantic - took 15 days.
James Hargreaves
inventor of the spinning jenny
Chartism
movement for political and social reform that called for universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, annual parliaments, no property requirement for MPs, payment of MPs
Industrial revolution changes
1 economic- mass production/transportation make things faster and moves them fast. Steam engine/boats/trains. Use of steel.
2 social-
working conditions: , more children work, disease, easily replaced.
Living: urbanization
3 labor laws and consumer protection: factor act
John Kay
Flying shutter- doubled the weave speed which rose the demand for thread
Samual Crompton
spinning mule- combined the "jenny" and water frame but didn't meet the cloth demand still
Duke of Bridgewater
commissioner of Bridgewater canal (first canal in Britain and maybe modern world)
Utopian Socialism
socialism exemplified by Fourier and Owens based on ideal communities in which all shared the work and all shared the benefits
Crimean War
Russia vs ottoman empire
Brits don't want Russia reachin Mediterranean. War.
France goes tocwar to look cool.
First war with correspondents
Laissez - faire
free trade system of economy.
James Watt
first efficient steam engine in 1769
George Hegel
-History is ideas and motion
--> all things evolve
Richard Arkwright
water frame- machine driven by water, this helped start factory systems
ELI WHITNEY
1793, an American who invented the cotton gin. Hand operated at first, sped up removal of seeds from the raw cotton fiber. Made American cotton a more viable alternative to Indian cotton for British textile manufacturers -> increase in cotton textiles (& also in importance of slave labor in southern United States).
Robert Owen
advocator of social utopism who built utopia communities like New Lanark and New Harmony
Revolution of 1848
Overthrew Louis Philippe and created republic
Combination Acts (1799)
Parliament fearful of radicalism of French Rev made unions illegal and ignored workers. Repealed in 1824
Union movement
workers began to organize to improve wages and working conditions
Charles Darwin
-wrote "on the origin of species by means of natural selection"
-best suited for environment will survive and reproduce starting the process over
SAMUEL CROMPTON
1779, a Brit who combined the best features of the spinning jenny with the water frame -> spinning mule/Crompton's mule.
Communist Manifesto
1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels urging an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes
Combination Acts
laws passed by the Parliament in 1799 and 1800 that prohibited the English people from forming a union
Socialism vs communism
The goal of both is communal ownership/ economic collectivism. Communism focuses on revolution, but socialism is reform over time.
Treaty of Paris 1856
Changes nothing but prevents Russia gettin medditerainan.
Franco-Italian treaty
Napoleon will only help Italy if they get Austria to declare war on Sardinia, and he gets Nice and Savoy. He will bail after they get Lombardy.
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
lashed out at middle-class abuse of wage-earners
Earl Grey
leader of the Whig Party who was one of the primary architects of the Reform Bill of 1832
North German Confederation
All states left, not south, are added to Prussia.
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
"iron law" of wages = argued high pressure of pop would cause wages to always be low
RICARDO'S "IRON LAW OF WAGES
Also of the Manchester School, Ricardo said that workers should not make more than the bare minimum living wage because if they received more that would cause them to have more children who would eat more and cause the worker to then fall below subsistence level and therefore add to level of human misery. Ricardo suggested that discontented workers should see the folly of changing this "natural" system, grim as it was.
Problems with Hohenzollern unification
1- Junkers were powerful and if they joined Prussia they would be less prominent.
2- religion- Catholic no want be with Protestant Prussia.
3- France- always fights unification
4- Austria- wants to unite Germany itself.
Britain's economy by 1850
made 2/3 of world's coal, 1/2 of worl'd iron, 1/2 of cotton cloth, population increased from 9 mil in 1780 to 21 mil in 1851. Britain was basically the BA of the West economically
Cleveland
1892
Jay Gould
Black Friday
Isaac Singer
invented sewing machine
Joseph Glidden
patented barbed wire
Menlow Park
Edison experimented here
William Kelly
steel/ Bessemer process
Saxophone
invented by Adolf Sax
Escalator
invented by Nathan Ames
Guillotine
invented by Joseph Guillotine
Pools
agreements between companies to maintain prices at a certain level
Oliver Kelley
father of the Grangers
Henry George
single tax on land
Herman Frasch
seperates petroleum and sulfur
Raj
the British-controlled portions of India
automobile
damler and benz. both german
profit
Primary motive and incentive for operating a business; the amount of money a business earns above and beyond what it spends for salaries and other expenses
Frederick Olmsted
landscape architect for central park
Winslow Homer
landscape painter and print maker
John Dewey
educational reformer, created the Dewey Decimal system
Pendleton Act
during Arthurs presidency, required some government jobs to be filled on the basis of competitive exams as a response to Garfields assassination
Philanthropy
looking out for all human kind
Rockefeller
created standard oil, ohio law prohibited expansion, created trusts instead, 1. techology 2. offers to buy for more than worth if he wants something 3. use gov to refuse to allow competitors to expand 4. spies pinkerton detectives 5. creates agreement with railroads for exclusive cutbacks 6. sets up store with lower prices to get competitors to go out of business 7. horizonal monopoly (all oil)
Edward Bellamy
wrote "Looking Backwards" most successfull utopian novel, looked backward from the year 2000, socialist in Mass
McKinley Tariff
protective tariff to protect manufacutring
Hot Air Balloon
invented by De Revere
Cylinder pin-tumbler lock
invented by Linus Yale
radio
guglielmo marconi sent first radio waves 1901
vertical integration
practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products
Thomas Edison
United States inventor, Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Eugene Debs
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union
free market
economic system in which individuals decide for themselves what to produce and sell
William Hearst
newspaper publisher as well as politician, SENSATIONALISM
Josiah Gibbs
mathematician and physist, helps later advancements
Grangers
successful workers union in midwest of small and medium farmers, National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry, argue against feeder lines expensive prices
Thomas Eatkins
painter, photorapher and scultptor who took an interest in motion pictures
Social Darwinism
the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies
Shaka
a Zulu cheif created large centralized state with good military organization and highly disciplined warriors
proletariat
karl marx have not or working class
John D. Rockefeller
the entrepreneur who built the Standard Oil Trust into a business combination controlling much of the American oil trade
John Roebling
Brooklyn Bridge- steel cabales to form suspension bridges
Eddie Cudahy
owned a packing company, son got kidnapped, him and all competitors shut down business to find him, paid ransom and got son back
Charles Guiteau
shot president Garfield on July 2, 1881
Electric Trolley
1st in the 1800's in Richmond Virginia
Boer War
a conflict, lasting from 1899-1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of the territory in South Africa
J. P. Morgan
Most Powerful banker of the late 1800s, head of US Steel Company; first person to have 1 billion dollars
limited liability
Type of investment in which a partner or investor cannot lose more than the amount invested
Bessemer Process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Atlanta Compromise
"Give up today for the future" given by Booker T. Washington (accommodation) blacks can be trained for jobs
Department Stores
started in the US by Alexander Stewart (Marble Palace in New York City)
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) didn't allow more Chinese into the country, nativism (Social Darwinism)
IL Granger Laws
goverenment has the right to regulate, state to set max charges
Karl Marx
introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxisim
Can Opener/Can
can invented by Peter Durhur and can opener invented by Duncan
Sherman Antitrust Act
law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade
American Railway Union
1. railroad strike on B&O and penn. 10% wage cut, shuts down majority of railroad, starts damaging railroad, fight with rr security, Hayes sends army to break up fight. 2. Great northern railway- 1st and only victory. 3. Pullman strike (Debbs)- company creates monopoly, ARU joins with pullman workers, president cleveland solves by putting mail carriers behind pullman cars (federal), goes to court and issue an injunction (must deliver mail) Debbs is arrested
GAR (Grand army of the Republic)
group of republican veterans who disagree with the fairness in the electoral commicion during the election of 1876
Smith
laissez-faire
cartwright
power loom
power loom
weaving 2
Jethro Tull
seed drill
J. Kay
invented the shuttle
Adam Smith
father of Capitalism
Factory
large buildings where wealthy merchants set up their machines
smelt
seperate iron from its ore
Who Made Steam Engines
James Watt
Factories
Brought the men and machines together
Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
turnpikes
private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged tavelers a toll or fee to use them
Unions
An organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests in that company.
Industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Corperation
business owned by stock holders who share profits but are not personnally responsable for debts
union
an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
Physiocrats
People who focused on economic refrom using the natural laws.
John Stewart Mill
British philosopher wanted the government to step in and improve the lives of the working class. He liked the poor. And women. He wanted to give them rights! Woot Woot
means of production
the resources (lands, tools, equipment, factories, transportation, and labor) essential to the production and distribution of goods and services
Impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
Prince Albert
Queen Victoria's husband who promoted the idea of free trade.
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Labor unions
an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
utilitarians
People that want to use government to make society better
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
Factors of Production
the resources needed to produce goods and services for the Industrial Revolution
seed drill
allowed farmers to sow seeds in well spaced rows at specific depths, larger share of seeds took root, boosting crop yields
Trains, canals, turnpike system
3 early developments in transportation that aided industrialization....
Centrally Planned economy
Another name for Command economy and is where the government is in control
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed off thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year. Resulted in a large migration of Irish to the United States.
Chartists Reaction
it was a movement of working class in england, they demanded an extension of democracy and reforms would provide ordinary people with a say in government
Reduced famine, better hygiene/sanitaion and better medical care
Two factors that contributed to the growth of population in the `8th century...
Who is Adam Smith?
He wrote the wealth of nations which explains a free market.
Industrial middle class, industrial working class
Two new social classes created by the Industrial Revolution...
1. Spinning Jinny 2. Cotton gin 3. Water frame 4. Flying shuttle 5. Power loom
Inventions that aided the development of the textile industry...
People moved to cities to work at factories causing the rural way of life to disapear
What happened to the rural way of life with the onset of the Industrial Revolution?
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