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Terms Definitions
injetar drogas
injecting drugs
fever/chills, headaches, nausea/vomiting, fatigue, weakness, arthralgias, sore throat, stiff neck, photophobia, irritability, and rash, etc. Platelets decreased, sed rate increased.
sinais e sintomas
signs and symtoms
is the following postexposure prophylaxis old or new? basic: azt or viread + either 3tc or emtriva and expanded: kaletra
Viruses controlled by current antiviral therapy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Hepatitis viruses
Herpes viruses
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Influenza viruses (the “flu”)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
% undiagnosed HIV pts in US
anti-HIV antibodies are detected, so until seroconversion occurs, infection is not diagnosable.
HIV infection + onset of opportunistic infections (OI) = AIDS
Common OIs: TB, chronic diarrhea, chronic pneumonia (PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia), fungal like Cryptococcus and thrush, Kaposi's sarcoma
Cannot 'catch' AIDS, syndrome not an infection
Symptoms appear as CD4 cell counts decrease and HIV viral counts increase
Number of new infections in 2008
2.5 million
T-helper-1 (TH1)
the subset markedly affected in advanced disease; produces interferon y and IL-2.
Positive Means
Carrying HIV (virus causing AIDS)
Can infect others
HIV-1 and HIV-2
V: Retroviridae family
HIV-2 is less common and milder
Transmitted through body fluids
Modes of transmission: sex, IDU, MTC, breastfeeding
Destoys immune cells like CD4+ T-cells
Estimated number of children born each year to HIV infected women in resource poor settings
2 million
In ______, a common antibody was identified in clients with AIDS and in _______, HIV was isolated.
1983, 1984
HIV Antibody Tests; 3 Kinds
ELISA,Western Blot Assay,Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay
Stages of HIV; A continuum
Primary Infection (Acute Infection)
Immune System Decline
Mild, Non-Specific Symptoms
More Severe Symptoms; Opportunistic infections and diseases
for pts in the "window period" or with a seroconvertin illness, will HIV RNA generally be positive or negative?
% of those infected with HIV who do not know that they are positive
What does ELISA require?
western blot confirmation (high risk of false positives in low prevalence population)
how many and what percentage of HIV infections in the us in 2008 are undiagnosed?
335,000 (30%)
How can people protect themselves from HIV infection?
Practice Safer Sex. 
Structure of HIV/AIDS
RNA retrovirus, contains at least 9 genes.
What is Kaposis Sarcoma?
tumor of endothelial cells lining small blood vessels and presents as vascular macules, papules or violet lesions affecting the skin and viscera
Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay
Used instead of Western Blot
Uses a blood sample
Faster/ can be used to get info to client more quickly
What serves as a strong independent predictor of the progression to AIDS?
Plasma HIV RNA levels
what does a cxr show with pcp?
diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates are most common, but may be normal in (15-20%) or atypical (20%)
HIV type II
most common in West Africa; more mild form of Dx, longer latency period, and appears less virulent.
What are some example of protease inhibitors?
Invirase, Norvir, Viracept, Kaletra
Positive Does Not Mean
You have AIDS
You will get AIDS
You are immune to AIDS
what occured with efavirenz in march 2005?
pregnancy category changed from category c (risk of fetal harm cannot be ruled out) to category d (positive evidence of fetal risk)
% BMSM who aggreed to be tested that were HIV+. % who were unaware they were HIV+. % who perceived themselves to be at low risk of ever becoming infected.
16%, 93%, 42%
Key characteristics of antiviral drugs
Able to enter the cells infected w/virus
Interfere w/viral nucleic acid synthesis &/or regulation
Some drugs interfere w/ability of virus
to bind to cells
Some drugs stimulate the body’s immune system
Antiviral Medications
what immunizations should be avoided in hiv pts?
avoid all live virus vaccines (MMR, varicella, yellow fever)
What are the two most common lymphomas associated with AIDS?
Non-hodgkins lymphoma and primary lymphoma of the brain
What regimens should be given for occupational exposure prophlaxis?
1) Xidovudine w/ either lamivudine or emtrictabine 2) Tenofovir with either lamivudine or emtrictabine
how is mac tx in aids pts?
azithromycin 1200mg, once a week or (biaxin 500 mg, bid for cd4
How do protease inhibitors work to suppress HIV replication?
They interrupt HIV replication at a later stage in its life cycle by interfering with the enzyme HIV protease which cause HIV particles to become structurally disorganized and noninfectious.
What tests are used to determine if one is infected with HIV?
Blood test for antibodies reactive to HIV
Antibodies are detectable within 6 to 18 wks
Newer oral test- detects antibodies in crevicular fluid
Window period- people dont produce detectable antibodies for 6 wks to 1 yr after infection. False negative HIV tests, dangerous time when people may infect others
Later the viral load is monitored
What is the second phase of HIV infection, when does it occur and what are the symptoms?
The second phase is called chronic asymptomatic or latency phase and can last from 8-10 years. The virus is present, can be transmited to others but has few or no symptoms
What demographic is least likely to consider themselves at risk of HIV?
those at highest risk- women 18 to 24, those w/multiple sexual partners, and those whose current partners have had multiple sex partners
Where is the highest incidence of AIDS found? What other countries have high incidences of AIDS?
highest: 70% of those infeced with HIV or AIDS live in Sub-Saharan Africa Others: South & Southeast Asia (16%), the U.S, Western Europe, South America and Canada.
Man in Berlin that got cured of HIV
He had HIV and Leukemia
He got a bone marrow transplant form a donor that didnt have the coreceptor
His HIV levels have been undetectable for 30 months
Primary deviance
(D) A euphamism

Psyching yourself up to do well on the first sociology exam
is not an example of

 what your
instructor defines as the self-fulfilling prophecy

Research methods
Field research(Participant Observation,In-depth Interviews,Ethnography Non-Participant Observation)Unobtrusive research(Statistical study of existing data,Content Analysis, Historical Analysis, Visual Sociology) Survey research
compliance within heirarchal structures where the power is unequal
Maintnance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period
Erving Goffman

Study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that doesn't recognize individual differences within the group
18 million alcoholics90 billion dollars lost to alcoholism90% of college crime is alcohol related
Generalizations that are unreliable about specific groups that don’t take into account individual differences, dangerous- can be used against certain groups
-the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
Comparative research→
Comparative research→ research that compares one set of finding on one society with the same type of findings on other societies
Feminist Theories
a sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyizing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women
Scientists generally agree on just how many races there are in the world.T/F
Durkheim: Functionalist theory

1- help enhance conformity 

2- strengthens solidarity amoung law abiding members of society

3- provides a safety value for discontented ppl

4- induce social change
Social Need: Deal with members' sickness and health issues
Social Institution: ?
Social Need: Deal with members' sickness and health issues
Social Institution: ?
expressive leadership
group directed leadership that empahsizes the well being of the group and provides emotional support for its members
Anything having to do with touch
the self
not inherant, formed through interaction w/ other people, experiences w/in an environment
means of production are privately owned
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
The tendency to evaluate ones culture as superior to others.
C. Wright Mills
Came up w/ sociological imagination
Said their was a connection between history and biography

History- location in broad stream of events

Biography- Individual's Specific Experiences
An aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as essentially independent.
Einsteins's theory of relativity does not contradict..
Newtonian Mechanics
Macro (macrolevel analysis)
examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems (rather than individual lives)- Conflict and Functionalist perspectives have been criticized for focusing primarily on this...
in school, process by which school children receive different education content based on their perceived aptitude (p. 165-166, 224-227).
Christopher Lasch
social historian who believed strong emphasis on personal fulfillment is a personality disorder
the practices that groups or societies develop to encourage conformity and discourage deviance.
social control
standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
code of ethics
the physical and social separation of categories of people

cultural universals
those customs traits and behaviors that occur in every known culture
Psychological Theory
Scape goat theory; blaming another category to gain a higher self-worth
norms that are specified formally in writing and backed by the power of the state
a study of the interaction between organisms and their physical environment
stages of self
1. preparation (observing, learning symbols), 2. play (relationship, role playing, skills developled), 3. game (begin to understand the self, make personal connections, take roles)
4 subcultures among college students
collegiate=social, academic=enjoy class, vocational=goal is to get a job after college, non-conformist=don't like college, reject the college culture
Natural Science
Studies the physical features of nature and how they interact with one another. (bio, chem, physics)
Used to describe to labels that society gives to devalue members of certain groups, negative label
the sociological study of the rules and rituals underlying ordinary social activities and interactions.
middle class
lower in wealth, higher income. ex: most average American families
social structure is important because:
it guides are behavior
A system in which a child's main education is undertaken by parents at home.
Differential justice
Differences in the way social control is execised over different groups
Content Analysis
know this analyzes media such as magazines, television programs, etc.
McDonaldization of Society
(Ritzer) Ritzer argues that the principles of the fast food industry are starting to take over all areas of our life.You’re supposed to act robotic, so you can have more efficiency, getting the job as fast as possible.
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine know as?
Social Darwinism
an expression of power, a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person
industrial revolution
changed social life, caused more to live in cities vs. rural areas
Karl Marx
saw class distinction solely as an exonomic one. He believed ownership-determined class
True or False: The U.S. economy is able to provide jobs for everyone who wants to work.
view that biology is not destiny and tht stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted
The rule of the many by the few
Feminist Perspective
Share the conflict view that mass media stereotypes and misrepresents social reality
Especially influences how we look at men and women – communicating unrealistic stereotypes

3 problems feminists cite:
1. Women are under-represented
2. Men and women are portrayed in ways that reflect and perpetuate stereotypical views of gender
3. Depictions of male-female relationships emphasize traditional sex roles and normalize violence against women
sapir-whorf hypothesis
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality, language is culturally determined
Feminists and Conflict P
Understanding inequalities in gender and how they come about
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
hull house
a settlement house in Chicago, Ill., founded in 1889 by Jane Addams.
cultural relativity
a concept that cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context; cultural relativism
Auguste Comte
First founder of sociology and came up w/ positivism
the most subtle and pervasive type of discrimination, it is deeply embedded in such institutions as the educational system, the business world, health care, criminal justice, and the mass media. These social institutions promote discriminatory practices a
institutional discrimination
Social Mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder
What is social mobility?
chaging one's social status and changing one's social ranking in the stratification system
Sociological imagination
term by C. Wright Mills describing the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the incidents of an individual’s life. It suggests that people look at their own personal problems as social issues and, in general, try to connect their own individual experiences with the workings of society. The sociological imagination enables people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues. For example, people in poverty by this perspective might stop to consider that they are not alone, and rather than blaming themselves should criticize the social forces that directed them into their present condition.
Sociological Imaginaton
Ability to see the impact of social foreces on our private lives.
What is world-system analysis?
A theory analyzing how certain “core” industrialized nations exploits poor nation and the semi periphery or nation with marginal economic status.
Charles Horton Cooley
study of small groups, the "looking glass self"-how you learn your social role
when someone is legally made a part of a family, legal transfer of parental rights, ~4% of US population is adopted
false consciousness
Lack of an understanding btw your own class and the social situation that created it, connect class and influence of powerful social structures
new social movements
Movements that don’t only work for material change, but also an identity shift- tolerance, going green, etc- changing lifestyles
social class
a broad group in society having common economic, cultural, or political status
Role Conflict
What happens when we try to play roles with extremely different or contradictory rules at the same time.
Accidental on purpose
get pregnant or get some one else pregnant on purpose
What are sociological theories?
Statements about how facts are related to one another
Looking glass self
how a persons self sense is derived from other peoples reactions
Manifest and Latent function
M= the intended goal of an organization/society, L=the result that happens w/o intention
small group
has a size in which members can act simultaneously, size has relevance to group dynamic
prestige vs. esteem
p- looking at the amount of respect given to an occupation in society- connection to financial reward, E- the amount of respect someone has w/ in a certain occupation- famous doctors, lawyers, etc
Different kinds of marriages
Monogamy- illegal for a man or woman to be married to more than one person at a time. polygamy- a marriage that allows a husband or wife to have more than one spouse. polygyny- a man may be married to more than one woman at the same time. polyandry, where a woman may have 2 or more husbands simultaneously.
Functions of deviance: reaffirm importance of norms
-reaffirms the importance of norms and the values they are attached to - punishment demonstrates normative values as important
PovertyWhat makes it relative?
Those who barely make just above the $22,000 poverty line. The near-poor who aren't doing so well.
some issues associated with biotechnology
1- Genetic engineering- how in society are these therapies going to be utilized, is it ethically valid to do, concerned for consequences of the future, 2- bioterrorism- now chemical or biological agents are going to be used in war fare
What is a promotional pressure group?
Groups who seek to promote a cause/acheive a particular set of changes or campaign on a specific issue
McIntosh's research of white privilege
Race is voluntary for whites, so they have hidden privileges- understand race only when they have to, socialized into white privilege, 1- whites are generally around other whites, 2- white ppl treated differently (ex- retail), 3- white standard norm is parenting (socializing), 4- whites don’t have the pressure of representing their race
The U.N. lacks the authority/power to regulate the global economic system. Why?
1. Power disparity within the U.N.
-five permanent members on the security council

2. Democratic governance within the U.N.

3. Respect the National Sovereignty
-The U.N. does not have the authority to overrule the decisions made by national governments
Decibe the six basic types of crime and give an example of each.
Crime involves the violation of formal norms called laws. conventional (or street) crime refers to all violent crimes and certain types of vice and property crimes. Murder is a conventioanl crime. white collar crime is the breking of law by people of high social position in the course of their employment. Insider trading is an example of white collar crime. corporate crime refers to illegal activities engaged in by people acting on behalf of a corporation. bid rigging is an example of corporate crime. organized crime is criminal activity engaged in for profit by an organized group such as a gang. international arms smuggling is an organized crime. political crime refers to illegal or unethical activities engaged in by members of the government or by people seeking to overthrow the government. an example of political crime is unauthorized eacesdropping by the government on its political adversaries. finally hate crimes are crimes against a person or group that are motivcated by bias. lynching cross burning and gay bashing are examples of hate crimes.
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