and Century Music Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cage's Home Country
Tchaichovsky's Home Country
Vertical Thoughts
Universally soft music. Meditative. Calm soundscape.
(you can hear soft bass drum rolls and maybe a triangle. Every now and then there will be a female voice singing on sustained note)
Year of "Pierrot Lunaire"

Tone-color melody (GR)
A succession of tone colors (even if with only a single pitch)treated as a structure analogous to a melody, (or succession of pitches).
The notion was proposed and term coined by Schoenberg in his Harmonielehre of 1911.
It is reflected in his Five Orchestral Pieces op. 16 (1909, rev. 1949), especially the third, which was originally titled "Farben."


Webern explored the concept extensively, e.g. in the first of his Five Pieces for Orchestra, op. 10 (1913).

The concept has played an important role in the development of serial music and in some electro-acoustic music.
The texture that results has sometimes been called pointillism, by analogy with painting. 
First electronic instrument invented around 1920 by Lev Termen, which changed pitch according to the distance between the instrument's antenna and the performers hand.
The Notre Dame Mass
-Gregorian chant
-surprising harmonic movements
-rugged rhythms
Which Russian composer foreshadowed the Neoclassic movement by writing a Classic Symphony?
Britten, Benjamin
English 1913-76
Composer, pianist, conductor. 
He was the outstanding British musician of his generation both as creator and as executant, for his brilliance as a pianist (esp. as accompanist, Peter Pear) and as an interpreter of his own and other composers' music.

Peter Grimes was written in 1945 and was immediately hailed as the first indisputably great

English opera since Purcell's Dido and Aeneas.
He reached his widest audience when his War Requeim was performed for the dedication of Coventry's new cathedral in 1962.  This large-scale choral work combines Latin Mass with war poems by Owen. 
Krenek, Ernst
1900-1991, Austrian composer.
His "jazz opera" Jonny spielt auf (1926) was one of the most successful products of the 1920's Zeitoper trend.

In it, he returned to the tonal idiom, combining the cantilena style of Puccini with jazz elements.

His style has varied quite a bit, from neo-classicism insired by Les Six, to a neo-Romanticism inspired by Schubert.

He also used integral serialism in some of his music, as well as experiments in indeterminacy.

His output includes several operas, orchestral works, chamber works and vocal music. 
John Corigliano
American composer and teacher.
Born in NYC to a father who was concertmaster of the NY Phil for 20 yrs and whose mother was a piano teacher.
His sonata for violin and piano won him a prize in Spoleto, and his career was launched.
His most famous works are the Dylam Thomas triology, Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, and the Pied Piper fantasy, a flute and orchestra work written for James Galway.
He taught at Julliard
Milton Babbitt
American serial composer. Combined series of pitches and of durations and manipulated them by the usual operations of inversion and retrograde in his Three Compositions for Piano, the first piece to allpy serial principles to duration. His music quickly grew more complex, as he went beyond the practices of Schoenberg and his circle to realize the new potentials of the twelve-tone system.
Pioneeered by Cage. The composer leaves certain aspects of the music unspecified. He drew the idea in part from the work of his friend Morton feldma, who in pieces such as Prjection 1 for cello used graphic notation to indicate register, timbre, and timig in general terms rather than specifying precise notes and durations. Cages Concert for piano and orchestra,includes sixty-three pages containing various kinds of graphic notation, intended to be realized by the player according to instructions n the score; the exact sounds produced vary considerably from one performance to another. 4'33" is a piece of indeterminancy.
athematic music constructed from isolated notes often highlighted by different timbres
What was a forerunner of Stravinsky’s Neoclassic period?
Olivier Messiaen
French composer, orgaist and teacher.
His distinguished pupils include Boulez and Stockhausen, and Luigi Nono.
One of the first to experiment with total serialism.
In Quatre etudes de rythme, each pitch of an unordered 12 tone set is assigned a duration, a dynamic value, and type of attack.  And the note values are arranged so that each is 1/32 longer than the previous one.
His Reveil des Oiseaux is imitationg of birdsong, which he wrote own into musical notation.
Other pieces include his Quatour pur le fin de monde, for violin, clarinet, cello an piano.
These piece reflect him as a serious student of Western and music history and Indian music.
He was inspired by 14th C isorhythm and the repeititions of extended rhythmic patterns
Dallapiccola, Luigi

1904-1975, Italian composer, pianist and writer.
The principal pioneer of dodecaphony in Italy.

His works combine the use of the twelve-tone technique with a love for melody and for the song and dance forms of early Italian music.  
Among his most important compositions are Variazoni per Orchestra ("Variations for Orchestra", 1954), the opera Volo di notte ("Night Flight") and Il Prigioniero ("The Prisoner"), which are more expressionistic, Tartiniana for violin and orhcestra, based on themes by the 18th century composer Tartini, and several song cycles. 
Lotte Lenya
American singer-actress of Austria birth.
Her husband, Kurt Weill, created roles for her in his own works, namely Jenny in Die Dreigroschenoper, which was incredibly popular, and which assured her and Weill of international reputation.
After Weills death in 1950, she devoted much of her time to the revival of some of his most important works,
The Lotte Lenya Vocal Competitions Finals are held in Kilbourn Hall
Sibelius, epic Finnish poem around which much of his music revolved
A work that openly imitates the previous work of another artist or composer usually with satirical intent. One such composer would be Peter Schickele. Other composers did however use Quotation and Polystylism which is sometimes considered the same as Patiche.
Indeterminacy composers
Cage, Feldman, Brown (Available forms I & II, Young (with his performance art music), Stockhausen, Lutoslawski, Penderecki
Igor Stravinsky
His career consisted of 3 Periods:
Russian Period
Wrote his most popular works during this period: the ballets, The Firebirds (1910), Petrushka (1910-11) and The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du pritemps, 1911-13., all commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev for the Ballets Russes in Paris.
In Patrushka, he introduced several of the stylistic traits that became closely identified with him. The interuptions and juxtaposition of blocks, which he absorbed from the Russian practie of musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov, is here linked to the visual juxtapositions of ballet. He also used the borrowing of Russian folk tunes. Here he developed the famous Petrushka chord combining F# and C major triads, both part of the same octatonic scale.
During this period, he used techniques such as Layering - a building up of textures by layering two or more independent strand of music on top of each other; Discontinuity and connection - the patterms within successive blocks are different creating discontinuity, yet the  collection of pitches being used differs by only one new note, leading a strong sense of continuity; Dissonance - most dissonance are based on the scales used in Russion classical music, such as the diatonic and octatonic collections. a staking of two chords a step apart; and timbre linked with motive and variation - he often identified a musical idea with a particular timbre such as the pounding of a chord with the strings with horn reinforcements and the English horn ostinato recurs only in that insrument throughout; and Stark timbres
Used these techniques from the ballets in his small ensemble works as well.
NeoClassical Period
In 1919 Diaghilev asked him to orchestrate pieces by the eighteenth century composer Pergolesi to accompany a new ballet, Pulcinella. While the music was intact, he reworked the pieces applying his distictive stylistic traits.
One of these pieces is Symphony of Psalms for mixed chorus and orchestra.
Serial Period
After Schoenbergs death, the twelve tone method was expanded by younger composers and became referred to as serial music, serializing not only pithc but rhythms and dynamics as well. After 1953, he adapted serial techniques in his music. His best know serial works were In memoriam Dylan Thomas, Threni for voices and orchestra, and Movements for piano and orchestra.
"The Rite of Spring" was composed by
Who was the main developer of serialism?
Who did the earliest scientific study of folk music?
Malipiero, Gian Francesco
1882-1973, Italian composer and musicologist.
He was influenced by early Baroque Italian composers, and even Gregorian chant
He reacted against 19th centruy Italian opera.  In his music, the harmony is often triadic in foundation, but traditional functions are avoided in favor of a sort of neo-modality.
The music's freely developed formal character results from the succession of clearly differentiated, essentially lyrical musical segments. 
His output includes 11 symphonies, 6 piano concertos, and a large number of stage works (including over 30 operas), as well as chamber and piano music 
Ballet Russe
Formed in 1909 by Sergei Diaghilev.
Dedicated to the concept of total unity of production, he hired some of the world's finest artists to mount works for his company.  Picasso was among his designers.  Scores were commissioned from Stravinsky (Firebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring_, Debussy (Jeux), Falla, Milhaud, Satie (Parade, 1917), Ravel (Daphnis et Chloe), and others.  
A revolution was accomplished by Diaghilev's principal coreographers.  Abstract ballet - classcial dancing with no narrative - was introduced.
Because of Diaphilev, ballet came to be regarded as a serious art and as a leading force in modern aesthetics. 
With his death in 1929, his troupe disbanded.   Former dancers and staff scattered and founded what became internationally prestigious companies - the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, Britian's Royal Ballet, and New York City Ballet
Sibelius, Jean
1865-1957, A Finnish composer working during the period of Finland's increasing sense of national status and eparation from Russia.
Most of sibelius' early works are symphonic in construction and are all based on programmatic comceptions inspired by Finnish national literature.


After these early works, the seven symphonies of Sibelius dominated the remainder of his creative life.
Sibelius remarked that he admired the severity of style and profound logic linking the motives of a symphony (unlike Mahler's vision of symphony-as- world).  
Sibelius uses no actual folk melodies in his music, though it still retains a national character due to the dark orchestral colors, and use of modal scales. 
Orff, Karl
1895-1982, German composer and music educator.
Unlike many other composers under the Nazi regime, he was somewhat successful in fashioning a style that was simultaneously simple enough to please the authorities, and nevertheless clearly individual and in significant repects original.
His scenic cantata Carmina burana (1937), a setting of somewhat ribald medieval Latin and German songs, represented the first emergence of his chracteristic style; in it, simple syllabic settings are projected through elemental chant-like melodic figures, repeated incessantly to the percussive accompaniment of static, block-like triadic figures.
His works after Carmina burana are mostly for the stage, with dramatic content presented in detached and objective, rather than personal and psychological, terms.
In his later theater works, everything is geared to highly stylized rhythmic projection of the text.
His educational work with children led him to develop special, easily playable instruments, and a set of graded materials, (including exercises, folk tunes, and dnaces), published under the ttle Orff-Schulwerk
Satie, Erik

(1866-1925), The French composer who most set the tone for the rejection of German Romanticism in France.
He attended the Paris Conservatory but achived little in his studies.  

After WWI, the influential poet Cocteau wrote of the need to rid music of the Wagner fog, the Debussian mist, and the Russian (Stravinsky) mysticism.  He offered Satie as an example of the clear concise forms that exemplified a return to simplicity.

His harmonic language (evident in the Gymnopedies for Piano) is diatonic but not tonally-directed and probably derived from Chabrier and Faure.

He joined the French branch of the Rosicrucian Brotherhood, a mystical religious group based on the secret societies of Middle Ages.

He wrote a number of compositions for this group.
Many of Satie's scores have humorous titles or humorous and engimatic verbal indications ("Slow down politely").  
His most famous work was his light Parade, a work that portrays the informality of street performers and acrobats and which includes popular types of music, including jazz.  It was written for Diaghilev' Ballets Russes
Italian opera - short, simple song (not brilliant aria)
Samuel Barber
One of the most successful American tonal traditionalist. His tonal romaniticism is fully expressed in his best-known work, Adagio for Strings and in his Violin Concerto and Piano Concerto. He oftenincorporated modernist resources into his tonal music.
Le Tombeau de Couperin
Prelude (Orchestral version)
The beginning is very soft and features oboe, and eventually an orchestra joins and crescendos before leaving it to oboe solo again.
Who was one of the pioneers in compiling and publishing folk songs for children?
Who was one of the most influential composition teachers of the 20th century?
Theodore Presser
He is the oldest continuing music publisher in the US.
His immediate success in publishing the Etude music magazine led to larger facilities and the beginning of his life as a dealer and publisher.
He also became a philanthropist, and his altruism is manifest today in the form of the Theodore Presser foundation, which awards music scholarships, grants, and funds to further music and music education
Opera House built for Wagner - fairly small and half of orchestra UNDER stage
Quotation and Collage
The reworking of borrowed material by earlier composers from Bach and Handel to moernist lide Schoenberg, Ives, and Stravinsky served as inspiration, as did quotations in modern poetry and collage in modern art. But postwar compsers turned borrowing to new purposes, using evocations of older music to carry meanings taht were not availabe by other means. Composers who used this style were: Peter Maxwell Davies (English) drew on chant and English Renaissance music for man works, emphasizing the gulf between modern times and the distant past by distorting the source material or transforming it through modern procedures.
George Roehberg and George Crumb (American composers). Rochberg who had written mostly serial music, found it inadequate to express his feelings on the death of his son in 1964, and turned the next year to works based on borrowed material. Contra mortem et tempus (Against Death and Time) quotes passages from Boulez, Berio, Varese, and Ives and Music for Magic Theater incorporates music from Mozart, Beethoven, Mahler, Webern, Verese, Stockhausen.
George Crumb also often reflects on music of the past,; for example his Back Angels quotes the Chant Dies irae and Schuberts Death and the maiden Quartet.
Stockhausen (German) used borrowed material in several works. Gesang der Jungling, Telemusik, Hymnen and opus 1970. In Hymnen, which was with voices, instruments and electronic sound incorporates words and melodies of many different national anthems. The intention was "not to interpret, but to hear familiar, old, preformed musical material with new ears, to penetrate and transform it with a musical consciousness of today."
Berio (Italian) incorporated most of the scherzo movement of Mahler's Second Symphony  in his Sinfonia and superimposed on it an amplified verbal comentary by an eight-voice ensemble and a musical commentary by a large orchestra. Overlaid on the Mahler are quotations from over one hundred other works, including Strause, Ravel, Berg and Debussy.
What compositional technique was a trafdemark of Vaughn Williams music?
downward curve of melody
the total absence of any center of key tonality
Les Noces
"The Wedding" - a work by Stravinsky for 4 pianos, pitched and unpitched percussion, mixed chorus, and sop, mezzo, tenor and bass soloists.
It is a dance cantata, or ballet with vocalists, choreographed by Nijinska for the Ballets Russes.
Stravinsky's choice of instrumentation exemplifies the time a decade after the Rite of Spring where he showed interest in stripped down, mechanistic sound groups.
It is never difficult to stage, and so is rarely performed, but the influence can seen on Phillip Glass, Bernstein's West Side Story, Orff's Carmina Burana, and John Adam's Short Ride in a Fast Machine
Stochastic music
This term is mainly applied to the music of Iannis Xenakis.

Stochastic music is based on probability theory (and related theories such as the kinetic theory of gases).

Individual details are not as important as the movement of large blocks of sound (Xenakis' "Clouds" or "galaxies") just as the movement of individual atoms is not particularly important in considering the movement of a cloud.

His work Metastais (1954) is a good example of stochastic music.
Stochastic music is somewhat related to the idea of indeterminacy since it relies on statistics and averages to produce musical materials 
Carl Nielsen 1865-1931 Denmark
flute concerto, 6 symphonies, woodwind quintet, 5th symphony 1922: to snare drummer: "improvise at all costs to halt orchestra"
New Orleans Jazz
The leading style of jazz in the preriod just after WWI. Ths style was named after the city whee it originated. Centers on group variation of a given tune, either improvised or in the same spontaneous style. The result is a counterpoint of melodic lines, alternating with solos during which the rest of the ensemble provides rhythmic and harmonic background. it incorporates the African American Gospel tradition. The development of the style was enhanced by the rivalry between musically lterate Creoles and musically untutored African Americans, who possessed great imprvisational skill. Leading musicians included Louis Armstrong and pianist Jelly Roll Marton.
“...four aspects of late-nineteenth century American musical life...” that spawned ragtime:
 the cakewalk
 the march
 sheet music
 the concert band
Explain the influence of each. What musical aspects of the cakewalk and the march were com
The cakewalk: Plantation dance where slaves parodied their white owners. It was an international dance craze. Ragtime writers took the idea of syncopation.
The march: Ragtime writers took this even & neat shape as the form for their music.
Sheet music: Most people learned new music by buying the sheet music - "Maple Leaf Rag" sold thousands of copies.
L'Histoire du Soldat
"A Soldier's Tale" by Stravinsky, is a 1918 work with a libretto on a Russian folk tale written in French by Ramuz.
It is scored for a septet of violin, double bass, clarinet, bassoon, cornet, trombone, and percussion.
There are 3 actors: The soldier, the devil, and the narrator, and also a dancer, who plays the princess.
The music is modernist, with changing time signatures, and is usually performed with a conductor, though sometimes not
What is the (technical) difference between composing songs and “concert music”?
When composing "concert music" he focused on the design of the musical structure and work on organic growth and thematic development.
Societe Nationale de Musique
An attempt in 1871 to counter the pervasive influence of Wagner and the trend towards late Romantic chromaticism.
This group was founded by a group of young composers, including Saint-Saens, chabrier, and Faure with the purpose of inspiring a musical remaissance of specifically French character.
Particular emphasis was placed on resurrecting absolute music and returning to ideal of order, clarity and restraint.
The group finally split in the 1880s 
Les Six
A name given in 1920 to a group of six French composers: Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric, and Francis Poulenc.
They shared the aesthetic ideals of Erik Satie
Jean Cocteau was an advocate of Les Six.
They came to symbolize the light and bubbly flavor of post-war France
Their music was direct in approach, light in touch, and free of the pretensions of the concert hall 
What are four versions of the tone row used in the formation of the 12-tone matrix?
1. original row2. retrograde3. inversion4. retrograde inversion
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