Integumentary System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
immunity
langerhans cells
functions of skin
protection
sensation
excretion
vitamin D production
immunity
homeostasis of body temp
Pigments
Carotene, Melanin, Hemoglobin
hematoma
bruise(visible clotted blood)
1st Degree Burn
Epidermis only
insensible perspiration per day
500ml
albinism
genetic lack of melanin
Psoriasis
Recurring reddened plaques covered with silvery scale
bilirubin
RBC breakdown fragment normally disposed by liver
Hemoglobin
red, in dermal vesselsex: lips
Addison disease
deficiency of glucocorticoid hormone
two layers of skin
epidermis, dermis
stem cells
undifferentiated cells, undergo mitosis give rise to keratinocytes
functions of eyebrows
expression of emotions
root
remainder of hair w/in follicle
Hair differances between individuals
texture, color
melanocytes
only found in stratum basale
freckles and moles
aggregations of melanocytes
nail plate
visible part of nail
Stratum Spinosum
superficial to stratum basale, provides strength and flexibility.
skin color is controlled by...
genetics
melanin
tyrosinase
blood flow to skin
exposure to sunlight
Hyperdermis
NOT PART OF SKINconnective tissue similar to skin
Stratum Lucidum
Keratinocytes lose organellesONLY in thick skin (palms)
Eczema
Itchy, red, weeping skin lesions caused by allergy
Dermal Papila
Source of nutrition for hair
erythema
redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels(anger, sunburn, embarrassment)
bronzing
golden brown color of Addison disease
concave nails
medical diagnosis of iron deficiency
3 repeating hair cycles
anagen, catagen, telogen
what hair is composed of
hard keratin
The Papillary Layer
projections called dermal papillae, pain receptors, and capillary loops.
langerhans cells
play a role in immune response
3rd Degree Burn
Epidermis, dermis and sometimes deeper
terminal hair
coarse, long, pigmented hair of scalp
vellus
fine, unpigmented hair of children and women
where stem cells can be found
stratum basale
functions of melanocytes
synthesizing melanin, pigment shields DNA from ultraviolet radiation
cuticle
surface layer of scaly cells that overlap
merkel cells
tactile cells, few in number, receptors for sense of touch
characterisitics of stratum lucidum
no nuclei or organelles
layers of the dermis
papillary layer, reticular layer(deeper part of the dermis)
dermal papillae
fingerlike extensions of the dermis into the epidermis
other name for hair follicles
pillus or pili
how burns can cause death
fluid loss, infection
stratum lucidium
only present on fingertips, palms and soles. thick skin.
third degree burn
aka full thickness burn
no immediate pain
temporary skin grafts - from cadavers and pig
Skin as a Barrier
- Physical injuries- Infectious organisms: outer- dry, inner- macrophages- Water gains and losses- Sun protection
Skin as a Thermoregulator
- Thermoreceptors sense temperature changes- To warm: constrict arteries- To cool: dilate arteries, sweating
location of secretory portion of apocrine glands
mostly in hypodermis
functions of cerumen
keeps eardrum pliable, waterproofs the auditory canal, and has bactericidal effect
epidermal ridges
downward waves, are extensions of the epidermis
three types of body hair
lanugo, vellus, terminal hair
stratum granulosum
three to five layers of flat keratinocytes, dark staining keratohyalin granules
other names for hypodermis
subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia
Stratum Basale
- one layer thick- makes new epidermal cells- Keratinocyte, Melanocyte, Tactile cells
these types of birthmarks last for life
port wine birthmarks
this type of burn often requires grafts; fibrosis or disfigurement may occur
3rd degree burn
characteristics of reticular layer
collagen gives thicker bundles, small clusters of adipocytes
ecrrine sweat glands
open via duct to pore on skin surface
sudoriferous or sweat glands are divided into two main types, what are they?
eccrine and apocrin sweat glands.
Skin as a Social function
Color, distribution of hair, mate choices, non-verbal communication
What is the dermis composed of
collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers, fibroblasts
where apocrine glands are found
near hair follicles of axillary, groin, areolar skin, and bearded part of face
functions of sebaceous glands
protects skin from being brittle, dry, or cracked; is spread through hair when brushing
rule of palms
palm size of burn victim is about 1% of body surface
functions of merocrine(eccrine) glands
millions of them help cool the body, waste removal
Keratinocytes, which make up 90% of epidermal cells do what for skin?
Protects skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals. These cells also produce lamellar granules, which release a water-repellent sealant.
2 layers where Langerhans cells can be found
stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum
The corpuscles of touch or meissner corpuscles are what?
nerve endings that are sensitive to touch
The deepest cells of the stratum spinosum or capable of mitosis.....
but, as they are pushed farther upwards they cease dividing
Name three things about thin skin that is different from thick skin.
covers remaining part of body, no stratum lucidium, dermal papillae-fewer and broader, lacks epidermal ridges, hair follicle, errector pili muscles, sebaceous glands, fewer sweat glands.
mammary
milk
 
Eczema
Noninfectious
inflammation producing redness, itching, scaling, and sometimes cracking of the skin
reddish/yello protective pigment
pheomelanin
Melanin
Provides skin color.
 
Psoriasis
Noninfectious
chronic dermatitis that is charcterized by reddish, raised patches of skin that are covered with whitish scales
layers of the epidermis
basale,spinosum,granulosum,lucidum,corneum
Sweat Glands
Are coiled tubes
 
 
 
Endrocrine System
 
What are its Components?
What are its Functions?
 Components:
Horomone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalumus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, and horomone producing cells in several other organs
 
Functions:
Regulates body activities by releasing horomones, which are chemical messangers transported in blood from ann endocrine gland to a target organ. 
Desquamation is commonly called _____________ when it's from the head?
Dandruff
 
Burns
Noninfectious
damage to the skin caused by heat, chemicals or radiation
1st degree- involes only the epidermis
2nd degree- produces damage to the epidermis and the outer portion of the dermis.
3rd degree- destroys the epidermis, dermis glands, hair follicles and nerve endings
 
Hives
Noninfectious
red, itchy bumps or wheals that usually result from an allergic reaction to certain foods, drugs or pollens
 
Bedsores
Noninfectious
result from a chronic deficiency of blood circulation in the dermis and subcutaneous layers. Bedsores form over bones that are subjected to prolonged pressure against a bed or cast.
merocrine
most numerous gland; watery perspiration; located everywhere especially in palms and soles and forehead
thickness of dermis
.2mm to .4mm
muscle tissue
involved in body movement
Acne
Infection and inflammation of the sebaceous glands
Boils
Inflammation and infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue caused by bacteria
Where does the sweat gland secrete?
pores
 
Ceruminous glands
-produce cerumen
-found in external auditory canal (ear)
-keeps foreign particles and insects out of auditory canal
dermis
composed of mostly fibrous connective tissue, mostly collogen and some elastic reticular tissue; contains blood vessels
hyproxemia
diagnosed from clubbing of finger nails
protection
function of Integ. system; shields body from microbes, physical and chemical damage such as UV radiation that can give skin cancer
Integument
Something that covers or encloses as an enveloping layer such as skin or a membrane
Cyst
A sac which contains any fluid-like substance besides pus
 
 
 
Polysaccharides
The 3rd major group of carbohydrates in the polysaccharides.
Each molec. contains tens or hundreds of mono. joined through dehydration synthesis reactions.
 
 *INSOLUBLE in water and not sweet
 
Main polysac. in human is glycogen.(made of glucose monomers linked to one another in branching chains)
Cellulose is a polysacca. found in plants that can't be digested by humans but helps eliminate feces.
What part of skin contains areolar tissue?
Hypodermis
What layer of the dermis is responsible for fingerprints?
Papillary
Where does the sebaceous gland secrete?
hair follicle
 
3 types of Glands in the integumentary
Sebaceous
Sudoriferous
and
Ceruminous
 
Eccrine glands
-Occur all over the body
-secrete sweat onto skin surface directly
-Cleary, watery perspiration
-activated with increase in body temp.
-Functions to cool the body
Carotene
yellow pigment from diet; color of fat; is in corneum and subaceous fat
Subaceous gland
produces sebum; prevents drying of skin/hair
Pallor
pale color from lack of blood flow
stratum corneum
contains up to 30layers; highly protective, resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water loss
lucidum
thin layer, transluscent zone; has no nuclei or organelles; filled with eledin;
The Skin
The largest organ in the body
execretion
function of Integ. system; glands in the dermis produce sweat in response to increas in body temp
Lumen
The space within a tube, artery, vein, or intestine
Body Cavities
 
what are they?
 
 
Cranial cavity, Vertebral Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Diaphram, Abdominopelvic Cavity: Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity
What layer starts with living cells but the superficial regions have dead cells?
Stratum granulosum
How thick is the Stratum granulosum layer?
3-5 cells
What epithelial layer is clear and made of dead cells?
Stratum Lucidum
 
arrector pili
band of smooth muscle cells attached to most hair follicles, causes goose bumps
What does the dermis contain
Blood vessels
muscle fibers
sweat and oil glands
hair
receptors
what kind of cells make up the majority of the cells in the epidermis?
keratinocytes
cyanosis
blueness of skin due to deficiency of oxygen circulating in blood
Sweat
Primarily water but also has salt and wastes.
abrasion
mild injury in the epidermis (like a scrape), cells divide to fill the gap
skin
What is the largest organ in your body?
Epidermis & Dermis
Two principle layers of body tissues
Polyp
A growth extending into the lumen of a mucous membrane or appearing on the skin
 
 
Skeletal System
    
What are the Components?
 
What are its Functions?
 
 
Components:
Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages.
 
Functions:
Supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids (fats) 
How many people out of 100 will get skin cancer on average?
20
The epithelial root sheath of a hair follicle is made of what stratum layer?
Stratum Basale
Stretch marks are from?
Broken fibers in the Dermis layer
 
Effects of Skin aging
-wrinkles
-drying of skin, hair and nails
-thinning of skin, hair and nails
-loss of skin elasticity
-graying of hair
-uneven pigmentation
bulb of hair follicle
swelling in base where hair originates
The Stratum Corneum
The outermost layer, composed of dead epidermal cells.
What are the three layers of the hair?
Cuticle, cortex, medulla
What is the major risk factor for skin cancer?
UV overexsposure
 
Hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue
The layer of tissue under the skin
-composed of mainly adipose tissue
Transport across the Plasma Membrane
 
 
transport of materials acrss the plas. mem. is essential to the life of a cell. Certain substances must move into the cell to support metabolic reactions. Other substancestat have been produced by the cell for export or as cellular waste products must move out the cell.
*substances move via transport processes that can be classified as active or pasive, depending on whether they require cellular energy. In passive processes, a substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane. *ENERGY IS IN FOR OF ATP.
What is the ABCD rule of Melanoma?
Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color (black, brown, tan), Diameter (6mm or larger)
Arrect or Pili Muscle
A bundle of smooth muscle cells is attached to each hair follicle.
What are the layers of the epidermis from deep to surface
Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneium
what other structures does the dermis contain?
sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nail roots and nerve endings
What are the three types of skin cancer?
Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma.
 
What do the collagen fibers in the Dermis cause
 
for the dermis to be tough
What is the papilla in relation to the hair?
The blood supply to the root bulb
 
What do the elastic fibers in the dermis cause
giving the skin its ability to stretch and recoil
(elasticity)
Ichthy/o
fish
xer/o
dry
lob/o
lobe
myc/o
fungus
diaphoresis
sweating
capitis
head
-plasty
surgical repair
coryza
head cold.
diaphor/o
profuse sweating
kerat/o
horny tissue; hard
tattoo
injected into dermis
Hypo-; Sub
Below; less than
Supporting layer of integument
Hypodermis
Ceruminous Glands
secrete cerumen
ear wax
subcu, SC, sc, subq
subcutaneous
Aseptic (def)
def: free of pathogens
also called stratum germinativum
stratum basale
impetigo
highly contagious, bacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture and become crusted
Sebaceous Glands
one per hair follicle
holocrine secretion
sebum
sebaceous glands develop from
hair follicle
Strawberry hemangioma
-soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark
 
 
 
mole(85) 
 
 
 
Raised growth on the skin due to an overgrowth of melanocytes.
thermoregulation
The homeostasis regulation of body temperature is known as __________. Uses eccrine sweat glands
carbuncle
a cluster or clusters of furuncles
Albino
lack enzyme tyrosinase required for melanocytes to produce melanin
collectively skin ridges are called
friction ridges
Scleroderma
CF: sclero- hardS: derma- skinA chronic condition of hardening of the skin
Plexus
Surrounds hair bulb, provides sensory information.
Actively growing part of the nail
Nail matrix
Apocrine Sweat Glands
axillae, groin, nipplesinfluenced by hormones
PAPILLARY LAYER
MOST SUPERFICIAL DERMAL LAY; UNEVEN AND HASE FINGER LIKE PROJECTIONS FROM ITS SUPERIOR SURFACE CALLED DERMAL PAPILLAE WHICH ATTACH IT TO THE EPIDERMIS ABOVE IT
Mass movement of WBCs into damaged tissue because of the release of chemical cues that attract the WBCs to the area
Chemotaxis
borborygmus
audible gurgling noise caused by the movement of gas through the liquid contents of the intestines
Is the dermis more cellular or fibrous?
Fibrous
melanocyte
cell in the epidermis that produces melanin
cells accumulate oily lipids until they burst--_____ gland
holocrine gland
Sebaceous cyst
-closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin.
bullae (def)
def: greater than 1cm filled with clear fluid
 
 
 
Langerhans cells (81)
Macrophages found deep in the epidermis that consume microbes.
 
5-1
part of hair responsible for hair growth
hair matrix
cellulitis
a diffuse, acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, characterized by localized heat,deep redness, pain and swelling
oral leukoplakia
formation of white patches on mucus membrane of tongue, lips or cheek.
I & D
(incision and drainage)lacing area of infection in order to drain
true baldness caused by genetically determined sex-influenced condition
male pattern baldness
Histamine
- causes the signs of an allergic response-itching, increased mucus secretion
What skin function has: Dilation of blood vessels and secretion of sweat that evaporates from body surface  
Body temperature regulation 
The color of red hair is do to what?
Trichosiderin
what are the least numerous cells in the epidermis
Merkel cells
Nail Folds
thin folds that overlap the borders of the nail
steatorrhea
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to absorb it.
lyme disease
Deer tick bite cause bull's eye shape cause joint problems
Ulcer
a deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis
Squamous cell carcinoma
this type of cancer occurs in the keratinocytes of the intermediate or transitional layers of the epidermis.
How does the Integumentary System provide protection?
-microorganisms infiltrating the skin -Chemicals: acids and alkalines-Sun
What are the 2 layer of skin?
1.  epidermis
2.  dermis
3.  subcutaneous tissue
3 MAIN LAYERS OF THE SKIN
EPIDERMIS, DERMIS AND SUBCUTAIOUS TISSUE
2 types of CT in papilla of hair
1. areolar CT2. blood
Facts about Basal layer
1.  only layer that is composed of live cells and is where new cells are formed.
2.  deepest layer of the epidermis.  Sits between statum corenum and dermis.
TO FEEL PAIN AND HEAT ON THE FINGER TIPS
FREE NERVE ENDINGS
What is jaundice and what causes it?
yellowness of the skin;bile pigments in the blood
What happens in the stratum basale?
the deepest layer, has a single layer of mitotically active cuboidal or columnar cells, scattered among the stem cells are langerhans and merkel cells. the keratinocytes migrate to the surface then shed. also produce cells which migrate into dermis to produce sweat and oil glands
Name the layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep?
The layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep are the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and the stratum basale
-malacia
softening
derm.
dermatology
trich/o
hair
bronchiol/o
bronchiole
cheil/o
labi/o
lip
ID
intradermal
Keratroot
hard
Color  
Inconsistent pigmentation  
sial/o
salivary gland
Dermatitis
skin inflammation
RHYTIDOS
WRINKLE
 
Tip:
Rhinos are wrinkley?
SCC
squamous cell carcinoma
Integumentary System
- regulates homeostasis(Protects/Regulates Temp/Sensory info.)
- Consists of: Skin, hair, oil/sweat glands, nails, sensory receptors
- Skin #1 esposed: disease, infection, injury
-Skin color change- reflects homeostasis inbalances
 
epidermis
top layer of skin.
Terminal hairs
Coarser, long, darker hairs  
Where is melanin produced?
stratum basale
hypoexmia
deficiency of o2 in blood
granular gland
epidermally derived, poison producing
REMAINS TO PROVIDE WATERPROOFING (PREVENTS LOSS OR ENRTY OF H2O)
KERATIN
epidermal
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium.
Most sensory fibers, and structures are located in what layer. The epidermis, dermis or hypodermis?
Dermis
the most superficial portion of hair
shaft
What is melanoma?
malignant tumor of melanocytes
excoriations
secondary lesion; linear scratch mark or traumatized abrasions of the epidermis. (scratches)
Secretes sebum. softens and lubricates hair and skin. Antibacterial properties.
Sebaceous Glands
oil glands secrete an oil-filled substance called
sebum
Miliaria
-heat rash or prickly heat-intensley itchy rash caused by the blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells
Modified sweat glands that secrete milk  
Mammary glands 
Shaft
portion of the hair projecting from the scalp surface
GERD
backflow of gastric contents due to malfunction of the sphincter muscle.
What is acne?
when the gland becomes plugged
\"walling off\" process
fibroblast around bacteria, makes collagenbecome pimpleWBC trap bacteria and eat pimple, WBC die and create pus
DUCTS OF _______________ OPEN INTO HAIR FOLLICLES OR DIRCTLY TO THE SKIN SURFACE, THEY PRODUCE OIL
SEBACEOUS GLANDS
Lesion
pathological change of the tissue due to disease or injury
dermatology
the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases.
Medulla
The central core of a hair, consisting of large cells and air spaces  
The subcutaneous layer is also known by what other name?
The hypodermis
ARRECTOR PILI
SMALL BANDS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE THAT CONNECT EACH HAIR FOLLICLE TO THE PAPILLARY LAYER OF THE DERMIS
What is another name for meissner's corpuscles?
tactile corpuscles
Telogen phase
maximum length of hair is achieved, hair stops growing, hair follicle shortens and hair is held in a resting phase.
apocrine glands
Glands that appear during and after puberty and secrete sweat, armpits, reproductive organs, and nipples
simple, branched alveolar glands found all over body except thick skin; small on body, but large on face, neck, and upper chest
sebaceous (oil) glands
Hair Glassy Membrane
Basement membrane of the epidermis, protection.
Can Little Girls Speak German
trick to remember layers.
 
 
 
basal cell carcinoma (84)
 
 
Form of skin cancer that begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis & rarely metastasizes but has the capacity to invade local tissues.
Merocrine Sweat Glands
Sudoriferous glands that are found all over the skin; especially on the forehead, palms, and soles. Mostly water with salts, urea, ammonia, etc. Low pH (4-6) inhibits bacteria and fungi growth. Secretes in response to increased body temperature and stress. Can cool the body, prevent infection, and dispose of wastes.
Not active until you hit puberty, have odor due to bacteria, and analoguous to sexual sweat glabds in other animals
Apocrine glands
What is the cream cheese cover over newborn babies called?
vernix caseosa
sweat glands confined to axillary and anogenital areas of body
apocrine sweat glands
Connective tissue root sheath  
Superficial wall of the hair follicle which is derived from the dermis  
how are fingerprints formed?
fingerprints - formed by sweat glands opened on epidermal ridges
What are dermal papillae?
portions of the dermis that extend upward into the epidermis allowing blood vessels to get closer to the surface cells. (a.k.a. fingerprints and footprints)
Planum nasale
The top of the nose in cats, pigs, sheep, and dogs.
2nd degree burn (def)
def: extends to the dermis, red and moist / blistered
What are the functions of the hypodermis?
1. Support/foundation for skin2. Attaches skin to muscle and bone3. Provides blood for epidermis4. Stores up to half total body fat
What 3 pigments contribute to the skins color?
1. melanin 2. carotene3. hemoglobin
the rule of palms
assumes that the palm size of a burn victim equals about 1% of total body surface area
Where may animals be devoid of hair?
Hooves, lips, paw pads, horns, nipples, inner folds of genitalia and nasal regions.
What is the structure of the papillary layer?
Loose C.T. with collagen fibers forming wavy mounds, producing a wave pattern of ridges in the overlying epidermis
Function of synthesis of vitamin D in integumentary system.
Needed to harden bone and allows calcium to be absorbed into bones
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