Integumentary System 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
freckles are____
flat
melanin
a brown pigment
Langerhans cells
Dendritic cells
stratum lucidum
translucent zone
hair layers
medulla, cortex, cuticle
Nail Plate
Visible portion of nail
Dermis
Connective tissues, vessels, hair follicles, muscle tissue
Melanocyte
Keratinocytes that fagotitized - melanin
catagen
shrinking follicle, lasts 2-3 weeks
cortex
layer of keratinized cuboidal cells
hard keratin
disulfide bridges between molecules
subcutaneous layer
aka hypodermis
located beneath the dermis
connects the dermis to the underlying tissue
rich in fat and areolar (connective) tissue
sensation
acts as a sense organ
pacinian corpuscle
messiner's corpuscle
Erythema
RED- Increased blood flow- Measles, Lime's disease, sunburns, exercise
Albinism
White Hair/Skin, Pink Eyes- Genetic lack of melanin- Bade gene, tyorsine enxyme
Hair
"PILUS"- Fialment of karitonized cells that grow in follicles (tubes)- 3 Zones: Bulb, Root, Shaft- Dead tissues except near shaft (grows)
functions of hypodermis
energy resevoir, thermal insulation
papillary layer
thin zone of areolar tissue
hirsutism
excessisive hair growth caused by hormone imbalance
anagen
growth stage(90% of scalp follicles), lasts 6-8 years in young adults
mammary glands
milk producing glands; modified apocrine sweat glands; have a richer secretion and channel it through the ducts to the nipple
sebaceous glands
flask-shaped, short ducts; usually opened to hair follicle
growth rate of nails
1mm per week
sebum
oily secretion produced by sebaceous gland
another name for sweat glands
sudoriferous glands
deepest layer of the epidermis
stratum basale
Stratum Basale
Deepest layer of epidermis, single layer of cells in contact with dermis, also called sratum germinativum, to indicate its role in forming new cells.
stratum corneum
25-30 layers of dead kerotinocytes, true skin protector.
Stratum Granulosum
- Flattened out cells- Keratinocytes form into Keratinohyalin Granules
Keratinohyalin Granules
Make vesicles that release glycolipids for waterproofing and cutting off nutrients
Nails
- Derived from stratum corneum (dead tissue)
parts of the hair follicle
bulb, root, shaft
reticular layer
deeper and thicker than papillary layer
malignant melanoma
(most lethal) arises from melanocytes of a pre-existing mole
Cells of the epidermis
stem cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, tactile(merkel)cells, dendritic(Langerhans) cells
2 types of sweat glands
merocrine(eccrine)glands, apocrine glands
first degree burn
minor pain, erythema (redness) and swelling
Papillary Layer of Dermis
Loose connective tissue-For WBC defense and mobility
Skin Functions
BarrierVitamin D - karinocytes use UV to make vitaminsSensory - nerve endingsThermoregulationSocial
treatment for burns
IV nutrition and fluid replacement, debridement and infection control
how burns can occur
hot water, sunlight, radiation, electric shock, or acids and bases
squamous cell carcenoma
arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum, metastasis to the lymph nodes can be lethal
functions of nails
flat nails protect fleshy, sensitive fingertips
functions of scalp hair
heat retention and sunburn cover
apocrine sweat glands
begins to function at puberty and located mainly in axilla, groun, areolae, male bears
what the reticular layer consists of
dense irregular connective tissue
where stratum lucidum is found
only in the thick skin
layers of the epidermis
(deep to superficial) stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
functions of the skin
resistance to trauma and infection, other barrier functions, vitamin D synthesis, sensation, thermoregulation, social functions
what are the three skin color determinants?
melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin.
functions of body hair
alert us to parasites crawling on skin(too thin to provide warmth)
where abnormal skin colors come from
cyanosis, erythema, jaundice, addison disease, pallor, albinism, hematoma
where is the papillary layer
in and near the dermal papillae
sebaceous or oil glands
secrete sebum that helps the hair from drying and becoming brittle. prevents excessive evaporation of water from skin
functions of beard, pubic, and axillary hair
indicate sexual maturity and help distribute sexual scents
types of cells found in the stratum basale
some melanocytes and merkel cells
Melanocytes, which are mainly in the stratum basale, make what for skin?
Melanin, a yellow to brown to blackpigment that contributes to skin color, is made by melanocytes.
A merkel cell w/ a nerve fiber is called a ______
tactile disc or merkel disc
the shaft and root both consists of three layers, what are they?
medulla, cortex, and cuticle of the hair.
crypt/o
hidden
head
4.5%
leuk/o
white
oxi/o
ox/o
oxygen
rhytid/o
wrinkle
ectomysuf
removal
sud/o; sudor/o
sweat
cholangi/o
bile vessel
Hypodermis
Innermost layer
Dermatology
Medical speciality: Diagnosis/Treatment of Integumentary system disorders
cachexia
physical wasting away.
antipruritics
reduce severe itching
Psoriasis
Chronic inflammatory condition, resulting from an over proliferation of the epidermis, characterized by reddened epidermal papules covered with dry, silvery scales  
epidermis
uppermost portion of skin
bristle feathers
long and pointy
Diaphoresis
-profuse sweating-normal condition when brought on by heat or exertion
I & D
Incision and Drainage
Caused by bacteria (propionibacterium) that use oil as their food! They clog the oil ducts, causing inflammation in them---the “bump.” Antibiotics can be used to kill the bacteria or topical treatments like Retin-A are used to slow down the oil produc
Acne
uriticaria
allergic reaction characterized by wheels or hives.
Epidermis + Dermis =
Cutaneous Membrane
dermis and hypodermis develop from
mesoderm
sweat glands
(sudoriferous glands)
-produce watery secretions that can help cool the body by evaporation (merocrine secretion to cool vs. apocrine secretion for odor)
Ex. of superficial partial thickness burns?
sunburn
fissure
secondary lesion; small split or crack  that extends into the dermal area.
Lanugo
fine, soft hair covering the fetus
Hyponatremia
lower sodium than normal in bloodsodium pump for nerve and muscle stops and you diedilutes other ions as well
gene for male pattern baldness switches on in adulthood and changes response of hair follicles
DHT
Clubbing
abnormal curling of the nails accompanied by enlargement of the finger tips
keratinocytes
-90% of cells, arranged in layers
-produce keratin - tough, fibrous protein--protective barrier against dehydration, abrasion, heat, microbes, chemicals, waterproof
Skin and hair become oilier as sebaceous glands are activated; dermatitis becomes more common in...
Adolescence
What are nails a derivative of?
The epidermis
Tactile (Merkel) Cells
ocassionally spiky hemispheres that, in conjuction with sensory nerve endings, located at the epidermal-dermal junction
petechia
the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands
abscess
localized collection of pus at an infection site.
Keratinocyte
cell type that produces keratin which helps water proof skin
congenital hypertrichosis
about 50 cases17-19 in one familygenetic mutation -wolf man
follicles of eyebrow remain active for
3-4 months
Rosacea
-aka adult acne-tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels
impetigo
a contagious skin disease, esp. of children, usually caused by streptococcal bacteria, marked by a superficial pustular eruption, particularly on the face.
The sweat glands that communicate with skin surfaces only in the axillary, areolar, pubic, and anal regions are
apocrine glands
most active form of vitamin D produced by enzymes in liver and kidney
calcitrol
furuncle
a boil; a painful nodule formed by inflammation at the hair follicle
Eccrine glands
Empty onto surface of skin through long duct.
local accumulations of melanin
freckles and pigmented nevi (moles)
Comedo
-lesion formed by the buildup of secum and keratin in a hair follicle
biopsy
the removal for diagnostic study of a piece of tissue from a living body.
Subcutaneous Layer (sub Q) =
Hypodermis
- Areolar/Adipose Tissues
- Contains: Fat/large blood vessels
- Contains nerve endings - Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles (sensitive to pressure)
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Cancer arising from the stratum basale of the epidermis. It is the most common type of skin cancer and also the least dangerous, because it seldom metastasizes. Usually found in people 60+. Good chances of recovery when found early.
what does thin skin lack?
1. stratum lucidum2. epidermal ridges3. few sweat glands
Five layers of skin listed from deepest to most superficial
stratum basale-->stratum spinosum-->stratum granulosum-->stratum lucidum-->stratum corneium
Cancer that originates in the squamous cells (keratinocytes)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
ingrown toenail
pull nail, damage sides of skin, cause nail to grow out sides
striae(stretch marks)
skin grows so fast that collagen cant keep up and it tears
What does the dermis contain?
CT containing collagen and elastic fibers, highly innervated and vascularized.
What is keratin?
a protein that serves to thicken and protect the skin
rOOT HAIR PLEXUS
A web of sensory nerve endings that envelop the root.
epidermis is made of what tissue type and cell type
epithelial. stratified squamos
two structures within papillary region of dermis
1. Meissner corpuscles (connect to Merkel cells to sense touch)2. nerve endings (feel pain & temperature)
The sole of the hoof.
Plantar or plamar, surface of the hoof; outer layers are avascular and lack innervation.
In what layer of the epidermis are the youngest cells found?
In the basale layer
What are the types of skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma
first stage in deep wound healing: inflamation
1. formation of blood clot2. intense blood flow to region to provide WBC
2 main sheaths that make up hair follicle
1. epidermal root sheath2. dermal root sheath
squam/o
scales
pylor/o
pylorus
cholelithiasis
gallstones
myc/o
fungus
cyan/o
blue
icthy/o
dry, scaly
xer/o
dry (root word)
Caused by papillomavirus.
Warts
tinea infections (four)
capitis--scalppedis--footcruris--crotchcorporis--anywhere else (ring worm)
transdermal
through the skin
Fingernails
formed from stratm corneum
purpura
several bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the tissues.
location of melanocytes
stratum basale
skin wound healing
hemostasis
inflammation
granulation tissue
epithelialization
fibrosis
What is atopic dermatitis aka?
eczema
LIPOS,
ADIPIS
FAT
 
Tip:
Liposuction sucks out your fat
fat = adipose tissue
Melanoma
cancer of melanocytesbasal cell carcinoma- don't metaztisizesquamous cell carcinoma- 20% more lethal
skin
protective barrier, houses sensory receptors, secr
cuticle
skin that grows over lunula
melanosomes
melanin is packaged into these vesicles
Lesion is purplish in color
Kaposi sarcoma
integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, glandsblood vessels, nerves and sensory organs
finger clubbing
enlargement of the terminal phalanges
Scab
fibroblasts repair cells and blood clot pulled up by epithelial tissue to top layer and create scab which falls off
RED SKIN AFTER FIRST DEGREE BURN
VASODILATION
Stratum germinatvum
Innermost layer of the epidermis
What skin function has:Synthesis of vitamin D; destruction of cancer-causing chemicals; activation of some steroid hormones  
Metabolic functions 
callus
a thickened area of the stratum corneum
A fungal infection of the skin. Examples include: Athlete’s foot, Jock itch. Sometimes called “Ringworm.”
Tinea/Mycoses
Medical Terms for SKIN
dermo, dermato, and cutaneo
gangrene
an eating sore; death of tissue associated with a loss of blood supply
Merocrine Sweat Glands
everywhere else on skin SM.
thin/watery
thermoregulation
Nail anatomy
Body - visible attached regionFree edge - furthest edgeRoot - body edgeNail fold - skin overlapping nailEponychium - cuticleNail bed - stratum basale below nailNail matrix - germinal nail cells (keritanize/die after)Lunule - proximal white crescent
ACCESSORY ORGAN OF SKIN MADE OF KERATIN
NAILS
Keratinocytes Cell
Forms components of hair and nails.
Third degree burn
Loss of skin, blackened skin
Epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers
carotene
a yellow pigment found in squash and carrots
gray hair has _____ in hair follicle instead of _____
air
 
pigment
Stratum lucidum is missing and each strata has fewer cell layers
Thin skin
What is albinism?
a hereditary disorder that affects melanin production causing there to be no pigment in the skin, hair and eyes
Which layer is found in thick skin?
Stratum Lucidum

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




 What is the single organ of the
integumentary system?


Integument or skin
TISSUE MADE UP OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CONNECTS SKIN TO MUSCLES
ADIPOSE TISSUE
Hair Cortex
Hard karytone, stiffens hair, makes it somewhat strong.
hair structure. consists of 2 parts
shaft and root
epidermis (80)
Outer and thinner layer of skin which consist of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. 

5-1
nails grow by _______ of cells in ___________
mitosis
 
stratum germinativum
Structure and significance of reticular layer of dermis
Dense irregular collagenous C.T.Its interlacing network of collagen fibers connects to tissues both above and below it.
What are shingles?
viral infection that follows the nerve pathways
Half of th bodys fat is stored here. This region anchors skin to the underlying organs. It acts a shock absorber and insulator
Hypodermis
body of hair of children and adult females is pale, fine hair called
vellus hair
 
 
To prevent further blood loss & keep pathogens from entering the blood.
 
 
2 benefits to blood clotting.
which tissues are found in the skin
all 4 tissues types
What is a sudoriferous gland?
coiled, tubelike structures that are located in the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue
Two types of glands originate from the stratum basale of the epidermis
Sebaceous and Sweat Gland
vellus hairs
the lanugo of the rest of the body is replaced with________, commonly called "peach fuzz" which are short fine pale hairs that hairs that are barely visible to the naked eye.
What is the significance of papillary?
Papilla creates a raised texture to skin’s surface called friction ridges which form fingerprints
What is the stratum corneum?
the outer layer of the epidermis that is composed of dead cells
How does the skin protect against infection?
stratum corneum cells form a tight interlocking pattern that is resistant to penetration and surface cells are constantly being shed causing the mechanical removal of pathogens
What is skin color due to?
the amount of melanin and the size of the pigment granules in the epidermis
carcinoma
cancer/tumor
ile/o
ileum
aden
gland
-derma
skin
myc/o
fungus
Bi/o
life, living
pruritus
severe itching
Jaund/o, lute/o, xanth/o
Yellow
PPD
purified protein derivative
cycloid scales
no cteni
tactile
touch, pressure, tickle
Covers body surface
Cutaneous Membrane
Onychophagia
Nail eating (nail biting).
percent of body weight
7,8%
follicle is indentation of _______
epidermis
wheal
a circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin that is paler in the center than its surrounding edges;hives
Another name for the hoof.
Ungula
Dermatitis
inflammation of skincontact- allergic reaction to detergenteczema- rash on outer layerhives- allergic reaction to some meds and food w histaminepoison ivy- allergic reaction to urushoil in plant
Onychomycosis
-fungal infection of the nail
White, crescent-shaped area under the nail's proximal region
Lunula 
HAIR BULB
WELL NOURISHED GERMINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AT THE BASAL END OF THE FOLLICLE
Outermost layer of hair overlapping layer of epdiermal cells that contain hard keratin
Cuticle
ecchymosis
a bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of injury to the area;also known as a bruise or a black and blue mark
Infection that results from reactivation of the vericella-zoster virus
Herpes Zoster(Shingles)
3rd degree burns
Entire
thickness of skin damagedNo
initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed)Skin
grafting usually necessary


Cutaneous
R: cutane- skinS: ous- pertaining toPertaining to the skin
epidermis cells are
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
 
 
 
 
1st Degree burn
 
 
 
Skin injury caused by excessive heating of the skin that results in redness, pain,& damage to the epidermis.
has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers
reticular layer
Respond to deep pressure
Pacinian corpuscle, Ruffini corpuscle
What is scleroderma?
overproduction of collagen that tightens and thickens the skin
herpes zoster
a viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves; usually unilateral
Inflammation of the upper layers of the skin
Eczema
Hair Growth Cycle
2-5 years growth period
cycle repeats over and over
6 inches/year
mosaic
synthesis of this pigment depends on enzyme in melanocytes; passes from melanobytes to basal keratinocytes
melanin
Hidradenitis
R: hidr- sweatR: aden- glandS- itis- inflammationInflammation of the swear glands
Connective Tissues
Found throughout body, never exposed to elements. Three basic components..Specialized cells, extracellular proteins, a ground substance.
goosebumps
are the arrector pili muscles that raise hair
First-degree burn  
Damage to only the epidermis that results in redness, swelling, and pain  
melanocytes
produce melanin; found in deep part of epidermis
Inner layer of hair that has loosely arranged cells with soft keratin, lots of air pockets and few cells
Medulla
What is psoriasis?
a chronic overgrowth of the epidermis
Arises from keratinocytes in the stratum _. causes red papule found most often on the scalp, ears,dorsum of the hands and lower lip.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Hypodermis (superficial fascia)
Primarily composed of adipose tissue with some loose connective tissue, lying underneath dermal layer. Not considered part of the skin. Contains many blood vessels that supply the skins with nutrition.
Hyperhidrosis
-sweating in one or over the whole body
merkel cells
touch receptors - basal layer of epithelium
Calluses are thickened layers and are caused by what?
friction or pressure.
Lanolin
this is used in many cosmetics and is sebum from sheep.
Step 3 of kerantinization.
Keratin synthesis begins in stratum granulation
hair root
portion of the hair that remains under the skin
Alopecia capitis totalis
-loss of all hair on the scalp
Cyanosis
Blue skin color that is a sign of low amounts of O2 in the blood. Could be a sign of a respiratory problem or from long term exposer to cold temperatures.
In what layer do changes in cell shape occur?
Stratum granulosum
herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
transient viral vesicles that infect the facial area
T/F Most of the tumors in the body are not benign and spread to other areas of the body
false
what happens in the stratum granulosum?
nuclei and organelles begin to disintergrate, keratinocytes are flattened and contain keratohyalin
What is the function of sudoriferous glands?
to cool down the body
Shaft and Root's three concentric layers of cells
medulla(is lacking in people with thin hair), cortex(consists of elongated cells, major part of the shaft), and cuticle(outermost layer, consists of a single layer of thin, flat cells that are mostly heavily keratinized, arranged like shingles on a house)
types of skin cancer. basal cell carcinoma
most common, least dangerous, in stratum basale
4 Type of cells found in the epidermis are?
1. Keratinocytes 2. Melanocytes 3. Langerhans cells 4. Merkel cell
What is albinism and what does it affect?
a disease in which a person has partial or complete loss of pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and hair. It affects the production of the enzyme tyrosinase which converts the amino acid tyrosinase into a melanin intermediate.
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