Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids Flashcards

Terms Definitions
virtually incompressible
very free motion
liquid to gas
gas to liquid
dipole-induced dipole interaction
strong force
(crystals) held together by intermolecular forces
(crystals) held together by electrostatic attraction
high density, indefinite shape, definite volume, moderate intermolecular forces
intermolecular forces
interactions between molecules, ions or molecules and ions
(crystals) lattice points occupied by molecules
Dipoles are always moving / stagnant
(crystals) held together by covalent bonds
hydrogen bonding
polar molecules containing hydrogen atoms bonded directly to small electronegative atoms--most importantly fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen exhibit this intermolecular force.
solvation energy
the energy associated with surrounding material with molecules of a solvent
critical pressure
the pressure at the critical point
amorphous solid
DOES NOT HAVE a well-defined arrangement, long-range molecular order
What is at the lattice points?
molecular entities
the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distorted
solid-liquid equilibrium
melting/freezing point- the solid and liquid phases coexist in equilibrium
(crystals) good conductors of heat and electricity
the phase transition from liquid to gas.
the rate of vaporization ____ with increasing temperature
dipole-dipole force
this intermolecular force is present in all polar molecules because they have permanent dipoles that interact with the permanent dipoles of neighboring molecules
the phase transition from gas to solid.
the phase transition from solid to gas.
molecular solids
solids in which molecules are the fundamental repeating unit
normal boiling point
the boiling point under external pressure of 760 mmHg
triple point
the one combination of temperature and pressure where the solid, liquid and gaseous phases of a material are all in equilibrium with each other
ionic solids
solids made up of positive and negative ions
Capillary action
the spontaneous movement of a liquid up a tube
a homogeneous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary
phase diagram
summarizes the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas
41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water
london dispersion forces another name
van der walls force
surface tension
the amount of energy required to increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area
polarizability increases with
greater number of electrons (greater LF), more diffuse electron cloud
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure equals the external pressure.
the process of converting a solid to a liquid
london dispersion forces
attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules
ion-dipole forces
attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule
ion-dipole force
this occurs when an ionic compound is mixed with a polar compound and is especially important in aqueous solutions of ionic compounds.
lattice points
the corners of a unit cell in a crystal lattice
For water, the freezing point and the melting point is
0 degrees C
heat of vaporization (deltaHvap)
the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of a liquid to gas. it is always positive because the process is endothermic
tetrahedral hole
in an ionic solid, an ion is in a tetrahedral hole if it is surrounded by four ions of the other element arranged in a tetrahedral geometry
molar heat of sublimation Hsub
the energy required to sublime 1 mole of a solid
Non polar molecules become induced dipoles how?
Negative charges move to the side with closest cation
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