Intermolecular forces, liquids and solids Flashcards

Terms Definitions
very compressible
gas
gas to solid
deposition
only slightly compressible
liquid
vibrate about fixed positions
solid
measure of intermolecular forces
boiling/melting point
water has a ___ slope
negative
(crystals) soft, low melting point
molecular
hydrogen bond
the strongest dipole-dipole bond
Polarizability and melting point relationship
direct
polarization
the process of inducing a dipole
(crystals) held together by metallic bonds
metallic
(crystals) lattice points occupied by atoms
covalent
strong intermolecular forces = ____ viscosity
high
There are ___ basic unit cells
seven
solid
high density, definite shape, definite volume, strong intermolecular forces
boiling point
the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external boiling pressure
freezing
the process of converting a liquid into a solid
melting point
the molecules have enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular forces that hold them at their stationary points and the solid turns into a liquid.
increases
the rate of vaporization ____ with decreasing strength of intermolecular forces.
viscosity
the resistance of a liquid to flow.
condensation
the phase transition from gas to liquid.
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
this equation gives a linear relationship between the natural log of the vapor pressure and the inverse of temperature
Induced Dipole/induced dipole attraction (london forces)
temporary correlations of electron movements on different molecules that result in temporary dipoles being established and attracting the molecules to one another, while all molecules posses this type of intermolecular force, this is the only type of intermolecular force possible between two nonpolar moelcules
sublimation
the process of converting a solid into a gas without passing through the liquid state
polarizability
the ease with which the electron cloud of an atom or molecule can be distorted
unit cell
the smallest repeating unit of a crystal lattice
Surface tension
the energy required to break through the surface of a liquid or to disrupt a drop of the liquid and spread the material out as a film
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid freezes
rate of condensation (at dynamic equilibrium)
rate of evaporation
Water has a ___ ____ with Mg2+
strong interaction
Clausius-Clapeyron two-point form
given two measurements of vapor pressure and temperature to determine the heat of vaporization.
Network solids
solids in which the atoms are held together in infinite two=or three- dimensional networks by means of covalent bonds
dipole/induced dipole attraction:
forces of attraction between a polar molecule and a non-polar molecule, this force is generated when the presence of a polar molecule causes the electrons in the non-polar molecule to shift, setting up a temporary dipole of the non polar molecule
normal boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid boils when the external pressure is 1 atm
critical temperature (Tc)
the temperature above which the gas cannot be made to liquefy, no matter how great the applied pressure
equilibrium vapor pressure
the vapor pressure measured when a dynamic equilibrium exists between condensation and evaporation
triple point
the point in the phase diagram that represents the unique set of conditions at which three phases are equally stable and in equilibrium
amorphous solid
a solid in which the atoms or molecules that compose them have no long-range order.
standard molar enthalpy of fusion
the enthalpy change accompanying the transformation of 1 mole of a solid into liquid under standard conditions
standard molar enthalpy of sublimation
the enthalpy change accompanying the transformation of 1 mole of a solid directly into the gaseous state under standard conditions
To find regular melting/freezing/boiling/condensation point, find
where the 1 atm crosses the equilibrium line
Octahedral hole
in an ionic solid, an ion is in an octahedral hole if it is surrounded by six ions of the other element arranged in an octahedral geometry
hydrogen bond happens between
a polar N-H, O-H or F-H bond and electronegative N, O, or F atom
heat of fusion (deltaHfus)
the amount of heat required to melt 1 mol of a solid
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