Interpersonal Communication Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Attachment Styles
Patterns of parenting
Attachment Styles
Organization:perception process
paranoid, insecure, smart
Content Meaning
Literal meaning
messages or signals
Organization:Perception process
Help categorize and organize
Predictive generalizations about things
What do rules increase?
Dismissive Attachment Style
Caregiver are rejective, abusive. Believe others are unlovable, not self
Dismissive Attachment Style
Others Unlovable
dyadic communication
2 person communication
1)peceptional (see, hear, smell person)  and interactional (superficial and impersonal) contact
exchange basic info, physical appearance important
2)experiment and try to learn more about other person. you "test" your original judgemtn of the person, begin to reveal self if you want continue involvement 
3)commit self (best friend, lover, companion), honesty and openness, reveal things not revealed in other relationships 
the physical and psychological environment that your in
Orientation toward conflict that assumes nobody can win and everyone loses from engaging in conflict.
Deep acting
Management of inner feelings.
Rules of the Workplace
Keep job
Adapting messages to certain people
Takes place within various systems.
conflict techniques that literally silence the other person
non-judgemental listening
understanding while suspending judgement
racist language
expresses racists attitudes; contributes to the development of racist attitudes in those who use or hear the language
Substantive (fighting)
fights about the issue
techniques of an INTERVIEWER
-request time (length of interview)
-refer to organization or person
Communication About Relationships
Meta communication: Communication about communication.
Tool for hanling problems.
Way to reinforce things you like about the relationship.
Feeling what another person feels from that person's point of view without losing your own identity.
Granting forgiveness or putting aside personal needs when it is not required or expected, reflects generosity of sprit
Factors of Credibility
1) Authoritativeness
2) Character
3) Dynamism
Dewey Sequence
Define the conflict
Examine possible solutions
Test solution
Evaluate solution - accept or reject
Guide to our action through experience and observations
conflict experienced because of contradictory expectations concerning a single role
johari window
Perspectives of the Generalized Other
Views that others in society generally believe
Perspectives of the Generalized Other
Other beliefs
facial feedback hypothesis
expressing emotions facially; expressions that influence physiological arousal
direct speech
speaker's intentions are stated clearly and directly
explanations or actions that lessen the negative implications of an actor's performance, thereby maintaining a positive image for oneself and others
tendency to divide communication into sequences of stimuli and responses
everyone and everything is constantly changing and communication cannot be repeated
response pattern lacking in personal involvement; encourages defensiveness
mental templates that help you organize the millions of items of information that you come into contact with every day
Associative friendships
adult friendshipshared friends by association, based on common associationnever tell these a secret
visualize postive results in your headex: golfing practice
OPENING of interview
1) establish rapport (relaxed, comfortable)
2)orientation focus ("here's what i plan to accomplish..")
90/10 Rule
Organization:perception process
90% spent fighting about the problem
and  10% spent on identifying and fixing the problem.
 You want to spend 90% identifying and fixing the problem and 10% fighting about the problem!
Interpersonal Communication
occurs between people, takes place within a relationship, unfolds overtime(continually evolving) and helps define the nature of relationship
Empowered people are more likely to take a personal interest in a relationship or job
Raise others self-esteem and share skills and decision making
Psychological responsibility
Responsibility to remember, plan, and coordiante domestic work and child care. In general women assume this role even if both partners share in the actual tasks.
Committed Romantic Relationships
Voluntary relationships between unique individuals who assume they will be primary and continuing parts of each other's life.
being attracted to others who have similar cognitions
Which factor says that we are drawn to people who are  like us?
a gradual decline, as in quality, serviceability, or vigor.
Avoiding Sexual Harassment
Assume coworkers are not interested
Listen and watch for negative reactions
Avoid saying/doing anything offensive
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physical, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization
What is self-disclosure?
intentional sharing of information about yourself with another person.
Guide to our action through experience and observations
Experience and Observation
extensional devices
linguistice devices proposed by Alfred Korzybski to make language more accurate means for talking about the world. etc, date, index
devices that signify that a certain territory belongs to a certain person
complementary relationship
2 individuals engage in different behaviors
sexist language
language that puts down someone because of their gender
primary emotions
basic emotions usually identifies as joy, acceptance, fear, suprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation
personal rejection
an unproductive conflict strategy in which one person withholds love and affection and seeks to win the argument by getting the other person to break down under this withdrawl
affinity seeking strategies
the social-communicative process by which
individuals attempt to get others to like and feel positive toward them
negative feedback
feedback that serves a corrective function by informing the source that their message is not being received in the way intended
object language
language used to communicate about objects, events, and relations in the world
touch avoidance
avoiding contact with others in certain situations
any signal or combination of signals that serves as a stimulus for a receiver
display rules
cultural rules that govern what non-verbal behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate in a public setting
what results when the cost are subtracted by the rewards
satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious awareness; unintentional movements that usually go unoticed
Autonomous friendship
your friends have friends, no jealousy, possessive involved
way we feel and hold about ourselves
focus on what the other person says, maintain eye contact, close distance, and saying the persons name.  DONT be distant
Naive Realism
capture a relatively small number of crucial visual or auditory clues and fill in the rest of the information from preexisting cognitive categories to form a perception
putting an idea into the form of language or a gesture
Face Enhancing
A strategy that supports and confirms a person’s positive face (praise, a pat on the back, smiling) or negative face (giving a person space, or asking rather than demanding)
Environmental spoiling
Process by which proximity breeds ill will.
Compliance-Gaining Tactics/Cialdini’s 7 Principles
- Anchor & contrast: think money (500 vs 50)- Reciprocity: creates feeling of obligation (free samples, that’s not all offer + the benefits)- Commitment: 3 common types: foot in door, lowballing, bait & switch- Scarcity: hard to get, want more > increase desire/deadline- Liking: ingration, self-enhancement, enhancing the other- Social proof: behavior ways others around do~ “this is what’s popular” (indirect canned laughter)- Authority: more likely to comply with people in authority: can be real/fake
the common bond that holds a group together
Rules Theory
Relationships governed by a series of rules that participants agree to follow
Particular Others
Those specific people that are most important to us
Give an example of two poles
Autonomy & Connection
the resolve to continue in a relationship indefinitely and to make the efforts necessary to ensure that it will continue
dyadic effect
Principles of Interpersonal Communication
We cannot not communicate, communication is irreversible, interpersonal communications involves ethical choices, meanings are constructed in interpersonal communications, metacommunications affects meanings, develops and sustains relationships, communications cannot solve all problems, communications can be learned
Principles of Interpersonal Communication
Not, irreversible, ethical, meanings, metacommunications, relationships, problems, learned
friendship of association
described as a friendly relationship rather than a true frienship: often with classmates, neighbors, and coworkers
mere exposure hypothesis
theory that repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus may result in a change in attitude toward the stimulus object, generally in the direction of increased positiveness
ethnic identity
a commitment to the beliefs and philosophy of your culture that can act as a protective shield against discrimination
self-monitoring strategies
you avoid normal behavior to make others think more highly of you
critical listening
helps to analyze and evaluate the message
a type of schema, organized body of information about some action, event, or procedure
tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to this one or two characteristics
intensional orientation
tendency to view people, objects, and events in terms of how they're talked about or labeled rather than in terms of how they actually exist
a statement that aims to ensure that your message will be understood and will not reflect negatively on you
Psyching the person out
mind reading, character analysis, prediction making
Social support
your neighbors, friends, they look out for you-people with more do better in life and live longer
small group culture
Group norms-
high/low context culture-
develope cultural norms influenced by own high or low context orientation.
1) rules or standards of whats appropriate
2) High context-shares known info(in common) does not need to be made explicit. ppl get to know each other and rely on nonverbals
3)low context-do not share information (have nothing in common) with you, details explicit.  ppl dont get to know each other
small group apprehension
degree of familiarity with group and extent to which you see yourself as part of group influences your apprehension.
implicit rules
rules that most everyone in a certain social group knows and follows even thought they have never actually been stated.
Interpersonal Conflict
Exist when people who depend on each other express different views, intrests, or goals an perceive their differences as incompatible or as opposed by the other.
Explain the Matching Hypothesis
It is related to Attraction Theory.
The matching theory says that we are attracted to people we perceive to be at the same attractiveness level as us.  It is tied to self-esteem, self value & self worth.  This explains couples who appear not to match in physical appearance.
Pseudo conflict
conflict that is apparent, not real; a conflict waiting to happen.
Interpersonal Communication Competence
Ability to communicate in ways that are effective and appropriate
a set of norms that applies to a specific subclass within the society
grapevine messages
messages that do not follow any formal organizational structures; gossip related to a workplace or other community
social penetration theory
a theory of what happens when relationships develop
in-group talk
talk about a subject or in a vocabulary that some people present understand and others do not; has the effect of excluding those who do not understand
image-confirming strategies
behaving in a way that confirms the image that you want others to have of you
temporal dimension
time of day; moment in history; where a particular message fits into the sequence of communication
Reinforcement model (shyness)
3 things shape shyness1) punishment - "be quiet"2) Non-responsiveness - we give up if there is no response3) Learned helplessness - ex: dog treat - dog starved himself to death
Manually-coded (signed) English
systems for "showing English on the hands" to accompany vocal speech
Attribution Bias #2: Overestimating Personality
assuming that people intend all behavior
Three dimensions to committed romantic relationships are....
intimacy, passion, and commitmentare three dimension to ______ _____ relationships.
• In what order do we focus on needs?
o PSBSESA• Physical Needs• Safety Needs• Belonging Needs• Self-Esteem Needs• Self-Actualization Needs
What would prevent a relationship from being repaired?
Both people won't participate
inferential statement
made by anyone, is not limited to what is observed, and can be made at any time
Evaluation of Sd
a) Timing - need a balance, right timeb) Equity - same level of disclosurec) Distinctiveness - we like to think we're the only one who knows the secretd) Sex (gender) - girls: weird if they don't disclose, badboys: not supposed to, good
1. Interpersonal vs. 2. Intrapsychic conflict
1. Disagreement between 2 or more parties because of incompatible goals2. Internal conflict, no expression to others
Steps on the Persuasion Process
1) Provide good reasons
2) Be a credible source
3) Appeal to emotions
Self-Presentation Goals (case of internet dating)
- deception occurs on internet dating issues- everyone lies, small lies (embellishment)
eye contact to regulate the conversation
regulate, manage, and control the conversation. ex. use eye contact to inform the other person that they should speak
Relationship Development - sd
to understand each other better - to listen carefully
• What is the relationship between self and communication? Given this, can our self-concept change over time?
o The self arises in communication and is multidimensional processes of internalizing and acting from social perspectives.o As we interact with others, we import, or internalize, their perspectives so that we come to share many of their perspectives as well as many of their perceptions of who we are.
What are the 3 types of dominance?
Complementary - one up, one downSymmetrical - both up or both downParallel -combination - varies by topic
eye contact to secure attention
you maintain eye contact to ensure the attention and interest of your listeners
What are the 4 types of noise?
Physical (loud radio, loud bar etc), Physiological (like being hard of hearing) Psychological (Not focused) Semantic (misunderstandings, regional, cultural)
Name the 6 stages of Interpersonal Relationships
1. Contact2. Involvement 3. Intimacy 4. Deterioration 5. Repair 6. Dissolution
Power (SET) : the degree of dependence a person has on another for outcomes.
1) Fate control - control other person's fate, ex: withholding friendship2) Behavior control, ex: a friend calls, you answer
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