Intro to Anthropology Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Maryland Statistics
283.7
morpheme
smallest unit sound
phonological system
sounds of words
who used achelian
homo ergaster
HIV/AIDS
human immune deficiency disorder
What is mitosis?
somatic cell division
Clitoridectomey
the decapitation if the clitoris
phonetics
the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
What is macroevolution?
large scale adaptive changes
ethnology
using everyones data to study them
Infibulation
stitching together of the clitoris after it has been gut to leave a small gap for fluids to excrete
Deafness
partially or wholly lacking the abillity to hear
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
The linguistic relativity principle (also known as the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) is the idea that the varying cultural concepts and categories inherent in different languages affect the cognitive classification of the experienced world in such a way that speakers of different languages think and behave differently because of it.
glottochronology
an approach in historical linguistics for estimating the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate
cultural complexes
several aspects of culture hooked together, e.g. art + religion
What do sex chromosomes determine?
determine your sex
Louis Leakey
found earliest hominid and thought they were big game hunters
Caster Semenya
track racer neither women nor man
Business Anthropology
Using anthropological skills to figure out culture of a business world, help you to fit in
Alfred Kroeber
Helped categorize the many definitions of Culture
Bronislaw Malinowski
Polish, He argues that people everywhere share certain biological and psychological needs and that the ultimate function of all cultural institutions is to fulfill those needs
cultural integration
various aspects of a culture linked together, e.g. laws based on beliefs
Who is Franz Boas?
"Father of American anthropology", combined the 4 subfields and scientific method
What is the product of meiosis?
gametes(egg and sperm)
super positioning
In an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on the bottom
Melanesian Cargo
tried to obtain material wealth for religious deities and practices
Custody Case
Mother was white and middle class, father was Native American Indian and working class
Psychologist said clean empty house of mother better place for child, should have sole custody
Anthropologist said father was good father, close to his family, provided a good atmosphere even if he didn't have good furniture. Should have joint custody.
Enculturation
the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded
Descriptive Linguistics
One of the subgroups of Linguistic anthropology
Descriptive linguistics studies the sound of languages. Vocab, grammar, pronunciation, and sounds.
What is the scientific method?
Identify the problem, establish hypothesis, experimentation/data collection, theory
What is natrual selection?
survival of the fittest, recognizing influence of environment on species
What is genetic drift?
changes in allele frequencies caused by random events
oldawan tool tradition
used different raw materials to make the first set of tools
Perceptions and classifications of illness
ideas and severity of illnesses
Shrink Wrap Example
Susan Stanton and the problem of shipping goods
Just promoted to manager
Took opportunity to find out about all different parts of the business
Found biggest problems were in shipping
Wrong number of items shipped, arrived late, bad conditionStarted shrink wrapping books
Made it easier to count
Products arrived in better conditions
Less theft
Gave more time to people in warehouse to do their job
Ended reputation of warehouse people as "knuckle draggers"
What were some of the technological advances during the 14th-18th centuries?
microscope, telescope, printing press
What is archeology?
the study of the past based on material remains of a culture
methods of archeaology
focus on artifacts and tells us about culture
Lewis Henry Morgan
best known for his work on cultural evolution and Native Americans
Who is Charles Darwin?
one of the most influential people in the natrual world thought of - evolution, adaptive radiation, gradual, natrual selection
Malawi Goat Project
Program set up to give milk goats to women with young children.
Program very successful
Women did use milk for children
Even small amounts of goat milk improved weight and height of children
98% gave back first kid of their doe
Women also asked for soybeans when goats weren't producing milk
Explain passing on of traits
Traits pass on and keep passing on, eventually the trait becomes the norm
What are the three characteristics of Culture?
Note: This is one of the four subfields of Anthropology.
1.Culture is learned, shared and patterned. Anybody can learn it. No single person knows all about its own culture. Culture is NOT random.
2. Culture is a whole systerm, integrated network (econ, politics, society, etc)
3. Culture is complex. Diverse origins, originated from integration of many ideas, it is dynamic and it CAN change.
4. Also... Culture is MATERIAL.
What scale was Cavier thinking about catastrophism and why?
He was thinking it occured on a regional scale, animals die and new ones come in from neighboring areas, thought thats what explained fossil record
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