INTRO TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE Flashcards

Terms Definitions
*corruption
*corruption-exercising legitimate discretion for improper reasons or pursuing illegal means to achieve approved goals
UCR clearance rate
20%
Criminology
Cause, trends, control
Procedural
Improper procedure was violated
Court Staff - Reporters
official recording
forfeiture-
forfeiture-the seizure of personal property by the state as a civil or criminal penalty
void fr overbreadth
prohibit (il)legal activity
Alibi
Couldn't have committed the crime
Policing
Enforcing the law by apprehending violators and thereby protecting citizens. Crime prevention and social services such as education of the public are more recent emphases in law enforcement.
public defender
public defender-an attorney employed by the government to represent criminal defendants who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer
overload hypothesis-
overload hypothesis-the theory that police workload influences discretion so that as workload increases, less time and attention can be devoted to new cases, especially petty crimes
electronic monitoring (EM)-
electronic monitoring (EM)-electronic equipment that enables probation officers to monitor the location of those under house arrest or other forms of supervision
According to the sentencing principle of ______, defendants should recieve roughly the same sentence when the circumstances of the crimes they committed are similar.
equity
Felonies
Serious crimes usually carryig a penalty of incarceration for more than one year or the death penalty
General Intent
* logical outcomes of behavior
Statue of Limitations
Time period for charges
Local Jails
Facilities used to detain adults awaiting trial and offenders serving sentences of one year or less.
community policing
community policing – a law enforcement program that seeks to integrate officers into the local community to reduce crime and gain good community relations. It typically involves personalized service and decentralized policing, citizen empowerment, and an effort to reduce community fear of crime, disorder, and decay
Exclusionary rule:
the principle that prohibits using illegally obtained evidence in a trial
Preliminary Hearing:
(probable cause hearing) – hearing before a magistrate to determine if the government has sufficient evidence to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime
sheriff
sheriff – the chief law enforcement officer in a county
* booking-
* booking-the administrative record of an arrest listing the offender's name, address, physical description, date of birth, employer, time of arrest, offense, and name of arresting officer; it also includes photographing and fingerprinting of the offender
pro bono-
pro bono-the practice by private attorneys of taking the cases of indigent offenders without fee as a service to the profession and the community
__________ is the movement toward the wider use of private prisons.
privatesation
_______ realease is a prison program through which inmates are temporarily released into the community to meet job responsibilities.
work
Public Policy
Priorities and actions developed by government to use public resouces as a means to deal with issues affecting society.
Knowingly & Purposely
Murder 1 & Murder 2
Necessity
conduct results in greater good than alternatives
Duress
coerced by threat/ use of force
can't be used for homicide
Magistrate judges
-Magistrates do not have same powers as judge-Appointed for 8-year terms (full-time)Handle misdemeanor cases To expedite dispositions of civil and criminal caseloads of U.S. District Courts
The contemporary criminal justice system may be viewed as an instrument of social control.
TRUE - PAGE 8
The National Crime Victimization Survey found that less than half of all violent crimes are reported to the police.
TRUE - PAGE 55
* police brutality
* police brutality-actions such as using abusive language, making threats, using force or coercion unnecessarily, prodding with nightsticks, and stopping and searching people to harass
Trial de novo literally means a ______ trial.
new
Political Crime
An act, usually done for ideological purposes, that constitues a threat against the state (such as treason, sedation, or espionage) or criminal act by the state.
mala prohibita
Offenses prohibited by law but not wrong in themselves. 
Model Penal Code: levels of intent
-negligent
-reckless
-knowingly & purposely
National Incident Based Reporting
NIBRS
12 categories - 46 offenses
attempted v. completion
broaden criminal sexual assault
got rid of hierarchy rule
records many details of the incident
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
any indigent person charged with felony right for counsel
A rehabilitation advocate would argue that _____ is the key to reducing crime.
 
a. punishment
b. swift arrest
c. opportunity
d. due process
c. opportunity PAGE 70
USA Patriot Act
USA Patriot Act - Expands wiretaps, search warrants, pen/trap orders, and subpoenas. Gives greater power to the FBI to check and monitor phone, internet, and computer records without a court order. Allows enforcement agencies to monitor cable operators and obtain access to their records and systemsIncreases the authority of the U.S. attorney general to detain and deport noncitizens with little or no judicial review.
Ethical behavior is particularly important in law enforcement because police officers have the authority to deprive people of their liberty and use physical and even deadly force.
TRUE - PAGE 32 -33
Which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing offenders in an attempt to convince them to permanently cease committing criminal acts?
 
a. Specific deterrence
b. Rehabilitation
c. Incapacitation
d. General deterrence
Which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing offenders in an attempt to convince them to permanently cease committing criminal acts?
 
a. Specific deterrence
b. Rehabilitation
c. Incapacitation
d. General deterrence
 
a. Specific deterrence PAGE 95
Cyber crime-
Cyber crime- the second contemporary challenge facing the system. It is defined as an illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and the data accessed and processed by computer networks.
*U.S. District Court-
*U.S. District Court-a trial court in the federal court system
* Knapp Commission
* Knapp Commission-a public body that conducted an investigation into police corruption in New York City in the early 1970s and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes
Benefit of Clergy
priests say that they shouldn't have to follow the law
then it (extended) to people who could read the bible
Supremacy Clause
US Supreme Court decision is the final say
Problems with UCR
doesn't keep track of all offenses (29)
don't have to send in numbers
make numbers up
individual officer reporting
underreporting
hierarchy rule
John Locke's ideas
-all people have natural rights that the gov't can't take away
-people must be willing to give up rights to be safe
What commission, appointed by President Herbert Hoover, made a detailed analysis of the U.S. justice system and helped usher in the era of treatment and rehabilitation?
a. Chicago Crime Commission
 b. American Bar Foundation Commission
c. Wickersham C
c. Wickersham Commission - PAGE 6
____________________ means that the probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is enforced.
 
ANS: Revocation
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 533 OBJ: 4 TOP: why probation?
The ____________________ style of policing is characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public order.
 
ANS: watchman
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style
Due Process Model
A model of the criminal justice system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to ensure that criminal justice decisions are based on reliable information; it emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendents and formal decision making procedures.
National Firearms Act (1934)
you have to register guns with government and pay taxes
Year and a day rule
only responsible of the consequences of your actions if they occur within a year and a day
Narcotics control laws, health and safety regulations, and sanitation laws are examples of which legal principle?
a. Recklessness
b. Criminal negligence
c. Malice
d. Strict liability
Narcotics control laws, health and safety regulations, and sanitation laws are examples of which legal principle?
a. Recklessness
b. Criminal negligence
c. Malice
d. Strict liability
 
d. Strict liability PAGE 148
Criminal negligence is a form of:
 
a. Stare decisis
b. Mala in se
c. Mens rea
d. Actus reus
Criminal negligence is a form of:
 
a. Stare decisis
b. Mala in se
c. Mens rea
d. Actus reus
 
c. Mens rea PAGE 147
When a person's careless and inattentive actions cause harm, it is called:
a. Recklessness
b. Criminal negligence
c. Malice
d. Negligence
When a person's careless and inattentive actions cause harm, it is called:
 
a. Recklessness
b. Criminal negligence
c. Malice
d. Negligence
 
b. Criminal negligence PAGE 148
The origins of scientific criminology are usually traced to the research of:
 
a. Karl Marx
 b. Edwin Sutherland
c. Cesare Lombroso
d. Sigmund Freud
The origins of scientific criminology are usually traced to the research of:
 
a. Karl Marx
b. Edwin Sutherland
c. Cesare Lombroso
d. Sigmund Freud
 
c. Cesare Lombroso PAGE 98
Which federal agency oversees the Uniform Crime Reports?
 
a. U.S. Department of Justice
b. Federal Bureau of Investigation
 c. National Institute on Drug Abuse
d. Bureau of Justice Statistics
b. Federal Bureau of Investigation PAGE 50-54
A(n) ____________________ is an operation designed to encourage and observe criminal behavior so the officers can make an arrest
 
ANS: sting
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 246 OBJ: 6 TOP: sting operations
Civil Rights Movement Impact on CJ
college campus mobs create brutality from police who attack the innocent.
police and community relationship is bad. crime rate goes up . Creates Civil Disobedience (Rosa Parks)
Which data source relies on a multi-stage sample of housing units to collect information about citizen's encounters with criminals?
 
a. National Crime Victimization Survey
b. Uniform Crime Reports
c. Monitoring the Future Survey
d. National Inciden
a. National Crime Victimization Survey PAGE 55-57
The ethical duties of the prosecutor and defense attorney are outlined in the American Bar Association's ____________________.
 
ANS: Model Code of Professional Responsibility
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 386-387 OBJ: 1 TOP: the prosecutor
 broken windows model-role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
* broken windows model-role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
Aggressive patrol is a tactic employed as part of an overall philosophy of ____________________ policing.
 
ANS: proactive
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 7 TOP: elements of community policing
Pen Register/ Tap & Trace
traces who you call/ traces who calls you
Regardless of its source, all criminal laws in the U.S. must conform to the rules and dictates of the:
a. U.S. Supreme Court
b. Office of the Presidency
c. United States Senate
d. U.S. Constitution
Regardless of its source, all criminal laws in the U.S. must conform to the rules and dictates of the:
a. U.S. Supreme Court
b. Office of the Presidency
c. United States Senate
d. U.S. Constitution
 
d. U.S. Constitution PAGE 142
Proponents of choice theory argue that criminals commit crimes based on:
 
a. Free will
b. Intelligence
c. Peer pressure
d. A drive to succeed
Proponents of choice theory argue that criminals commit crimes based on:
 
a. Free will
b. Intelligence
c. Peer pressure
d. A drive to succeed
 
a. Free will - PAGE 92
What police support unit is responsible for investigating allegations of police misconduct?
 
a. Internal affairs
b. Personnel services
c. Civilian review boards
d. Field-training offices
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 259 OBJ: 10 TOP: support functions
In the case Tennessee v. Garner, the U.S. Supreme Court deemed the use of deadly force against an unarmed, nondangerous fleeing felon to be a violation of the ____________________ Amendment.
 
ANS: Fourth
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force
Which intermediate sanction makes a jail term a condition of probation?
 
a. Shock probation
b. Intensive probation supervision
 c. Split sentencing
d. Residential community corrections
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 551 OBJ: 9 TOP: shock probation and split sentencing
While police patrol has many objectives, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:
 
a. Crime fighting
b. Order maintenance
 c. Responding to emergencies
d. Deterring crime
 
ANS: B
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 238 OBJ: 4 TOP: patrol activities
State Court system - What makes up its majority?
Limited jurisdiction courts – courts of LJ are the majority on state levelEX.) Juvenile courts, city courts, police courts, traffic courts etc.
College degrees may have little direct impact on promotion potential for police officers.
 
ANS: T
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 234 OBJ: 1 TOP: police organization
All evidence points to the conclusion that prosecutorial discretion is used to:
 
a. Influence judicial decision making in the sentencing stage
b. Influence who gets re-elected to judgeships
c. Screen out the weakest cases
d. Achieve the most effici
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 394 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion
The use of the term criminal justice system reflected a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes. When was the term criminal justice system first used?
a. After the findings o
b. After the findings of the American Bar Foundation project PAGE 6
The right to counsel begins at which point of the criminal process?
 
a. When a suspect is interrogated
b. When a suspect is booked
c. When charges are brought
d. When a prosecutor takes the case
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 403 OBJ: 8 TOP: the right to counsel
Types of Homicide
Justifiable
Excusable
Criminal
Criminal Justice
Police, Court, Corrections
UCR
part 1 offenses
(violent)
-murder
-rape
-aggravated assault
-robbery
(property)
-burglary
-car theft
-larceny
-arson
 torts
 torts-the law of personal injuries
prosecutor
prosecutor-the public official who presents the government's case against a person accused of a crime
order maintenance (peacekeeping)-
order maintenance (peacekeeping)-maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest; "handling the situation"; keeping things under control by means of threats, persuasion, and understanding
Substantive Law
define crime & penalty
Enticement
Provide opportunity to person predisposed to offense
FALN
The Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (English: Armed Forces of National Liberation, FALN) was a Puerto Rican clandestine paramilitary organization that, through direct action, advocated complete independence for Puerto Rico. At the time of its dissolution, the FALN was responsible for more than 120 bomb attacks on United States targets between 1974 and 1983.[1] The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) classifies the FALN as a terrorist organization
community-oriented policing (COP
community-oriented policing (COP programs designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more coop-erative working environment between them
problem-oriented policing (POP)
problem-oriented policing (POP)-a style of police management that stresses proactive problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting
A contemporary model of imprisonment based on the principle of just deserts is the blank model.
justice
Occupational Crime
Criminal offense committed through opportunities created in a legal business or occupation.
Trial by Advocacy
you get a lawyer
Strict Liability Offenses
liable if they occur
-traffic
-pharmacist
-statutory rape
Justification
behavior was appropriate under the circumstances. conduct wrong, but not responsible
constable
constable – in early English towns, an appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch
vigilantes
vigilantes – in the old west, members of a vigilance committee or posse called upon to capture cattle thieves or other felons
Hate Crimes:
criminal acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group targeted because of their racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristics
hundred
hundred – in medieval England, a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses
UCR:
the official crime data collected by the FBI from local police departments
____________________ is when the offender must pay the victim or community back for damages.
 
 
ANS: Restitution
 
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 550 OBJ: 9 TOP: restitution
blue curtain
blue curtain the secretive, insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society
* internal affairs-
* internal affairs-unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct
_______ is the goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to inhibit criminal behavior through the fear of punishment.
Detterence
Crime
A specific act of commission or omission in violation of the law for which a punishment is prescribed.
Money Laundering
Moving the proceeds of criminal activities through a maze of business, banks, and brokerage accounts in order to disguise origin.
Tribalism -> Feudalism
Tribe ruled everything. (blood war)
-but tribes got bigger and the chief got more powerful. they had to settle down & develop tools.
Stratification system develops
post 9/11
may have caused a permanent shift
General Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts where most trials for felonies occur, as well as trials in major civil cases.
watch system
watch system – in medieval England, men organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable
Information obtained from interviews and questionnaires with high school students would be classified as which of the following types of data?
 
a. Official
b. Victimization
c. Self-report
d. Observational
c. Self-report PAGE 57
____________________ probation involves resentencing an offender to probation after a short prison stay.
 
 
ANS: Shock
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 551 OBJ: 4 TOP: shock probation and split sentencing
The united states supreme court is a "court of _______ resort.
last
Visible Crime
An offense against person or property that is committed primarily by members of the lower class.  Often referred to as "street crime" or "ordinary crime" this type of offense is the one most upsetting to the public.
Transferred Intent
Intends to harm one, but harms another
conspiracy
2 or more agree to commit a crime
Balance of Rights and Power

1980s
Conservative Shift

harsh/quick law enforcement
Apparent increases in crime rates in the UCR may actually reflect changes in the way the police record their data
TRUE PAGE 53-54
Expressive Crimes
criminal acts that serve to vent rage, anger, or frustration
The origins of sociological criminology are usually traced to the pioneering work of:
 
a. Edwin Sutherland
b. Robert Merton
c. Emile Durkheim
d. Travis Hirschi
The origins of sociological criminology are usually traced to the pioneering work of:
 
a. Edwin Sutherland
b. Robert Merton
c. Emile Durkheim
d. Travis Hirschi
 
c. Emile Durkheim PAGE 107
The Philadelphia Birth Cohort study found that arrest and court appearances did little to deter chronic offenders.
TRUE - PAGE 78
*U.S. Court of Appeals-
*U.S. Court of Appeals-an appellate court in the federal court system
* zero tolerance-
* zero tolerance-a practice in which criminal defendants forfeit homes, cars, and so on for the slightest law violation
* courts of limited jurisdiction-
* courts of limited jurisdiction-courts that handle misdemeanors and minor civil complaints
* courts of general jurisdiction
* courts of general jurisdiction-courts that try felony cases and more serious civil matters
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
Data collection method
-household and business (76 K)
talk to these houses every 6 months for 3 years - everyone older than 12
ask if you report it
(advantages)
-figure out unreported crime & why it wasn't
how is crim justice system operating
figure out more details (age,sex,race)
crimes suffered
Omnibus Crime Control & Safe Streets (1968)
create LEAA
create LEEP
create NIJ

restored confidence in our police officers
James Q. Wilson’s argument is characteristic of which justice perspective?
 
a. Due process
b. Crime control
c. Rehabilitation
d. Restorative justice
b. Crime control PAGE 23-25
The ____________________ rule is the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force, dating back to English Common Law.
 
ANS: fleeing felon
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force
* stop and frisk
* stop and frisk-the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspect's outer garments to determine if the person is carrying a concealed weapon—also called a threshold inquiry or pat-down
Crime Control Model
 
A model of the criminal justice system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime; it emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality and the capacity to apprehend try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion
Notion of Federalism
political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant
Balance of Rights and Power

1960s (Civil RIghts Era)
individual rights most important
the US Supreme Court is the most liberal court ever

Limited police power
Most police officer jobs are found at what level?
 
a. Local
b. State
c. Federal
 d. An equal number of jobs are found at the local, state, and federal levels
a. Local PAGE 10
Under its reformulated priorities, the FBI's primary objective is to protect:
a. Civil rights
b. U.S. businesses from infiltration by organized crime
c. The U.S. against espionage
d. The U.S. from terrorist attack
Under its reformulated priorities, the FBI's primary objective is to protect:
a. Civil rights
b. U.S. businesses from infiltration by organized crime
c. The U.S. against espionage
d. The U.S. from terrorist attack
 
d. The U.S. from terrorist attack PAGE 209
Who was the 18th-century social philosopher who argued against the use of torture and capital punishment?
a. James Q. Wilson
b. Sir Robert Peel
c. Cesare Beccaria
d. Ulysses S. Grant
c. Cesare Beccaria - page 6
The view that terrorists suffer psychological abnormality is well accepted by those advocating the psychological view.
The view that terrorists suffer psychological abnormality is well accepted by those advocating the psychological view.
 
TRUE - PAGE 189
Lack of economic opportunity and recessionary economies are positively correlated with terrorism
Lack of economic opportunity and recessionary economies are positively correlated with terrorism
 
TRUE - 189-190
Community corrections has traditionally emphasized:
 
a. Incapacitation
b. Rehabilitation
c. Retribution
d. Retaliation
 
ANS: B
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 556 OBJ: 9 TOP: advantages of intermediate sanctions
Necessary & Proper Clause
gives right of law making to the Legislative Branch
Criminal law is structured to reflect the preferences of those who hold social power, according to which view of crime?
 
a. The conflict view
b. The interactionist view
 c. The consensus view
d. The constructionist view
b. The interactionist view PAGE 43-44
Prosecutorial discretion is used to:
 
a. Reduce the number of cases that go to trial
b. Help the charging decision
c. Punish offenders
d. Impose indictment in the state court process
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion
hot spots of crime
hot spots of crime -the view that a significant portion of all police calls in metropolitan areas typically radiate from a relatively few locations: bars, malls, the bus depot, hotels, and certain apartment buildings
What is the federal court layout today?
94 district courts, 12 regional courts of appeals and a single court of appeals for the federal circuit
According to the principles of choice theory, in order for punishment to most effectively deter crime, it must meet what three conditions?
 
a. Swift, satisfactory and certain
b. Severe, certain and punitive
c. Severe, certain and swift
d. Intense,
According to the principles of choice theory, in order for punishment to most effectively deter crime, it must meet what three conditions?
 
a. Swift, satisfactory and certain
b. Severe, certain and punitive
c. Severe, certain and swift
d. Intense, lasting and cumulative
 
c. Severe, certain and swift - PAGE 93
Which of the following is a theory that suggests that the traditionally lower crime rate for women can be explained by their second-class economic and social position?
 
a. Masculinity theory
b. Liberal feminist theory
c. Chivalry theory
d. Radical
b. Liberal feminist theory PAGE 72-73
The concept of secondary deviance is most closely associated with which type of sociological theory?
a. Labeling
 b. Conflict
c. Strain
d. Social disorganization
The concept of secondary deviance is most closely associated with which type of sociological theory?
a. Labeling
b. Conflict
c. Strain
d. Social disorganization
 
a. Labeling PAGE 115
The individual's state of mind or intent to commit a crime is formally referred to as:
 
a. Stare decisis
b. Mala in se
c. Mens rea
d. Actus reus
The individual's state of mind or intent to commit a crime is formally referred to as:
 
a. Stare decisis
b. Mala in se
c. Mens rea
d. Actus reus
 
c. Mens rea PAGE 147
In general, what branch of government is responsible for adding, removing, or modifying criminal statutes?
 
a. Judiciary
b. Executive
c. Media
d. Legislature
In general, what branch of government is responsible for adding, removing, or modifying criminal statutes?
 
a. Judiciary
b. Executive
c. Media
d. Legislature
 
d. Legislature PAGE 141
What does lifestyle theory posit about victimization?
 
a. The victim invariably precipitates their own victimization
b. Victimization is a function of social strain and precipitation
 c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime oc
What does lifestyle theory posit about victimization?
 
a. The victim invariably precipitates their own victimization
b. Victimization is a function of social strain and precipitation
c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim
d. Victims are just as likely to become offenders as offenders are to become victims
 
c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim PAGE 122
What have evaluations of foot patrol programs in New Jersey and Michigan shown?
 
 a. The crime rate went down in foot patrol beats.
 b. The crime rate went up in foot patrol beats.
c. Officer job satisfaction increased.
d. Citizen attitudes towar
 
ANS: D
 
 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 253 OBJ: 7 TOP: implementing community policing
Community service is an example of:
 
a. Forfeiture
b. Shock incarceration
c. Restitution
d. Intensive probation supervision
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 550 OBJ: 9 TOP: restitution
Judiciary Act of 1789 - What did it do?
Created by first United States Congress laid out basic structure of federal court system
What U.S. Supreme Court decision set forth the “reasonable officer” standard for police use of deadly force?
a. Williams v New York
 b. Graham v. Connor
 c. Sherman v. California
 d. Tennessee v. Garner
 
ANS: B
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force
The main source of procedural law is the:
 
a. Bill of Rights
b. Preamble
c. Confederate Congress
d. Continental Constitution
The main source of procedural law is the:
 
a. Bill of Rights
b. Preamble
c. Confederate Congress
d. Continental Constitution
 
a. Bill of Rights PAGE 159
Which of the early forms of judicial proceedings involved a determination of guilt based on the ability of the accused to withstand placing his hand in boiling water or holding a hot iron?
a. Trial by ordeal
b. Trial by combat
c. Trial by fire
d. Tria
Which of the early forms of judicial proceedings involved a determination of guilt based on the ability of the accused to withstand placing his hand in boiling water or holding a hot iron?
a. Trial by ordeal
 b. Trial by combat
c. Trial by fire
d. Trial by jury
 
a. Trial by ordeal PAGE 139
What is the lowest level of reasonable officer response mapped out in the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center's use-of-force model?
 
a. Contact controls
b. Verbal commands
c. Compliance techniques
d. Defensive tactics
 
ANS: B
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force
Criminal
Reasonable person test
risk classification-
risk classification-assigning probationers to a level and type of supervision based on their particular needs and the risks they pose for the community
Justifiable
legal necessity or duty
Deterrent
Deterrent-preventing crime before it occurs by means of the threat of criminal sanctions
appellate courts
appellate courts-courts that reconsider cases that have already been tried to determine whether the lower court proceedings complied with accepted rules of criminal procedure and constitutional doctrines
Dicta
Rationale/ Logic of a case
Constitution
7 articles , 27 amendments
Criminal negligence
Criminal negligence-liability that can occur when a person's careless and inattentive ac-tions cause harm
double marginality
double marginality according to Nicholas Alex, the social burden that African American police officers carry by being both minority-group members and law enforcement officers
*procedural justice-
*procedural justice-a concern with making decision that are arrived at through procedures that are viewed as being fair
neighborhood-oriented policing (NOP)
neighborhood-oriented policing (NOP) -a philosophy of police suggesting that problem solving is best done at the neighborhood level, where issues originate, not at a far-off central headquarters
A correctional model intended to capitalize on the labor of convicts sentenced to confinement is known as a/an ________ prison.
industrial
Legal duty to act
-statute (law)
-status relationships
-duty to care for another
-assume care for another
Crime Control
Model of Criminal Justice
primary goal: reduces crime, keep people safe, guarantee social freedom.
it does it by convinces you that crime doesn't pay
create Assembly Line Justice
presumption of guilt - if you make it to the next step in the criminal justice system you're probably guilty
plea bargain - admit your guilty
Excusable
there was nothing you could do
Court Staff - Bailiffs
responsible for maintaining order
____________________ is illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and/or the data accessed and processed by computer networks
____________________ is illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and/or the data accessed and processed by computer networks
 
CYBERCRIME - PAGE 183
* district attorney
* district attorney-the county prosecutor who is charged with bringing offenders to justice and enforcing the criminal laws of the state
foot patrol-
foot patrol-police patrol that takes officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat to strengthen ties with the community
_______ deterrence seeks to reduce the likelihood of recidivism by convicted offenders.
Specific
Uniform Crime Reports
UCR
Annually published statistical summary of crimes reported to the police, based on voluntary reports to the FBI by local, state and federal law enforcement agencies.
compurgation
swear on oath to innocence, others support you
Due Process
protects you from unjust law
2 types
-substantive
-procedural
Detention of Non-Citizens
can detain non-citizens indefinitely if you have "reasonable cause"
Appellate Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that review specific legal issues raised in trial courts.
The availability of legalized abortion is one factor that been offered as a possible explanation for the drop in crime rates.
TRUE PAGE 60
Criminal Justice System:
the various sequential stages through which offenders pass, from initial contact with the law to final disposition, and the agencies charged with enforcing the law at each of these stages
grand jury
grand jury-a group of citizens chosen to hear charges against persons accused of crime and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the persons to trial
A prison system with a strategy that is based on the desire to prevent recurrent crime and that had abandoned all hope of rehabilitation is simply ______ prisoners.
warehousing
If a murder is committed in Morgan County the prosecution of that case must begin in the Morgan County Circuit Court. The Morgan county Court has _______ jurisdiction
Original
Organized Crime
A framework for the perpetration of criminal acts - usually in fields such as gambling, drugs, and prostitution - providing illegal services that are in great demand
Johnson declares a?
War on Crime
-(research shows) that crime is prevalent & need to stop crime before it happens
Declaration of Independence
inalienable rights - > life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
Act of Commission
do something you're prohibited to do
Mens rea
Mens rea-a guilty mind. The intent to commit a criminal act
shire reeve
shire reeve – in early England, the chief law enforcement official in a county: the forerunner of today's sheriff
Which of the following justice perspectives sees the justice system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves, and assumes people are at the mercy of social, economic, and interpersonal conditions?
a. Crime control
b.
b. Rehabilitation PAGE 25-26
Metropolitan Police Act
Metropolitan Police Act – in 1829, when Sir Robert Peel was home secretary, the first Metropolitan Police Act was passed and the Metropolitan Police Force was established to replace the local watch and constable system in the London area
Target hardening techniques are examples of which type of situational crime prevention tactic?
 
a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime
b. Increasing the risks of committing the crime
c. Reducing the rewards for committing the crime d. I
Target hardening techniques are examples of which type of situational crime prevention tactic?
 
a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime
b. Increasing the risks of committing the crime
 c. Reducing the rewards for committing the crime d. Inducing guilt or shame over the crime
 
a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime - PAGE 96
* lineup
* lineup-placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness
rule of four-
rule of four-the convention that four justices must agree to hear a case before a writ of certiorari will be issued
_______ in sentenceing demands a close correspondence between the sentence imposed on an offender and the time actually served in prison.
Truth in sentence
UCR total amount of crime in US
10 1/2 million
Trial by Ordeal
get a test of Faith (Priest)
penalty: death
Which region has the highest property and violent crime rates?
 
a. Northeast
b. Midwest
c. South
d. West
c. South PAGE 67
fruit of the poisonous tree-
fruit of the poisonous tree-secondary evidence obtained from a search that violates the exclusionary rule
Dark Figure of Crime
A metephor referring to the dangerous dimension of crime that is never reported to the police
Foreign Intel Surveillance
allows FBI to get information from a third party resource without a warrant
-3rd party can't tell anyone
Act of Omission
fail to do something that you are required to do by law
Which of the following is not an element of the correctional system?
a. Probation
 b. Parole
c. Courts
d. Jail
c. Courts PAGE 11
Which type of cybervandalism appears as a benign application which actually contains codes that can damage the system operations?
a. Mydoom
b. Trojan horse
c. Malware
d. Chiseling
Which type of cybervandalism appears as a benign application which actually contains codes that can damage the system operations?
a. Mydoom
b. Trojan horse
c. Malware
d. Chiseling
 
b. Trojan horse PAGE 188
What arrangement in early English society required that every person in a village be responsible for protecting the settlement from thieves?
a. The runner system
b. Community policing
c. The pledge system
d. The watch system
What arrangement in early English society required that every person in a village be responsible for protecting the settlement from thieves?
a. The runner system
b. Community policing
c. The pledge system
d. The watch system
 
c. The pledge system page 200
The defense of mistake ultimately rests on proving:
 
a. Presumption of guilt
b. Lack of intent
c. Existence of extenuating circumstances
d. Post facto affirmative presumption of innocence due to entrapment
The defense of mistake ultimately rests on proving:
 
a. Presumption of guilt
b. Lack of intent
c. Existence of extenuating circumstances
d. Post facto affirmative presumption of innocence due to entrapment
 
b. Lack of intent PAGE 151
National Crime Victimization Surveys
NCVS
Interviews of samples of the U.S. population conducted bu the Bureau of Justice Statistics to determine the number and types of criminal victimizations and thus the extent of unreported as well as reported crimes. 
Marbury v. Madison (1803)- What did it do?
Established principle of judicial review – the power of Supreme Court to review and determine the constitutionality of acts of Congress and orders of executive branch
In which season of the year does the greatest number of reported crimes occur?
 
a. Summer
 b. Fall
c. Spring
d. Winter
a. Summer PAGE 67
The term community prosecution refers to:
 
a. A prosecutorial philosophy that emphasizes community support and cooperation
b. The practice of opening prosecutor's offices in neighborhood police substations
c. The practice of prosecuting minor crimes
 
ANS: A
 
 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 2 TOP: the prosecutor within society
Detective divisions are typically organized into sections or bureaus.
 
ANS: T
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 6 TOP: the investigation function
_____ is one type of malicious software program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks.
 a. Computer worms
b. Computer virus
c. Trojan horse
d. Cyberbullying
_____ is one type of malicious software program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks.
a. Computer worms
b. Computer virus
c. Trojan horse
d. Cyberbullying
 
b. Computer virus PAGE 188
The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished is referred to as:
 
a. General deterrence
b. Specific deterrence
c. Routine activities theory
d. Situational crime prevention
The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished is referred to as:
 
a. General deterrence
b. Specific deterrence
c. Routine activities theory
d. Situational crime prevention a. General deterrence PAGE 93
What are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?
a. Law enforcement, the courts, and the legislature
b. The courts, the correctional system, and the legislature
c. Law enforcement, the courts,
c. Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system PAGE 8
The term actus reus refers to the:
 
a. Measurement of mental ability
b. Exclusion of omission
 c. Guilty person
d. Guilty act
The term actus reus refers to the:
 
a. Measurement of mental ability
b. Exclusion of omission
c. Guilty person
d. Guilty act
 
d. Guilty act PAGE 146
What goals underlie the broad purposes of the criminal law?
a. Protecting individual liberties and promoting freedom
 b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens
c. Implementing and enacting the liberties set forth in t
What goals underlie the broad purposes of the criminal law?
a. Protecting individual liberties and promoting freedom
b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens
c. Implementing and enacting the liberties set forth in the Bill of Rights
d. Enacting informal acts of moral censure for forbidden social acts
 
b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens PAGE 138
What Federal agency is responsible for the transportation of federal prisoners?
a. U.S. Marshals
b. FBI
c. Department of Homeland Security
d. Secret Service
What Federal agency is responsible for the transportation of federal prisoners?
a. U.S. Marshals
b. FBI
c. Department of Homeland Security
d. Secret Service
 
 a. U.S. Marshals - PAGE 209
Which of the following officers was part of the watch system of policing that thrived in thirteenth century England?
 
a. Watchmen
b. Shire reeve
c. Justice of the peace
d. All of these
Which of the following officers was part of the watch system of policing that thrived in thirteenth century England?
a. Watchmen
b. Shire reeve
c. Justice of the peace
d. All of these
 
d. All of these - page 200
The vice squad specializes in:
 
a. Violent crime
b. Property crime
c. Victimless crime
d. Drug crime
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 6 TOP: investigation function
Court decisions that limit police discretion are an example of a(n):
 
a. External stressor
b. Organizational stressor
c. Duty stressor
d. Individual stressor
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 288 OBJ: 8 TOP: job stress
Interviewing witnesses in a criminal case is one of the duties of the prosecutor
 
ANS: T
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 387 OBJ: 1 TOP: the duties of the prosecutor
What were the role models of American Court System?
English common law and English court system primary role models
Ethical issues surface in all parts of the justice system. Why are ethical standards so important in criminal justice?
 
a. Without ethical decision making, it is possible that individual civil rights and liberties will suffer. b. Agents of the crimina
d. Ethical standards are important in the justice system for all these reasons. PAGE 30-36
John Augustus pioneered his work in which state?
 
a. Massachusetts
b. Missouri
c. Vermont
d. Michigan
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 533 OBJ: 2 TOP: history of probation
Which of the following may cause a case to be dismissed?
 
a. Inefficient evidence
b. Interest of justice
c. Due process problems
d. All these
 
ANS: D
 
 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion
Who is the person with general administrative control over the police organization?
 
a. Captain
b. Chief
c. Lieutenant
 d. Sergeant
 
ANS: B
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 1 TOP: the police organization
Who is the counterpart of the prosecuting attorney in the adversarial system?
 
a. The judge
b. The defendant
c. The defense attorney
d. The arresting officer
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 400 OBJ: 6 TOP: the defense attorney
Origin of Criminal Justice System as an Academic Principle
1920 - organized crime was in control and ran the police departments. it was created to professionalize the police
A(n) _____ is the term for an irregular military band located in rural areas that attack military, police, and government targets.
a. Terrorist
b. Guerilla
c. Insurgent
d. Revolutionary
A(n) _____ is the term for an irregular military band located in rural areas that attack military, police, and government targets.
a. Terrorist
b. Guerilla
c. Insurgent
d. Revolutionary
 
b. Guerilla PAGE 170
The theory that people who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them will seek alternatives, such as crime, is suggested by which of the following views?
a. Strain theory
b. Social learning theory
c. Differential association theory
The theory that people who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them will seek alternatives, such as crime, is suggested by which of the following views?
 
a. Strain theory
b. Social learning theory
c. Differential association theory
d. Self-control theory
 
a. Strain theory PAGE 111
Which of the following traits is said to be found at all levels of policing?
 
a. Anger
b. Racism
c. Dogmatism
d. Cynicism
 
ANS: D
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 278 OBJ: 5 TOP: police personality
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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