Intro to Criminal Justice Midterm Flashcards

criminal law
Terms Definitions
inchoate offenses
-solicitation
-attempt
-conspiracy
Reckless
consciously disregards risks

Voluntary Man.
4 types of defense
Alibi
Justification
Procedural
Excuse
LEAA
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
-Federal Money goes to those who adopt criminal justice system
Terrorism
Terrorism – means premedited, politically motivated violence perpetrated against targets by subnationtionals groups or clandestine agents.
 beats
* beats-designated police patrol areas
Procedural Law
methods & rules used
Insanity
Competency test
-have to understand the charges and be able to aid and assist in your own defense
A crime is...
a voluntary act
General Deterrence
General Deterrence-a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties
Discretion
Discretion the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system
* presentence investigation-
* presentence investigation-a postconviction investigation, performed by a probation officer attached to the trial court, of the defendant's background, education, employment, family, acquaintances, physical and mental health, prior criminal record, and other factors that may affect sentencing
Misdermeanors
Offenses less serious than felonies and usually punishable by incarceration of no more than one year, probation or intermediate sanctions.
Holding
Rule of Law in a case
Due Process
Model of Criminal Justice
emphasizes on individual rights
formal procedural rules
innocent until proven guilty
Self Defense
force proportionate to threat
force immediately necessary (battered wife syndrome)
Specific Intent
* act with specialized knowledge
Probation
A system under which a person convicted of a crime serves a sentence in the community under the supervision of a probation officer
biometrics
* biometrics – automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic
intensive probation supervision (IPS)-
intensive probation supervision (IPS)-a type of intermediate sanction involving small probation caseloads and strict daily or weekly monitoring
Missouri Plan-
Missouri Plan-a method of judicial selection that combines a judicial nominating commission, executive appointment, and nonpartisan confirmation elections
defense attorney
defense attorney-legal counsel for the defendant in a criminal case, representing the accused person from arrest to final appeal
Aggressive patrol in New York City during the 1990s aimed at vandalism, panhandling and graffiti has been credited with a reduction in what type of crime?
 
 a. Prostitution
b. Violent crime
c. Drug dealing
d. Property crime
After Bob kills Ray the prosecuter decides to charge Bob with voluntary manslaughter instead of first degree murder. This is an example of prosecutorial________
discretion
Identity theft
The theft of social security numbers, credit card numbers, and other information in order to secure loans, withdrawl bank funds, and purchase merchandise while posing as someone else, the unsuspecting victim who whill eventually be charged for these financial transactions
Proximate Cause
"but for" your actions, the result wouldn't have taken place
Excuses
Saying you did it, but saying something caused you to do it
Entrapment
Plant Idea
show the gov't planted the idea in a clean mind & provided the motivation and the means
Court Staff - Administrators
oversee court’s budget, hiring, overseeing case flow, office management
Limited Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that have narrow legal authority over specific types of matter (e.g.; surrogate court, tax court.)
Life course
Life course-the course of social and developmental changes through which an individual passes as he or she travels from birth through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and fi-nally old age
Latent trait theories
Latent trait theories-a view that human behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, which influences and directs behavior
* intermediate sanctions-
* intermediate sanctions-a group of punishments falling between probation and prison; community-based sanctions including house arrest and intensive supervision
The lawful authority of a court to review a decision made by a lower court is known as ________ jurisdiction.
Appellate
_____ time is the amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison on a given sentence as a consequence of not getting into any trouble while a prisoner.
Good
Crimes without Victims
Offense involving a willing and private exchange of illegal goods or services that are in strong demand.  Participants do not feel they are being harmed, but these crimes are prosecuted on the groung that society as a whole is being injured.
Void for vagueness
requires all laws to be specific
Court Staff - Clerks
performs daily clerical work for court
The first technological breakthrough in policing came in which of the following areas?
 
a. Transportation
b. Communication
c. Regulation
d. Administration
The first technological breakthrough in policing came in which of the following areas?
 
a. Transportation
b. Communication
c. Regulation
d. Administration
 
b. Communication PAGE 203
The “encouragement” of criminal activity is often referred to as:
 
a. Latent trait activation
b. Victim precipitation
c. Lifestyle theory
d. Cognitive abuse of the victim
The “encouragement” of criminal activity is often referred to as:
 
a. Latent trait activation
b. Victim precipitation
c. Lifestyle theory
d. Cognitive abuse of the victim
 
b. Victim precipitation PAGE 121
* deadly force
* deadly force-police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an officer or the community
Most departments promote police personnel according to the ____________________ system
 
ANS: time-in-rank
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 2 TOP: police organization
Organized citizen groups that examine police misconduct are termed ____________________.
 
ANS: civilian review boards
 
 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 260 OBJ: 10 TOP: support functions
Cyber crimes
Offenses that involve the use of one or more computers
Gun Control Act of 1968
4 restrictions
-no mail order guns
-created category of prohibited purchasers
-all firearms must have serial number
-have to make sure people are allowed to purchase (just ask them)
Roving Wiretaps
allows you to tap anyone's phone who terrorist might associate
Which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?
 
a. Crime cont
a. Crime control PAGE 23-25
Prosecution of physician-assisted suicide, violence against the elderly, and cases in which pregnant women are known drug abusers are all examples of what role assumed by local prosecutors?
 
a. Investigators of private morality
b. Defenders of the pu
 
ANS: C
 
 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 389 OBJ: 1 TOP: priority prosecution
court of last resort
court of last resort-a court that handles the final appeal on a matter—in the federal system, the U.S. Supreme Court
mala in se
Offenses that are wrong by their very nature
Ex Post Facto
make something a crime that wasn't a crime
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention
original form - waiting and background check
now it's computerized
Uniform Crime Reports
-FBI is in charge
part 1 - index offenses
part 2 - all else but traffic
According to social learning theory, people become violent because they:
 
a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced
b. Are born with a predisposition towards violence due to their genetics
c. Suffer damage to their egos
According to social learning theory, people become violent because they:
 
a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced
b. Are born with a predisposition towards violence due to their genetics
c. Suffer damage to their egos and superegos at an early age
d. Have a mental disorder or illness
 
a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced PAGE 103
hue and cry
hue and cry – in medieval England, a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger
Which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction?
a. CIA
b. DEA
c. U.S. Justice Department
d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction
Which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction?
a. CIA
b. DEA
c. U.S. Justice Department
d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction
 
d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction - PAGE 208
Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:
 
a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea
b. Legal defenses that negate the required proof of actus reus
c. Examples of defenses based on double jeopardy
d. Legal defenses base
Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:
 
a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea
b. Legal defenses that negate the required proof of actus reus
c. Examples of defenses based on double jeopardy
d. Legal defenses based on a presumption of conclusive incapacitation
 
a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea PAGE 151-153
The term terrorism first appeared during the Vietnam War.
The term terrorism first appeared during the Vietnam War.
 
FALSE - PAGE 168
Community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:
 
a. Productive interaction with the community being served
b. Interrelationships between cooperative police agencies
 c. Efficient utilization of existing personnel
d. Optimized usage of a
 
ANS: A
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 7 TOP: community policing
National Incident-Based Reporting Agency
NIBRS
A reporting system in which the police describe each offense in a crime incident, together with data dezcribing the offender, victim and property
Which of the following is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics?
 
a. National Crime Victimization Surveys
b. National Indicators of Drug Abuse
c. Uniform Crime Reports
d. Bureau of Justice Statistics
c. Uniform Crime Reports PAGE 50-54
What agency prepares the National Crime Victimization Survey?
 
a. Drug Enforcement Agency
b. Bureau of Justice Statistics
c. Central Intelligence Agency
d. Federal Bureau of Investigation
b. Bureau of Justice Statistics PAGE 55-57
The first experiments in community-oriented policing involved:
 
a. Decentralized, neighborhood-based precincts
b. Storefront mini-stations
c. Streamlining in the number of ranks in a department
 d. Foot patrol
 
ANS: D
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 253 OBJ: 7 TOP: implementing community policing
Regina v. Dudley & Stephens
(stranded on boat: eat Parker)
Holding- you can't kill an innocent person to save your life
Dicta- what is the responsibility of the captain? save yourself for your crew
_____ is the illegal acquisition of personal information such as bank passwords and credit card numbers by masquerading as a trustworthy person/business in what appears to be an official electronic communication.
 
a. Etailing fraud
b. Phishing
c. Cy
_____ is the illegal acquisition of personal information such as bank passwords and credit card numbers by masquerading as a trustworthy person/business in what appears to be an official electronic communication.
a. Etailing fraud
b. Phishing
c. Cybertheft
d. Touting
 
b. Phishing PAGE 188
In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stem from:
a. The level of relative deprivation in their immediate environment
b. Their level of self-control
c
In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stem from:
a. The level of relative deprivation in their immediate environment
b. Their level of self-control
c. The perceived value of social injustice in the community
d. Their tolerance for social strain
 
 b. Their level of self-control PAGE 118
"District attorney" is usually the title given to the chief prosecutor for a county.
 
ANS: T
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 390 OBJ: 2 TOP: types of prosecutors
What was the federal court layout in 1789?
-4 federal circuit courts for general trial jurisdiction and to hear appeals from lower courts-13 federal district courts-U.S. Supreme Court
Which of the following would be the most accurate response to a comment that crime is a contemporary problem?
a. Crime is not a contemporary problem; it has been evolving as the nation has evolved.
 b. Crime rates today are higher than they were when t
Crime is not a contemporary problem; it has been evolving as the nation has evolved - page 4
What does research indicate is the most important determinant of police response in police use-of-force incidents?
a. Suspect age
 b. Suspect race
c. Suspect behavior
d. Alleged crime committed
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 291 OBJ: 9 TOP: violence and brutality
Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (Layer I) of the criminal justice "wedding cake"?
a. A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard
b. A burglary occurs at a local bar
c. An individual is arrested for public dru
a. A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard PAGE 21-23
20. _____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.
a. Cybertheft
b. Cybervandalism
c. Cyberterrorism
d. Cybermovement
20. _____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.
a. Cybertheft
b. Cybervandalism
 c. Cyberterrorism
d. Cybermovement
 
c. Cyberterrorism PAGE 184
Which of the following is the most common reason cases are rejected by prosecutors?
 
a. Due process problems
b. Arrest problems
c. Evidence problems
d. Interest of justice problems
 
ANS: C
 
PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion
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