Intro to Music Flashcards

Terms Definitions
scales
pathet


he pathet (Javanese spelling; also patet) is an organizing concept in gamelan music
a pathet indicates which notes are stressed in the melody, especially at the end of phrases (seleh), as well as determines which elaborations (cengkok andsekaran) are appropriate
 In many cases, however, pieces are seen as in a mixture of pathets
In Javanese music there are traditionally six pathet
Umak
Korean Western Music
Miles Davis
Cool Jazz
griot/jali


a West African poet, praise singer, and wandering musician, considered a repository of oral tradition.
Although they are popularly known as 'praise singers', griots may also use their vocal expertise for gossip, satire, or political comment.
Griots today live in many parts of West Africa, includingMali, the Gambia, Guinea, Western Sahara andSenegal,
Raga
refers to melodic modes used in Indian classical music.[1] It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made. In the Indian musical tradition, rāgas are associated with different times of the day, or with seasons. Indian classical music is always set in a rāga. Non-classical music such as popular Indian film songs or ghazals sometimes use rāgas in their compositions.
Monteverdi
Early Baroque,Text painting, dionysian, Madrigal,
an ugly sounding music
dissonance
Zuni Lullaby



Text: lyrics/words

Singing: solo singer, voice dominates

melodic range: only two pitches

accompaniment: NONE

Meter:  No meter/free meter (expected with solo singing

Structure: repetition w/ slight variations
NO HARMONY
Klezmer
a musical tradition of the Ashkenazic Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim, the genre consists largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. Although the genre has its origins in Eastern Europe, the particular form now known as klezmer developed in theUnited States in the milieu of Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants who arrived between 1880 and 1924.
 
Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence;
concharitos have
condenza's- improvization of notes
Tempo
Rate of speed of compostion
hungarian nationalist and modernist composer, wrote concerto for orchestra
bartok
meter
pattern of strong and weak counts/beats
radif
collection of many old melodic figures--organizes melodies into spaces called dastgah
Studies or “exercises” based on specific pianistic techniques
Etudes
Bela Bartok
recorded and copied folk music
Who was the first ethnomusicologist?
Bela Bartok
expressionism
a broad artistic movement that flourished in music, painting, and literature in the early decades of the twentieth century, in which psychological truth took precedence over beauty, and inner emotion took precedence over any sense of external reality
an arrangement or pattern of intervels
mode
Shruti box
a small wooden instrument that traditionally works on a system of bellows. It is similar to a harmonium and is used to provide a drone in a practice session or concert ofIndian classical music. It is used as an accompaniment to other instruments and notably the flute. Use of the shruti box has widened with the cross-cultural influences of world music andnew age music to provide a drone for many other instruments as well as vocalists.
 
Variation of thematic or melodic material for programmatic purposes. Sometimes called metamorphisis.
Thematic Transformation
Dance Music Suite
-series of instrumental movements based on european dance models -usually simple binary formsTypical dance movements-padouana: slow-gagliarda: fast-courente: faster-allemande: fastest, happy
blues
a musical genre derived from African american performance traditions that uses blue notes (flattened pitches) in its melodies and tells first-person stories of hard knocks and love gone wrong
an important innovator in the field of electronic music; wrote poeme electronique
varese
one of Haydns most famous symphonies is no. 94, also known as the ________ symphony
surprise
What is the German word for art song(s)?
Lied(er)
dastgah
melody type that consists of 7 basic notes (12 main dastgahs)--Mode
De Capo Aria
ABA format. Soloist ornaments on second A. Baroque, Dionysian
What was Berg's style like?
Quasi-romantic, lyrical, more traditional than others
tonic
the note that establishes a key, based on its distinctive relationship with a particular set of harmonies or other notes in the underlying scale
what is the subject of the cantata
gospel texts
describe "declamation"
composers made sure that words were sung to rhythms and melodies that approximated normal speech
What piece begins and ends with a Russian Hymn?
1812 Overture
Intrument de ka Tecla
-instruments of touch (keyboard, harp, guitar)
key
the central note and mode on which a melody or piece is based
known as one of the best pianists of all time; wrote some of the most difficult piano music, in over 1,000 european concerts, drove audiences to hysteria (sex symbol)
liszt
When did most Polyphony begin to appear?
the 15th century
Common Characteristics of African American Music



Movement: bodies sway freely and dance 

Social organization:  call and response is very typical from leader => lining out

Timbre:  alternates between buttery smooth and raspy coarse

Pitch: Variable around the 3rd, 5th, and 7th degrees of scale.  The tune is playful
Who won a Pulitzer prize in 1947 for a piece he wrote about 40 years earlier?
Ives
What is an oratorio?
A bibiclical story set to music.
Has a story line but no acting
orchestra, vocal soloists, choir
recitatives, arias, choruses
2+ hours long, longer than cantata
What is a mazurka and a polonaise? 
piece with Polish dance origin
What does Fortspinnung mean?
The way the melody spins out to develop the mood of a piece.
ritornello form is known for
returning to a main them or refrain
Why did Schoenberg move to the US?
Because he was Jewish and WW2
What is a concerto grosso?
A group with a small group of soloists and a larger group of players called the tutti
What is a Da Capo Aria?
An aria in ABA form. After the B section, the term da capo is written, which means repeat A.
rehab
Benny Goodman
Dixielnd
ostinato


a motif or phrasewhich is persistently repeated in the same musical voice. An ostinato is always a succession of equal sounds. Each note always has the same weight in an ostinato. The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody
Weather Report
Progressive Jazz
Erhu
 
Chinese Vertical fiddle
Played with a bow
Chordaphone

 
maqam
denotes a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Middle East andCentral Asia. In this area we can distinguish four main musical cultures which all belong to the Maqam family, namely the Kurdish, the Persian, the Arabic and the Turkish. denotes a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Middle East andCentral Asia. In this area we can distinguish four main musical cultures which all belong to the Maqam family, namely the Kurdish, the Persian, the Arabic and the Turkish.(Mode of Scale)
Beethoven
Classical/Romantic, Diva, developing motives, Per aspera ad astra, Eroica symphony, nine symphonies,
Who pioneered art songs?
Franz Schubert
koto
 
Japanese zither
They have 13 strings
pluck the strings
very similar to guzheng (chinese)

 
Podhale
is Poland's most southern region, sometimes referred to as the "Polish highlands". The Podhale is located in the foothills of the Tatra range of the Carpathian mountains, and is characterized by a rich tradition of folklore that is much romanticized in the Polish patriotic imagination
Haydan
1732-1809Autrian, studied at st. stephan, was dismissed when voice changed. moved to hungary string chortets, lord melson, and the seasons
Rhythm
Organization of sound over time
a ruthless visionary, established gesamtkunstwerk through his german operas, established leitmotifs in his mythological operas referred to as the ring
wagner
soundscape
the characteristic sounds of a particular place, both human and non human
Non-Diegetic

Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action: 
narrator's commentary
sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
mood music
Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space. 
The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening.  We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are  represented as coming from outside the space of the story events.  A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy). 
A virtuosic singing style, including rapid runs, elaborate ornamentation and extremely high pitches.
Colaratura
Roman Stranvinski
the rite of spring-somewhat primitive
Where did Charlies Ives study composition?
Yale
octave
interval of eight diatonic degrees between two of the same tones
Who was the first music critic?
Robert Schumann
Klezmer Ensemble
The following instruments are sought: violin, viola, cello, bass, clarinet, flute, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, tuba, percussion (drum set, xylophone), piano, and accordion, although others will also be considered.
 
Instrumental music that purports to tell a story or describe a scene, idea or event.
Programmatic Music
Lied
(German) A song – more specifically, a song in the great tradition of song-writing exemplified by the works of Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Wolf, R Strauss and others.-song associated with with poems with symmetrical stanzas
blue notes
pitches performe dflatter than the standard major scale would indicate, usually occur as substitutes for the third and seventh (and occasionally the fifth) notes of the standard scale
after studying in paris and hearing french and russian music, he was determined to compose in a distinctly american style, such as appalachain spring
copland
What appened to the orchestra throughout the romantic era?
It got bigger
Superculture
A quarter, perhaps a third, of the human race has moved toward a kind of world superculture of skyscrapers, automobiles, airplanes, and intercontinential hotels. The rest of the human race still remains close to subsistence. ... The development of the superculture is the result of the knowledge explosion, which led not only to new theories and processes, but to new discoveries, especially of fossil fuels and rich ores.
late 19th century movements
Impressionism and post romanticism both helped break down composition, Impressionism- French Post-modernism- german
What is serialism?
Use of the 12-tone method, "emancipation of dissonance"
counterpoint
a style of writing in which every voice is a melody and all voices work together; basic to polyphonic texture
___________ was one of the most important composers of organum
master leoninus
literally, the name of the type. In music, thie refers to the name of the type of piece (symphony, opera, concerto, ect.) or type of style (blues, jazz, rock, folk, ect.)
genre
taiko
 
the word is often used to refer to any of the various Japanese drums  and to the relatively recent art-form of ensemble taiko drumming
 
Consort Music
-A group of instruments such as viols or recorders in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries-A broken consort was one of mixed instruments
diatonic scale
a scale consisting of whole and half steps
what is the performance style of the cantata
concert style
Define "rennaissance"
the name given to a complex current of thought that worked deep changes in Europe from the 14th-16th century
loud & soft playing styles
Outdoor= Loud, no voices, gongs/pots only
 
Indoor= inside, voices, strings
What is the series of notes called in 12-tone?
Tone row
What is a sonata da Camera?
A secular sonata (chamber music)
What was emphasized in the romantic era?
individuality and individuality of style
What is an aria?
A song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment in an opera
How many keys were scales tuned to?
24 major and minor Keys
What composer does Spielberg work with, and what movies has he done?
John Williams. Jaws, Star Wars, Harry Potter 1-4
What is Ground Bass form?
A form where a bass line is repeated over and over while the melodies above it change. Also called basso ostinato.
new classicism came as a respone to
wishing to stray from all the places that the germans had brought music to as a response to WWI
CHINA
Aaron Copeland
Neo-Classicsm
mbira


 is amusical instrument consisting of a wooden board to which staggered metal keys have been attached.
The Mbira is usually classified as part of thelamellaphone family. It is also part of the idiophonesfamily of musical instruments. In some places it is also known as a sanza.
In Shona music, thembira dzavadzimu("voice of the ancestors", national instrument of Zimbabwe[1]) 
Arvo Part
New Simplicity
Tokugana
division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868 and is the premodern era. The period marks the governance of the Edo or Tokugawa shogunate, which was officially established in 1603 by the first Edo shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period ended with the Meiji Restoration,
Transnational Progressivism
a term coined by Hudson Institute Fellow John Fonte in 2001 to describe an ideology that endorses a concept of postnational global citizenship and promotes the authority of international institutions over the sovereignty of individual nation-states
Berlioz
Programmatic symphonies, elaborate story from just instruments.
When was the romantic era?
1820-1900
Enculteration


Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in that culture
Piece expressing the “character” of night.
Nocturnes
Debussy
Impressionism, gliding chords, mixed up rythems
Harmony 
The Vertical dimension of music
this impressionist composed prelude to the afternoon of a faun and studied at the parisian conservatory
debussy
Membranophone
produced by membrane tightened on instrument
microtone
contains intervals smaller than the conventional western semitone.  Differs from 12-tone western
Multimovement orchestral work whose form is based on programmatic concepts.
Program Symphony
vagner
music dramas-operas, took themes from mythalogical, about ideas not people. Hitler loved him used dissonance and chromaticism in music. Yay Nazi's De
What did Sergei Prokofiev write?
Classical Symphony
antecedent
in preiodic phrase structure, an opening phrase, which sets up the consequent phrase to follow
Who called his operas "music dramas?"
Richard Wagner
Avi Cinna
known for contributions to medicine, persian philsopher, shaped society.
“Beautiful singing” 18th century singing style that emphasized the beauty and virtuosity of the voice.
Bel Canto singing
Tablature
-told people physically how to play music in the home if they didn’t know how to play music-a way for people who were not literate in music to play music-showed you where to put your fingers
leitmotif
a brief musical phrase or idea connected dramatically to some person, event, or idea in the drama
best known new orleans jazz artist; created scat singing
armstrong
What is a prelude?
A solo short piano work
daramad 
the initial gushe in a dastgah (first melodic sequence within the mode).
Joe Green
wrote tradgedies in Italy, used brutal realism toward the darker side of humans
Which composer was a popular crossover artist?
George Gershwin
recitative
a style of singing that lies somewhere between lyrical song and speech; also, the operatic number that is sung in this style
identify the statement that does not apply to Gregorian chant. a cappella, falsetto voice, descant, counterpoint
a cappella
an arrangements of notes which is used as the basis for a compostion
scale
Characteristics  of Sioux War Dance
 

Voice Quality: shrill, high pitched, piercing

Instruments: drums and rattles

Vocal technique: portamento (sliding pitches)

Singers: mixture of solo and group singing

Text: vocables (meaningless syllables)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AX5xIv_NS08
 
Ground Base Variations
A bass line repeated throughout a composition.
serialism
a style of writing in which notes are drawn not from a scale, but from a predetermined series of notes. serial composition flourished between 1920 and 1980
what is the recitative
musically heightened speech used to express dramatic action, uses repetitive notes
Define "Madrigal"
the main secular vocal genre of the Renaissance

Cultural appropriation in Western music
as a cultural/economic phenomenon is inextricably linked with the invention of sound recording and the development of the internationalrecording industry, but the background to its emergence covers the whole span of modern Western musical history, and what some analysts have deemed the digital revolution. This is particularly evident among indigenous peoples and their musical genres, such as the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia who face many challenges in the face of globalization and the forces propelling cultural appropriation.[1]
rounded binary form
a binary form in which the opening idea returns in the tonic key about halfway through the second section "rounding out" the form
What are the movements in a suite?
Prelude, allemande, courante, sarabande, menuet, gigue
What is chromatic harmony?
chords not in the key. They are expressive and dissonant
What is word painting?
When the melody changes in relation to the words that are being sung, eg going up on "sky" or down on "abyss"
describe the age of Absolutism
when the doctrine of the "divine right of Kings" ensured the absolute rule of "God chosen" monarchs
What is a castrato?
A male singer who was castrated as a boy so that he has the range of a woman with the lung power of a man.
What is a Sonata da Chiesa?
A sacred sonata with a reverent and dignified mood.
what is the romantic aesthetic or the ideals of romantic music
love and nature, musical pride and nationalism
p'ansori
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYWHrSEbZtQ
Korean court music
performed in court hall or town square
voice + drum
 
Scott Joplin
Ragtime
Surakarta


Surakarta (colloquially Solo) is an Indonesian city of more than 600,000 people located in Central Java.
John Cage
Experimental Tradition
Yogyakarta


The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian:Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is the smallestprovince of Indonesia (excluding Jakarta). It is located on the island of Java
The city of Yogyakarta is the capital of the province (located in south-central Java)
zampoña
The pan flute or pan pipe (also known as panflute or panpipes) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the Closed tube, consisting usually of five or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times, girth). The pan flute has long been popular as a folk instrument, and is considered the first mouth organ, ancestor of both the pipe organ and the harmonica
 
Tchaikovsky
Russian nationalist, ballet, symphonies,wrote his heart beat stopping, personal music
What instrument did Liszt play?
Piano
diaspora
people migrating from mainland china--music goes with the people
Containing new music throughout
Through-composed music
Tertian Harmony
Chords based on thirds.
absolute music
music for music's sake
which instrument normally accompanies the sitar?
tabla
Chordophone
strings stretched over a resonating body w/ or w/o a neck
Hormoz Farhat
20th Century Persian Scholar, composer, and ethnomusicologist
“Joke” A movement, often the third, of a multimovement piece. The form is ABA, with a trio inserted between the scherzo and its repeat.
Scherzo
program music
instrumental music that composer associates with idea, or theme. 4 types1. concert2. overture3. independant piece with programic ovrtures4. incidental musicprogram synphonony
Which musician did aleatoric music?
John Cage
What is a synonym for polyphony/polyphonic?
Counterpoint/contrapuntal
How frequent were the modulations in Wagner's operas?
frequent
Takht ensemble
Made up of traditional Arabic instruments + western instruments
Doctrine of affections
Renee descartes, six possible affections. used as template for music.
Woodwind Quintet
-flute, oboe, clarinet, french horn, bassoon
texture
the number and general relationship of musical lines or voices to one another
this composers works can be divided into three stylistic periods 1) russian ballet, 2) neo-classical, and 3) 12 tone his most recognized work is the rite of spring
stravinsky
which term refers to the distinct tone quality of sound?
timbre
What is a nocturne?
A piece that evokes nighttime
Nation
is a grouping of people who share common history, culture, language and ethnic origin, often possessing or seeking its own government.[1] The development and conceptualization of a nation is closely related to the development of modern industrial states and nationalist movements in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,[2] although nationalists would trace nations into the past along uninterrupted lines of historical narrative.
Musique Concrete
-music from reality-music made out of sounds that are recorded-desert electronic interpolation
Who wrote Five Pieces for Orchestra, and who was he taught by?
Webern, Schoenberg.
aria
any lyrical movement or piece for solo voice, usually with some kind of instrumental accompaniment
what is the subject of the oratorio
biblical subjects
the person who writes the piece of music. the writer of a book os its author, but the writer of a symphony os its composer
composer
Abu Nasr Farabi
Wrote books on early muslim society and discussed musics therapeutic effects
bebop
new jazz style of the late 40s and early 50s that developed in response to the popularity of big band music. characterized by fast tempos, short bursts of melodic phrases, heavy and unexpected rhythmic accents, and virtuosic soloing
produced erlking at the age of 17 and the trout at 20. wrote over 600 lieder and lived a bohemian lifestyle
schubert
the speed at which an object or column of air vibrates. the faster the vibratino, the higher the pitch
pitch
fusion music
is a music genre which combines two or more genres. For example, rock and roll originally developed as a fusion of blues, gospel and country music. The main characteristics of fusion genres are variations in tempo, rhythm and sometimes the use of long musical "journeys" that can be divided into smaller parts, each with their own dynamics, style and tempo. "Fusion" used alone often refers to jazz fusion.
major mode
a type of scale produced by singing do re mi fa so la ti do, or by playing the white keys of the piano between C and C, with the patter of steps: WWHWWWH. the sound of the major mode is often described as "bright" or "happy" in contrast to the minor mode
identify the incorrect statement regarding the madrigal? it emerged in italy about the year 1530, sung by large a cappella choirs, sung in some vernacular language, emphasizes the meaning of the poetry at any given moment
sung by large a cappella choirs
Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti
Under Code Rossini's shadow, began to increase realism in Italian opera
What is figured bass?
The numbers below a bass line that give the basso continuo player(s) a guideline on how to improvise and fill notes in their bass line
Describe the 16th century motet
a short composition to Latin words made up of short section in the homophony and imitative polyphony
What is a fugue?
A piece that is based on one main theme that is imitative and contrapuntal. The subject is repeated while counter-subjects play behind it to add variety
What is a solo concerto?
A piece for a single soloist with an orchestra background
Setting of a well known poet’s work to music by a serious composer.
Setting of a well known poet’s work to music by a serious composer.
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