Islam Study Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hijra
emigration
talaq
divorce
warriors
unshakable faith
Koran
holy book
Umma
Islamic Community
Shi'a Groups
Zaydis
Isma'lis
Twelvers
imam
Muslim prayer leader
babul
muhammed's freed slave
Muslims
followers of Islam
iman
word meaning faith
Umar
Succeeded Abu Bakr
inshallah
if God wills
Abu Talib
Muhammad's uncle
Raised Muhammad
leader of Islam religion
Muhammed
Bedouins
Nomadic herdsmen of Arabia
Abraham
Father of Jewish religion
Hajj
The journey to mecca
Translated meaning of mosque.
Prostration
632
When did he pass away?
mongols; 1258
-invaded baghdad
-raided, looted, torched and killed last abbasid caliph
Jihad
Means struggle; Greater Jihad: struggle against inner desire; Lesser Jihad: Struggle against enemies
Mosque
a Muslim place of worship
Salat
2nd Pillar of Islam; Prayer
Qiyas
Legal decision making and argumentation by means of "analogy." One of the four sources of Sunni fiqh.
Allah
absolute, pure, being, creator, merciful, just, beyond all def. and categories, nothing like him , can not have a son
Who ruled in Charlemagne
Harun Al-Rashid
Qur'an
Muslim holy book, written by Muhammad
purdah
the traditional Middle Eastern custom of seclusion for women
Zakat
Alms-giving. A percentage of one's income is given to the poor; required of those who can't afford it. Is required by Muslims.
Imams
spiritual leaders of Shi'ah Islam, said to be direct descendents of Muhammad
Caliph
successor to the messenger of God
Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
More Shiites than Sunnis believe in
fundamentalism
sema
mevlevi practice of dikr, where participants recite prayers and hymns than do a whirring dance
Christianity doctrine
10 commandments, Messiah,cannon law, Bible
Kaaba
literally a "cube"/shrine in Mecca; Muhammad cleansed the Kaaba of idols
ummah
the worldwide community of Muslim believers
Muezzin
individual who gives call to pray
qutb
"pole" ; the spiritual man served as a pole around which the world revolved
fasting
during ramadad
nothing in till the sun goes down
Ali
Son-in-law and 1st cousin of Mohammed, and husband to Fatimah (Mohammed's daugher)
vizier
a prime minister that advises the caliph
Qu'ran
The sacred text of Islam, meaning "reading" or "reciting". Divided into 114 suras/chapters
Kaa'ba
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Sharia
body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Qu'ran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
reaya
masses of ordinary subjects in Ottoman society
bedouin
a person who travels through the desert
Where does Mohammad go to after leaving Mecca?
Medina
the franks
settled in gaul (france), defeated moors at battle of tours and drove them back to spain
al Mahdi
3rd Abbasid caliph. Failed to reconcile the moderates among the Shia opposition to Abbasid rule. Failed to solve problem of sucession. Allowed wives and concubines to get all in the mix. Famous for luxury.
Caravan
A company of travelers, especially of merchants or pilgrims
Muhammad had his first revelations
in a cave
Hadith
An early collection of the prophet's sayings, it warned against any attempt to imitate God through artistic creation or idolatry.
rasul
- \"messenger\"- a type of prophet entrusted with a special divine message for a specific people- Muhammad is a rasul
Hadiths
Traditions of what Muhammad did or said, examples from Muhammad's life
Shi'a
a branch of Islam, which believes that leader of Islam should be hereditary
hijab
means covering the head and body in accordance with God's instructions
Ramadam
the ninth month of the Islam calander when Muslims Feast
Quraysh
the dominant tribe of Mecca
It was both the tribe to which Muhammad belonged and his chief antagonist in the Muslim-Quraysh Wars
Califas Abasies
Tomaron el poder de los califas omeyas
Saladin
Strong Sunni leader who was able to unite the Muslims into a force that recaptured most of the crusader outposts late in the 12th Century.
True
Arabs before Islam came to them were animists
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Isnad
chain of people back to Muhammad for hadiiths
"Imam"/ "imam"
-1. the officiating priest of a mosque.
2. the title for a Muslim religious leader or chief.
3. one of a succession of seven or twelve religious leaders, believed to be divinely inspired, of the Shiʿites.
Shari'a
system of law, the guidance of the Qur'an and the sunna compiled into a book
Governor Muawiyah
he initiated the Umayyad Dynasty, he was one of Ali's chief rivals, he was known for one great virtue, only using force when absolutely necessary.
thobe
long, white garment worn by men in Saudi Arabia
Seljuk Turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Marwah
-One of two small hills (the other=al Safa) located in Mecca, between which Muslims walk rapidly back adn forth seven times during the Haji. (Sa'y)
Dastgah
Persian mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improvision
mecca
a region in Saudi Arabia bordering on the Red Sea, formerly an independent kingdom: contains the Islamic holy cities of Medina and Mecca. ab. 150,000 sq. mi. (388,500 sq. km).
Sunni Muslim
did not agree with Umayyad rule but accepted the Umayyads as rulers
Islam had spread into Spain by the 8th century CE
true
patriarch of Constantinople
highest church official in the east; 2nd in dignity to Bishop of Rome
niqab
a type of veil worn by some Muslim women that is made of lightweight opaque fabric and leaves only the eyes uncovered
Polygamy
a marriage between a man and more than one woman; is seen as an exception, not as a rule, within Islam
Abu' al Abbas
leader of the rebellion against the Umayyad; descendant of Muhammad's uncle (750 CE), the chief leader of the rebellion that brought the Umayyad Dynasty to an end; a descendant of Muhammad's uncle; he was a Sunni Arab
Whose voice did Muhammad hear in the cave
Angel Garbriel
5 Pillars
1. belief in Allah as God and Muhammad as final prophet
2. pray 5 times daily
3. charity to poor and elderly
4. fast during Ramadan
5. Must once in lifetime make the pilgrimage to Mecca
5, mecca
how many times per day do most Muslims pray, facing towards where
wa aleikoom assalam
and may peace be with you (reply to assalam aleikoom)
"Allah will bring to nothing the deeds of those who disbelieve and debar others from His path. As for the faithful who do good works and believe what is revealed to muhammad... he will forgive them their sins and enoble their state... as for those wh
the jihad or "holy war"
Why did the Quranic revelations threaten the traditional tribal structure and Meccan oligarchy?
- the revelations forbade the worship of other Gods and demanded the destruction of statues and images. Those revelations threatened business people, particularly those engaged in the pilgrimage trade of Mecca. This annual pilgrimage of Mecca and festival to the Kaaba (then a sanctuary of Arabian tribal religion) brought considerable revenues.
All Muslims were allowed to hold civil and military offices, intermarriage.
What cultural changes did the Abbasids make to the world of Islam?
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