Islam Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Muwatins
citizen
Pilgrimage
holy journey
sunna
follow muhammads example
Caliph
successor or leader
Muslim
"one who has subbmited"
Arabis
language of the Arabs
Taliban
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
qur'an
the holy book of muslim
Ramadan
holy month of fasting for Muslims
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Shari'a
laws an regulations of muslims family life, moral conduct, and buissness an community
Hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Allahu Akbar
Arabic words for "god is the great"
Faith
Allah is the one and only god, his prophet is Muhammad
patrons
sponsors
Fatimids
910
malama
blame
ulama
religious scholars
Moors Religion
Sunni
Sultan
Turkish Ruler
bazaar
a covered market
Shira
code of laws
Abbasids Capital
Baghdad, Iraq
Islamic Medicine
practiced surgery
deductive
general to specific
Began in...
7th century AD
13%
percentage of Shiites today
Bedouins
a desert-dwelling Arab nomad
khums
"fifth" payment of tax
Hamid Karzai
President of Afghanistan
Schism
Split in the religion
masjid
place of prostration (mosque)
Messiah
A redeemer sent by God
imam p, 228
Islamic prayer leader
jihad
striving against evil. Holy struggle
Zakat
the practice of charitable giving
Muslims
followers of Muhmmad, islamic peoples
Shari'ah
The divine law in Islam
480-525
Boethius (A Christian Philosopher) lived between these years
the world-wide Muslim community
Caliph (Khalifah)
Sufism
INTERIOR ISLAM goal to internalize taqwa (moral torch) , An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicating themselves to fasting, prayer, meditation on the Qur'an, and the avoidance of sin.
Umayyads
Muhammad's tribe headed by his uncle
Ka'bah
"cube" built by Hagar and Ishmael
Saladin
Muslim general who pushed the Christians from Jerusalem in 1187
Salat
what is praying five times dailu?
Baghdad
capital and largest city of Iraq
Millets
Areas of town where individual religious groups could live and practice their religions.
711AD
general tariq went against the visigoths in spain
hijrah
Muhammad's migration from Makkah to establish a community in Madinah. With dates, the abbreviation AH stands for Latin for "year of the hijrah" counting 354 day lunar years from the event in 622 A.D.
Umar
• Second caliph
• Great military leader
• Expands empire to most of Syria
• Pushes in Palestine, Egypt, Lybia, Persians
• Adops Hijrah as "0" for the Muslim calendar in 622
Kharijites
"seceders"; strict moralistic sect of early Muslims
'ulama
the class learned Muslim legal scholars who study and apply the religious sciences
hadath
activities that lead to impurity. Major -> fornication, menstruation minor--> sleeping, urinating
caliphs
political leaders of Islam after Muhammad
Monotheistic
____________ means to express a belief in one God.
Mahdi
messianic figure who will appear at end of history
five pillars
profession of allah; prayer-5 times daily; alms-2.5%; fasting-Ramadan; pilgrimage-mecca
The groups resisting these new forms of rule became known as
Islamist
Medina
a city Muhammad and his followers moved to; "the prophet's city"
vizier
a prime minister that advises the caliph
Burka
cloak that convers the entire body, worn by women
The Koran
What are the Muslims celebrating during the holy month of Ramadan?
Asia Minor
the western Asian peninsula comprising most of modern-day Turkey, known to the Greeks as Anatolia
Greek Fire
used by the Byzantines; like flamethrower
Ihram
State of ritual purity and sanctity, achieved by renouncing certain activities and donning a special garb (also called ihram) when commencing the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
Indonesia
The country with the most concentrated population of Muslims
Harun-Al Rashid
r.786-809, Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
466-511
Clovis ruled the Franks during this time span
ijtihad
The effort of a qualified Islamic ulama to interpret or reinterpret (for modern times) sources of Islamic law in cases in which no clear directives exist.
khalifa and khilafa
better known as "caliph"; deputy of M.
What direction did the muslims take after Muhammad died?
Militaristic
Aurangzeb
6th Mughal emperor, He was the first ruler to attempt to impose Sharia law on a non-Muslim country, widely expanded Mughal empire. rallying cry for Pakistan
John 16:7
Muslims understand this verse to be referring to Muhammad
Sufi
group of Muslims that pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path
Alkhwarizmi
studied in math, author of al-jabr or "algebra"
Mehmet II
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire). King of Ottomans
muezzin
one who calls the people to prayer from a high place
Zionism
Judaism: a movement in support of the State of Israel
"festival of the breaking of the fast," the end of Ramadan
Id al-Fitra
Bedouin nomads and traders
the main occupations of muslims
Ahmadiya Islam
2 sects w/in Islam interpret "the seal of prophets" differently. This sect believes M. isn't the last prophet, but the greatest. Believe other prophets have followed him.
loyalty, bravery, kindness and honor
the tribal society valued ___________
Zakah
give alms to the poor; 2.5% of income everything you own paid to the mosque
Muhammad and his companions
Whom is the Shari'a written by?
5 Pillars
Allah is God. prayer. give to the poor. fasting. pilgrimage to Mecca
Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
five pillars of islam
1. prayer2. zakat3. pilgrimage (if affordable)4. Shahada (no god but God)5.fast for Ramadan
Eidal-Fitr
end of Ramadan for 3 days and you give presents
Format of Qu'ran
114 Suras arranged from long to short however the first one is short. God arranged it himself, central message revolves around oneness and greatness of Allah, "To Allah belongs the east and west"
Rightly Guided Caliphs
- 1st 4 caliphs of Islam after Muhammad according to Sunni understanding- Abu Bkr, Umar, Uthman, Ali- exemplary in keeping with the sunna of Muhammad- placed God and the good of the Ummah before their own interests
The Shari'a is a complement to the Koran because the Koran does not cover everything. The Shari'a covers dietary laws, crimes and punishment, and daily life.
What is the Shari'a?
five events of the expansion of islam
muhammad recieves first message for the qur`an, muhammad and his followers flee to medina, jews reject muhammads message, muslims capture mecca, tribes across arabia vow to follow muhammad
The Ka'ba was not destroyed, yet...
It became site of pigrimage in 632 C.E.
What are the first four successors of Muhammad called
The first four successors of Muhammad are called the rightly guided caliphs
Tahara
purification
harem
forbidden
maja
jajaj
bedouin
desert nomad
Umma
Islamic Community
Khadija
Muhammads wife
Muhammad migrated to...
Medina
quar'an
Islamic holy book
holy, cube-shaped building
Kaaba
Marcia Hermansen
Identity Islam
Islam
Submission-1.2 billion followers
mosque
Muslim place of worship
Al-Khwarizmi
mathematician who created algebra
Ali
fourth caliph after Muhammad
Abraham built what
The Ka'aba
Minaret
Are distinctive architectural features of Islmis mosques.
polo
introduced by persians
played on horseback
used mallet to hit ball into goal
abbasid rulers loved it
muslims adatped and improved polo
Mausoleum of the Samanids, Uzbekistan, Ca. 900 CE
Mu'awiya
leader of Umayyads 608, proclaimed Caliph, competition of Ali
Hadith
Reports about Muhammad's life and deeds
Muslim, 17th century
majority of slaves were
qiyas
analogical reasoning used to make legal decisions based on precedent; refined ra'y with smaller scope, used when neither Qur'an nor hadith could solve a problem
Purdah
The traditional Middle Eastern custom of seclusion for women
Sunnis
Accepted the Umayyad dynasty as rightful caliphs
ummah
the worldwide community of Muslim believers
abraham
patriarch of jews, muslims, and christians
Iman
- \"faith\" or \"belief\"- the articles of faith which a Muslim is obligated to believe, according to Shari'a
a branch of islam. means "majority." believe that the caliph of muhammad shoul be democratically chosen
sunni
Major Beliefs
one all powerful god (monotheistic, Allah), 5 Pillars (no god but allah, pray 5x a day facing Mecca, give alms to the poor, fast during Ramadan, hajj to Mecca 1x in life)
Shiite
Believe their should be someone w/ religious authority
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Salah
Prayer- 5 times a day, facing Mecca
Sufis
"wool wearers", the mystical sect of Islam
114 chapters (surahs)
the Muslim scripture consists of
Niffari
wrote book of sayings belongs to category of shath.
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Córdoba
the location of where the Ummayad family set up an independent kingdom
taqlid
following the itjihad or legal opinion of a particular jurist
chador
long, black robe worn by Iranian women
emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622 where he established rule of Muslim community-state
hijra
What Iranian shah introduced modern reforms and favored nationalism?
Reza Shah
Trends after 1700
1. Purification and Conservation2. Western Cultural Influence3. Secularism4. Modernism (Liberalism)5. Pan-Islamic Unity
Baraka
"blessing power" which comes from God into creation for the benefit of human beings.
How developed was the economy?
little agriculture, somewhat isolated
Ridda Wars
defeat of rival prophets and larger clans
Muhammad
prophet of Islam; spoken to by angel Gabriel on Mt Hira; married to Khadija; a regular human being, not divine
arcade
covered walkway. a place to talk and meet before entering the mosqu.
that Muhammad is the only true prophet of God
false
hijab
means covering the head and body in accordance with God's instructions
Hadith Qudsi
sayings that God revealed to Muhammad which have a higher status than other Hadith
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Isma'ilis
The **** are the second largest branch of the Shi'ia faith after the Twelvers. They follow **** as the successor to Ja'far as-Sadiq. They are very focused in the esoteric, the Batini (what is hidden). They believe only Ali had the full truth. They tended to be hierarchal. **** believe there is always an imam in the world, though sometimes he is hidden. There are a group of people doing his da'wa- they find people who claim allegiance to the imam. In 909, the establishment of the Fatamid Empire in Cairo caused them to transition and break in 3 branches: The Drews, Nizaris, and Mustailis.
Ka'aba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
les jeunes blogueurs
les ados qui circulent des renseignements sur la toile (bloggers)
Death of Ali and beginning of the Umayyad empire (date)
661
Hegira p. 225
the flight of Muhammad and his followers form Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. It marks the beginning of the Islamic calender
Prove that Islam is a branch of the Judeo-Christian "tree".
...essay
Friday at noon
congregational prayer takes place in a mosque on
Jinn
any of a class of spirits, lower than the angels, capable of appearing in human and animal forms and influencing humankind for either good or evil.
Zaydis
named for Zaydi, first Shi'i to try to wrest power from Umayyads after Husayn massacre. Similar to Twelvers. Limited to Yemen now
Wailing Wall
Jewish holy site in Jerusalem that is the only remaining portion of Solomon's temple
Omar Khayyam
A 12th century poet who composed poems orally with friends. His works, the most famous of them the Rubaiyat, were down to earth, simple, and skeptical about the meaning of life.
Explain Mu'awiya.
Mu'awiya was a part of the Umayyad clan, was a Syrian leader and wanted to be the next caliph.
Dar al harb
The abode of war , designating regions outside of muslim rule
The British Mandate of Palestine
comprised territory that now comprises most of modern-day Jordan, Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip

League of Nations administer defunct Ottoman empire until they were able to do it alone
muslims across the world
all want to visit makka and the ka'ba
Night of Power and Excellence
in 610 begins Muhammad's career as a prophet
when confronted by a question not addressed in the Quran
jurists look for similar or analogues portions of scripture to identify principles that could be applied to a new case
How many times during their lives are Muslims expected to make the Pilgrimage to Mecca?
Every Muslim is expected to make this trip at least once in his life
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