Western Civilization
Terms Definitions
State Diamond's Thesis
History followed different courses for different people because of the differences among peoples' environments not because of biological differences among the people themselves.
Describe the natural resources use and environmental impacts in the civilizations of Easter Island, Mesopotamia, Rome
Easter Island: deforestation, erosion, decrease crop yields, extinction of species (land bird/palm tree)
Mesopotamia: deforestation, climate change which led to decrease of precipitation which resulted in more irrigation, erosion (from deforestation), salinization
Rome: luxury and excess for elite, wood for fuel, deforestation,
Identify the date of the Magna Carta
Identify the date of the Fall of Rome
476 CE
Define epistemology and differentiate the empirical knowledge from theoretical knowledge
Epistemology: "the nature, sources, limits of knowledge"
Empirical knowledge: things that you can sense - material, physical, concrete. Sensory observation
Theoretical knowledge: Using reason, analysis, logic and intellect to arrive at a conclusion
What is the era of Classical Greece?
5th-4th Century BCE
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist:
This man was the first philosopher/scientist, purposed water as the single, universal principle of the material universe
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: For this man, everything was about numeric representation. He said that in order to comprehend the material world you must use mathematics and it would lead to spiritual illumination
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: Said all things are composed of atoms. He saw nature as our teacher. An example: Spiders taught humans how to weave, barn swallows gave humans the idea to fire mud bricks for their houses
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: "How do you know you know" This philosopher said we must subject knowledge to criticism
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: Said things are composed of forms and matter. He introduced the idea of dualism, transcendent entities
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: Said earth is the center of the universe (geocentric view). He is the father of biology and zoology
Name that Greek Philosopher/Scientist: Father of botany and ecology. Said that humans are at fault for climate change
Identify the date that Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire
Identify the date of the middle ages
Describe 3 fundamental components of the christian tradition
Dualism, Designed Creation, Hierarchy
What are the three interpretations of human-nature relationship within the christian tradition
Despotic, Stewardship, Citizenship
Identify the date of the Magna Carta and the king who signed it
1215, King John
Identify the date of the black death
Cohn's thesis about the black death
The black death is not the modern bubonic plaque. WHY? Medieval sources do not match signs and symptoms of today's bubonic plaque
Black death: Multiple boils, no evidence of rats as vector,
Modern Bubonic: One boil, vector = rats
State Bromley's thesis in "Rousseau's revenge"
the redefinition of property rights is imminent, we are on our way to the social ownership of land
Concept of social ownership
Social ownership - people still own their own property (private property) but from the consensus of the community - rules and regulations restrict what you can/can't do on the property. The society is calling for limits to protect the environment and other people
Describe and define the Renaissance
Means "rebirth/reawakening"
The ancient idea that man is the center of concern is reborn during this time. Important themes of this time period include: secularism, individualism. People became interested in multiple things: music, language, literacy
Identify the three prominent Renaissance figures and their major works
daVinci : Interested in everything. He was an artist(The Last Supper, Mona Lisa), inventor and scientist (anatomy drawings)
Machiavelli: Wrote The Prince
Shakespeare: 37 plays. His works are timeless because they can be set in any time period
Identify the event that triggered the reformation and date of event
Martin Luther - 95 Thesis in 1517
Describe the "Protestant Ethic" (Weber) and its implications
The ethic: work in a calling glorifies God
-God wants you to work at what you're good at (which is your calling)
An individual's ability and initiative helps influence the development of capitalism
Scientific Revolution by way of Copernicus's work (looking for a date)
Prominent figures of the scientific revolution and their contributions
Copernicus: Heliocentric theory (calendar reform)
Kepler: Elliptical orbits - using mathematical astronomy
Galileo: Using empirical observations advanced Copernicanism
Newton: Laws of gravity and motion
Who created the "new catalog" of nature? What are they known for?
Ray: defined species based on empirical observation
Linnaeus: binomial nomenclature
Identify the decade of Gutenberg's printing press
Characteristics of the Enlightenment
Rationalism, Political Revolution
Social stratification based on land was during what era/time period?
Middle Ages
Pluralism is a characteristic of what? (looking for a time period)
The Reformation (1517)
Describe the Scientific Revolution
Happened in 1543. It was a paradigm shift in thinking. There was a transfer of loyalty and trust from religion to science
Describe what is meant by "social contract"
People will give up some of their natural rights to form a government which will protect civil rights
Date of the Enlightenment
When does the Renaissance begin?
Date of the Collision at Cajamarca
Blaut's Thesis
The rise and hegemony of Europe occurred after 1492 and was a direct results of the immense wealth gained through colonialism.
Date of food production in Fertile Crescent
8500 BCE
Date of food production in Eastern US
2500 BCE
define food production
Food production is the domestication of plants, animals and eating the resulting product/meat
Define implicit association
The unconscious association of one thing with another - remember the video clip on the map!
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