Italian Unification Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Claude Monet
Italian nationalist movement
July 1860
Garibaldi conquers Sicily.
Pope Initially Owned
Papal States
Red Shirts
Name for Garibaldi's army
What did socialists do?
Organized strikes
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Italy
H. Ibsen
wrote A Doll's House
Young Italy
Mazzini's nationalist group for unification
war w/ denmark
took territories that he secretly agreed to share w/ austria
prussia keeps land; denies agreement
austria threatens war
Authoritarian Empire (France)
sped up industrialization
credit mobilier= govt funding/assistance for certain major corporations/businesses
urban renewal= sanitation systems, slums cleaned
A secret society of Italian revolutionaries made up of middle class liberals. They were idealistic, very secretive, and they wanted a constitutional monarchy. This group was ineffective.
The north was
richer and had more cities
people who wanted to abolish all government
19th August 1860
Garibaldi embarks on the mainland.
Herbert Spencer
"survival of the fittest"; social darwinism applies Darwins ides to society; some people/races are better than others.
Charles Darwin
origin of species; theory of evolution; social darwinism
Il Risorgimento
A nationalist newspaper Cavour had founded. It's name later also became the name of the movement for Italian freedom/unfication from Austria.
Nice and Savoy
territories that France gained for helping the Italians throw off Austrian domination
in what year did Cavour become the prime minister of Sardinia
Italy had not been one political unit since the time of the
11th September 1860
Cavour's uprising failed and many complained he had acted in breach of international law. Nevertheless, Cavour ignored comments and Piedmontese army invaded papal states from the north on September 11th. Napoleon was aware of the invasion but didn't object as long as the piedmontese army avoided Rome.
May 1860
Garibaldi headed south and Cavour had a dilemma... Opposition to Garibaldi would make him and his government unpopular, elections due on 6th and 10th and he didn't want Garibaldi to ruin his political prospects. Cavour suspected Victor Emmanuel of secretly supporting Garibaldi.
Franco-Prussian War
France vs Prussia (won).
Napoleon was captured,
people of France don't want him back, he was exiled.
Italians took over papal states
Count Camillo Di Cavour
Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, who was the driving force behind Italian unification. He was elected to the Pidmontese Parliament in 1849 in the new constitutional government, named minister of commerce and agriculture in 1850, and finally named Prime Minister in 1852. He helped stimulate Italian economy, strengthened the army, and controlled the clergy. Cavour is considered to be a liberal, but was far from Repubclicanism.
Triple Alliance
In 1882, Italy formed a military alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany.
Why did Italy gain Rome?
because france had to withdraw
Papal law of guarantees
Vatican was given its soverignity, rest of papal states go to Italy, Pope gets paid
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Leader of Red Shirts. Gave Sicily and Naples to Victor Emmanuel.
8th September 1860
As Garibaldi planned invasion of Papal states, Cavour acted. The National Society engineered an uprising in the papal states and Cavour demanded papal army be disbanded rather than suppress the uprising.
Prussia/Austria were....
natural rivals (if one wins, the other basically loses everything)
Giuseppe Mazzini
This man was exiled because of his outspoken nationalism, but he still smuggled his patriotic pamphlets into Italy. He believed that Europe needed to redraw the lines set by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
What was included in sardinia
Piedmont and the island of Sardinia
18th September 1860
Papal army destroyed at the battle of Castelfidaro.
Foreign Policy (France)
helped Pope on winning side of Crimean War, caused an ego boost, inspired Napoleon to get involved in other foreign "ventures"
Elements of Nationalism
Culture: Shared beliefs and a way of life create a common bond
History: A shared past connects people as a group
Religion: A common religion helps unite people.
Language: A common language is a key element of nationalism
Territory: A shared land gives people a sense of unity
Secret patriotic groups tried to get rid of
the Austrians in northern italy
Problems of Italy after Unification
Regional differences still led to lack of unity among Italians. Widespread poverty was a serious problem, so many emigrated to the Americas.
What was the goal of Young Italy
to establish a united republican Italy
G. Mendel
E. Jenner
smallpox vaccine
J. Lister
antiseptics during surgery
Austria Initially Owned
Lombardy, Venice
Ruled over Rome until 1871
Victor Emmanuel
King of united Italy
England (info)
slow steady evolutionary change
type of government Young Italy wanted
strongest independent city state 1849 led unification
G. Garibaldi
organized private army- "Red Shirts"
Spain Initially Owned
Kingdom of 2 Sicilies
Ottoman Empire
nation that Greece gains its independence from, upsets the balance of power in Europe
Who invaded the papel states
the red shirts
March 1860
plebiscites in Tuscany, Emilia, Savoy and Nice. widespread rigging of votes as majority voted for union with piedmont. mazzini accepts Victor Emmanuel as leader of a united Italy.
The Bastern Question
Who will control Balcans, straights?
Crimean War
Ottoman turks declare war on Russia
End/France supported turks, & did most of fighting
new Tsar Alex II (Russ) negates peace
Victor Emmanuel II becomes the king of Italy in
26th October 1860
Garibaldi defeated the neapolitan army at the battle of volturno.
Treaty of Frankfurt
official end of Franco Prussian war
specifies Aisace-Lorraine (2 fr territories) taken by Ger
major cause of WW1
French want land (need allies)
Germans want land (need allies)
1000 red shirts won control of what
Sicily and Naples
Camillo di Cavour
P.M. of Sardinia later unified Italy he foucuseed his efforts in the northern city states "brain"
July/August 1860
Cavour panics and sends La Farina to Sicily to claim its annexation to Piedmont. Garibaldi has made himself dictator of Sicily and sends La Farina away empty handed, Garibaldi is not ready to hand his conquest over.
Alfred Lord Tennyson
poet, Charge of the Light Brigade; Laureate of England
Pope Pius IX (Popo Nono)
He loosened censorship, released political prisoners, and elected a group of business advisers to help improve the economy, making the theory of Neo-Guelfism more attractive to Italians everywhere.
What did the French Bourbons take at the congress of vienna
Naples and Sicily
What had the congress of Vienna done to Italy after Napoleaon was overthrown?
split it apart
From 3rd October 1860
Piedmontese army led in person by Victor Emmanuel.
Fiasco in Mexico
Napoleon thinks it would be cool to colonize Mexico, Mexico rebelled, reestablished independence
William I (king of Prussia)
hires Otto von Bismarck (embodiment of Machivelli's Prince)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom Garbaldi had conquered and presented to King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.
The RCC urged Catholics not to cooperate with Italy because of
the seizure of the papel states
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