Angiosperm exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
floral stalk
-lacking hairs
-fleshy and juicy
-type of determinate inflorescence
-lateral branches of the inflorescence are composed of 3-flowered units that are showing opposite branching
fleshy fruits
-attract animal dispersers
-“Cheap” rewards (sugars, water, water soluble vitamins) Seeds spit out, dropped, pass unharmed
-Contain nutrients used by the seed for development  -Fats, oils, starches 
-Toxins, hard shells or seed coats to deter herbivory
-fleshy, indehesiant fruit
-Berry with a leathery rind (peel) with oil glands and specialized hairs
-characteristic of the citrus family
-an animal pollinator
Attracted to: 
-Red flowers
-Tubular flowers can be penetrated by long beak
-Odorless (they have poor sense of smell)
-Large amounts of nectar (they are endothermic and have high energy needs)
-No landing platform (they can hover)
top of the leaf
-bottom of the leaf
small, leaflike structures, located along the pedicel

-type of determediate inflorescence -like cyme – a cyme where the branches first produce several internodes before ending in a terminal flower
-a type of animal pollinator
Characterisitics of pollinated flowers:
-Crepuscular (evening) or nocturnal opening of flowers
- Flowers white or pale in color 
-Heavy, sweet fragrance (at night)
-Very long corolla tube (to match their long mouthparts) 
-May not have “landing platform” as some of them can hover in flight
first symbol in floral formulasindicates asymmetry
the reproductive structures of angiosperms;is a highly modified shoot bearing specialized appendages (modified leaves)
- a genetic incompatibility system
-pollen doesn't germinate (seed doesn't grow)
-depends on single allele of haploid pollen
-liked parts aren't fused
-opposite of connation
-an animal pollinator
-Two main “flavors”, long-tongued (LT) and shorttongued (ST)
Pollinated Floral characteristics:
-Flowers are blue, violet or yellow (less commonly, red)
-Petals often with UV reflectance as nectar guides
-Landing platforms 
-Bilateral symmetry (may be LT trait)
-also visit many generalized flowers visited by other insects
-a type of animal pollinator
Attracted to:
-Large flowers, open at night
-musky scent
-dull color
-They visit primarily for nectar (ex bananas, mangoes)
-are rare in temperate regions
Plagiotropic stems
stems that are horizontal
prop roots
-adventitious roots-usually arising from the basal portion of a trunk and assisting in support of the plant-ex:corn, mangrove
-plants that grow on rocks
-plants that grow in soil
-a horizontal stem-often underground or on the surface of the ground-has scalelike leaves
-a parasitic root-ex.-mistle toe, daughter vine
-a type of leaf texture-papery
-a dry, dehiscent fruit
-pods split along 2 opposite edges
-ex: peanut
-the nutritive tissue derived from fusion of the two polar nuclei and one sperm
-can either be homogeneous or ruminate
-may contain starch, oils, protein, oligosaccharides
-nourishes the developing embryo
-A hard-rinded berry that includes accessory tissue
-a fleshy fruit, indehesiant fruit
-has an extremely hard exocarp, often thick, like a pumpkin
floral cups; another layer of protection around the ovary
flowers where the perianth and androecium are inserted below the gynoecium; has a superior ovary
part of stamen; presents the anther
flowers that only possess a gynoecium
Bird disperal
-dispersal that involves colorful, flesh or seed coat
-red, blue, black
-Fleshy, indehiscent fruits (berries, drupes, pomes), or fruits with fleshy accessory structures associated with the fruit -
– Seeds often protected by a bony wall or toxins
– No odor
- Nuts or seeds that are buried (hidden)
first symbol in a floral formulaindicated radial symmetry
-the modified shoot (or floral axis)
-shows the flower parts
occurs when the perianth is differentiated; inner whorl; usually colorful and attractive
-structures that are usually flat, determinate, photosynthetic part of a plant-born on a branch or stem
-aka primary vein-most prominent vein in a leaf (may not have one)
the stem between two adjacent nodes
-rolled to the the abaxial side
-swollen portion of the petiole involved in movement-usually positioned at the petiole base, but sometimes at the apex
-the general appearance of plants -varies greatly
type of inflorescence or flower that is borne on older stems and/or trunks
-Arrangements of flowers on a plant– Form of shoot and arrangement of flowers– Taxonomically informative
-an ovule-bearing unit(s) that make up the gynoecium
Triploids (watermelons)
- a type of parthencarpic fruit
-meiosis doesn't occur properly, but you still get some fertilization (white seeds)
landing platform
formed by the corolla directs pollinators toward the nectar and/or pollen and forces them to perform the movements required for pollination
unlike parts are not fused together; lilies
Water pollination
rare form of pollination; primarly marine or brackish
A mature, ripened ovary along with itscontents and any accessory structures
dashed line
in the floral formula, variation within a taxon in either connation or adnation
The outermost layer of the fruit wall
fusion of unlike parts; petals and sepals fuse; stamens fused to petals
complete flowers
flowers that possess a perianth, androecium and gynoecium; ex. is a lily
an extra ornamentation found in some flowers; often attractive; can be outgrowths of perianth parts, stames, or receptacle; diverse in form and function
seed coat
-surrounds the seed-develops from the integuments
embryo within a seed within an ovule/fruit
structure that joins the pollen sacs together and joins the pollen sacs to the filament
-a type of leaf shape-equally wide throughout a large section of the leaf
opposite leaves
-a leaf arrangement pattern-two leaves occur at the same node, and are placed on opposite sides of the stem
-a basic leaf shape-widest near its base
entire margins
-with a smooth margin-lacking any teeth
-a pattern of organization of the major veins-single primary vein with secondary veins arising along its length like the teeth of a comb
Unifoliate leaf
-a compound leaf that through evolutionary reduction has only a single leaflet -distinguished from a simple leaf by the presence of a pulvinus at the blade-petiole junction
caulescent plant
a plant with a distinct stem
plant that growing on another plant, which is used as support
the plant axis bearing leaves with axillary buds at the nodes separated by internodes usually above ground
Functions of stems
– Maximize exposed photosynthetic surface area– Display flowers and fruits– Secondary – photosynthesis, storage (water/carbs), climb, protection
perfect flowers
flowers possess both an androecium and a gynoecium (bisexual)
fusion of like parts; petal fused to petal; carpel fused to carpel
Determinate (monotelic) inflorescence
-a type of inflorescence
– Main axis of the inflorescence ends in a flower
– Top (or central) flower usually opens first
– Usually ancestral (evolved from) indeterminate
water dispersal
type of dispersal• Fruits or seeds washed away byrainfall• Carried in water currents• Small, dry, hard seeds/fruits• May have spines or projections thathelp them anchor to a substrate• Slime• Unwettable surface• Low density (floating)
zero (0)
indicates the lack of a particular floral part in the floral formula
number of sepals
second item in the floral formula
determinate umbel
-a type of umbel
-has the oldest flowers on the top/center
imperfect flowers
flowers that are lacking either an androecium or a gynoecium (unisexual)
Heads (capitulums)
type of inflorescence is a dense terminal cluster of sessile (no stalk) flowers in indeterminate-> peripheral flowers open first in determinate-> center flowers open first
-one, usually of a pair of appendages located on either side of (or on) the petiole base -part of the leaf
-a type of leaf shape-widest near the apex
lobed margins
-a type of margin-has large rounded projections along margin
-plants that live for three or more years-Survival is key–focused on own vegetative reproduction–Sexual reproduction in one season isnot so important, got time to sow someproverbial wild oats-a lot of them flower only once a year
acaulescent plant
a plant that is apparently stemless -sometimes the stem is subterranean
Wind pollinated plants
– Plants often dioecious ... or stamens and stigmamature at different times– Flowering occurs before leaves develop– Petals/sepals reduced or absent– Stamens pendant (hanging) with long filaments– Feathery stigmas with large surface area– Lots of pollen (high pollen/ovule ratio)– Flowers often in catkins (long, pendant inflorescences)– Pollen often smooth, light, and small or larger with air spaces– ± One seed per flower
sterile stamens/sterile carpels
in the floral formula this is indicated by placing a dot next to the number of these sterile structures.
number of petals
the third item in the floral formula;
the part of the ovary to which ovules are attached
Geitonogamy (geitonogamous) flowers
Floral characteristics for "sex w/ a neighbor" pollination
– Colorful, showy flowers (for animal pollination)
– Flowers open for wind or pollinator access
– Stamens and stigma can be spatially separated
– Stamens and stigma can mature at different times
multiple fruit
type of fruit that is from several ovaries from multiple flowers
floral formula
a fast way to convey information about a species flower
Sympodial shoots
-a shoot formed through activity of a series of axillary meristems that take over the role of the main axis
simple leaf
-a type of leaf-has just a single blade
apical meristem
-a group of dividing cells at the growing apex of a stem
Adventitious roots
-roots that do not develop from the taproot-they develop from stems or leaves
Mite domatia
-a type of domatia-tend to be small and found at the junction of veins
dash (-)
in the floral formula this is used to indicate variation in the number of floral parts within a taxonused to separate the minimum and maximum numbers
presence of a hypanthium
in the floral formula this is indicated by a line connecting the numbers representing the different floral parts
Indeterminate umbels
- a type of umbel
-has the have the oldest flowers on the bottom
Pinnately compound leaf
-a type of compound leaf-has more than three leaflets -is attached along two sides of an axis -"feather-like"
Secondary veins
-a type of vein that branches off the primary vein
herbs or herbaceous plants
-type of habit-don't have a woody stem-don't have secondary cell walls-die back to ground level in winter
radial symmetry
a flower can be divided in two or more planes to produce symmetrical halves; also called actinomorphic or regular; usually round flowers
dispersal by the plant itself
-type of fruit and seed dispersal
• Gravity
• Explosive discharge of seeds, fruits –>bc of  Turgor pressure changes, hygroscopic tissues (ex: squirting cucumber, small movements cause them to trigger)
• Passive movements of fruits by wind, rain, animals
• Creeping movements of seeds themselves due to hygroscopic changes
peanut is a fruit that plants itself
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