Japan Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Samurai
military soldiers/warriors
Meiji
enlightened peace
First industry in Japan?
textiles
Dojo
school of sword fighting
katana
big sword Samurai carry
Pagoda
Buddhist temples with many-storied towers; this was adapted from the Chinese
Kendo
the way of the sword
Zaibatsu
powerful banking and industrial families in Japan.
Daimyo
land owner, loyalty to shogun
Koans
impossible questions that take very deep meditation (necessary to reach satori)
Geisha
classy prostitute; highly educated and trained; spoke many languages, played instruments; went to tea houses and served buisness men
Burakumin
minorty population in Japan; these people are the lowest on the social ladder; had laboring jobs
Matsuo Basho
(1644-1694) (pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa) Generally acknowledged as the master of the haiku form, the most notable influences on his work were Zen Buddhism and his travels throughout Japan. He is noted for works like The Narrow Road to the Deep North (Oku no hosomichi), which includes descriptions of local sights in both prose and haiku. He took his pseudonym from the name of the simple hut where he retired: Basho-an, which means "Cottage of the Plaintain Tree."
kamikaze
devine wind,
plans that flew into ships
Ishikawa Kaoru
Japanese engineer, "quality control circles"
Eta
like untouchables; lowest of the low on social class
Ainu
a minority population in Japan; first settlers in Japan
Satori
self understanding; in order to reach this, a person had to answer koans
Sepukku
if a samurai broke bushido, samurais had to commit suicide called this
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
The predecessor of Tokugawa; succeeded Nobunaga Oda and laid the foundations of the Tokugawa shogunate. Moved capital to Osaka. By 1590 most daimyo had accepted his authority.
Hans
Feudal territories or domains ruled by daimyo
W. Edward Deming
american engineer, gives Japanese "quality control"
Under who's reign is Japan isolated?
Tokugawa Shogunate
Ikebana
the Japanese art of the formal flower arrangement, based on harmony and brings peace to Japan
Emperors
didn't have as much power as the shoguns; but were only kept around because the were decendents of god
Tokoyoto Hideoyshi
(1536 - 1598) adopted by samurai family; Nobonaga's top general - he gets the title of Kanpuku when Nobonaga dies; *he unifies all of Japan; centralizes tax system; disarms all non samurai to stop rebellion and fighting; expells europeans
Oba Nobonaga
Diamyo when he was 15; excellent general - unifies a large part of Japan; allows foreigners to enter Japan to break the power of the monks (who fight); he was murdered by one of his generals so he never got the chance to make a shogunate
Shogun
military rank for the commander of an army
Kanji
a mix of Chinese characters with the original Japanese writing
Oda Nobunaga
Japanese lord who seized the imperial capital kyoto in 1568 and sought to rule the empire by force, placing the reigning shogun under his control.
Which European nation was allowed to continue trading with Japan, though only for two or three months once a year?
The Dutch
Japanese ceramics
Inspired by Chinese and Korean ideas and as highly prized by Europeans as the Chinese
Tokugawa Leyasu
Shogun of Japan in 1603
his family rules from 1603 - 1868
does not understand how you may be faithful to him && the pope, has all catholics who will not give up faith executed. this goes on for 30 years.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
U.S. President, declares war on Japan.
Under who's reign is Japan becoming industrialized?
Emperor Meiji
Kami
the spirit of god in a natural beautiful thing
Heian Period
(794 - 1100) move the capital to Heian; 300 years of developing a new culture; growth of large estates; arts and literature of china flourished; elaborate court life; personal diaries (pillow book and the take of genji); moved away from chinese culture
Yamoto Period
(500 - 700) "Great Kings" era; these people claimed to be decendents of Jimmo Tenno to obtain power; Buddhism enters Japan through Koreans; confucianism; language was kanji; by 600 AD, Prince Shotuku decides he wants to go to china to learn about their culture to add to China's culture (he sent 3 expiditions)
Zen Buddhism
one of two religions; starts in 1200 BC; ultimate goal was satori; believed that strict religious, physical, and mental disapline was necessary in order to reach nirvana
Feudalism
a lord is granted land in exchange for military protection and services
Shito
one of the two religions; "the way of the gods" people should live amungst nature
What European products were the Japanese fascinated by?
tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, weapons
Francis Xavier S.J.
Jesuit, born in Spain.
travels to Japan as a missionary.
Travels to Nagasaki 1549
by 1600s there are over 300,000 catholics in Japan
Townsed Harris
U.S. consul to Japan.
goes to Japan and asks for another treaty, "unequal treaties"
Tale of Genji
story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu; believed to be the world's first full novel
Samurai during Tokugawa Era
ceased to be warriors and became managers on estates of daimyo
How did Tokugawa Ieyasu extend the anti-European policies of his predecessor?
All Christian missionaries were expelled, Japanese Christians were persecuted, and European merchants were expelled.
Onnanokotachi
Girls
shita
under
suupaa
supermarket
背景
background
Yen
Japanese money.
gomennasai
I'm sorry.
yokka
The 4th
祝う
to celebrate
ohayo gozaimasu
Good morning
Otoko no hitotachi
Men
anten (暗転)
a blackout
aru, arimasu
there is...
hajimemashite
how do you do
Arupenkyōgi (アルペン競技)
an Alpine event
Burning of Sanjo Palace
Kamakura
anteiseiken (安定政権)
a stable government
toru, torimasu
to take (pictures)
aseru (褪せる)
to fade, to discolour
anpaiya (アンパイヤ)
an umpire, a referee
Two Main Resources
Rice and fish
moichido yutte kudasai
say it again please
asaoki (朝起き)
early rising; an early riser
kyoto
formerly the imperial capital of japan
How many social classes were there?
8
Kana
set of written symbols that represent syllables
replica
an exact copy of an original item
which religion became a cultural part of the traditional religion of japan?
Shinto
antena o haru (アンテナを張る)
to erect an antenna
article nine
constitutional provision that does not allow japan to have a military or army no national security
Bunraku
A puppet theatre in which large puppets enact the ordeals of separated lovers or dueling samurai
what is Heian- Kyo known as today
Kyoto
Regent
a person who rules a country for someone who is unable to rule
preparedness
attack could come at any time, samurai needed to be prepared
Arupususutando (アルプススタンド)
infield stands (for cheer groups in Kōshien High School Baseball Stadium)
social revolution
peasant and workers over take; social changes, not political
Expulsion
To drive or force out of a place
Who is the cheif of state in Japan
Emporer Akihito
what is Confucianism?
an outline of how families should behave
When did a boy or girl begin Samurai Training
15
What kind of military does Japan have?
It doesn't have one
anmin suru (安眠する)
to sleep well, to have a quiet/sound sleep
What does Japan's Flag symbolise?
Japan's flag symbolises the rising sun
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
Allowed Japan to conquer a vast empire in SE Asia
What are elements of Japanese geography?
Some elements of Japanese geography are earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, typhoons, and mountians.
what were the two primary consequences of japan's lost decade
LDP loss of monopolyzero sum politicsrudderless governent
What happened to the Japanese classes after Westernization?
Samurai class was abolished, daimyos were forced to turn over their lands; the feudal system had come to an end.
why is pure land Buddhism popular with common people?
it didn't acquired any special rituals
What were some similarities and differences in the Aztec and Japanese Heirarchy's?
The merchants had power in the Aztec heirarchyThe emperor had power in the Aztec HeirarchyThere were priests in the Aztec heirarchy
What does 'The nail that sticks out gets hammered down"Mean?
It means that nothing different was accepted in the Japanese Society all those years ago
How did the honour of the samurai affect there lives?
If they lost ther honour or their master they would commit seppuku, which was ritual suicide.
What was part of an Artists sword ritual?
Praying to the gods to ward off the bad spirits
dogu
Yayoi
ue
on
tsukue
desk
byooin
hospital
法律
law
arukari (アルカリ)
alkali
dakara
so; therefore
futsuka
The 2nd
雛祭り
Doll’s Festival
oyasumi nasai
good night
Otoko no hito
Man
an'un (暗雲)
dark clouds
日本国憲法
Constitution of Japan
ikura desu ka
How much
arukarisei shokuhin (アルカリ性食品)
alkaline foods
anmaku (暗幕)
a blackout curtain
saraishuu
the week after next
arukarikandenchi (アルカリ乾電池)
an alkaline dry cell
anrakushi (安楽死)
mercy killing, (artificial) euthanasia
Is Japan Mountainous or flat?
Mountainous
kabuki
a type of Japanese theatrical production
ase daku de (汗だくで)
bathed in perspiration
Zazen
practiced heavily by Dogen; extensive seated meditation
When did commodore perry come back?
1854
Buddhist
relating to the religion founded by Buddha, an ancient religious leader in India
Asean (アセアン)
ASEAN, Association of Southeast Asian Nations
anshin saseru (安心させる)
to set ~ at ease
belligerent
a legally recognized participant in an armed conflict who is protected by and subject to the laws of war
Noh
A musical dance drama, performed with masks (noh masks).
discrepancy
the state or quality of being discrepant; difference; inconsistency.
ashi ga itai (足が痛い)
to have a sore foot
Dango System
represents a type of collusion and briber; a system of bid rigging
From where can you see Mount Fuji from?
Tokyo
How many miles of road are in Japan
743,780 mi.
mikka no asa (三日の朝)
on the morning of the third
Shinto
The ancient religion of Japan. It is a delicate religion that combines harmony and nature.
How many total miles of railway are in Japan
14 mi.
anshin shite (安心して)
with a sense of relief, free from care, with confidence
Who are the closest neighbours to Japan?
Russia, Korea, and China
Tax exemptions were also given to land owners for ___ production.
Rice was a (blank)exemption.
What were some of the presents Commodore Perry presented the Japanese with?
A train and a camera
They controlled the money, because they controlled the rice which was the currency
What happened to Japan after the Westernization?
Who was the new emperor of the Meji Era?
Emperor Meji; Emperor Mutsuhito
how did emperors take power in japan?
built up armies to conquer their neighbors
Why did Japan experienced PHYSICAL isolation?
-they are an isolated island that was easy to keep people off of-they have a rocky costline
What happened to the Daimyo when the Alternate attendance happened?
The Daimyo were losing power because they had to spend a year in the palace and didnt get to look over their samurai as much
Why did Japan give in to the U.S. wanting to trade?
-the US was threatening war on them-the shogun felt that they were behind on the world(technology/knowledge)
What was the story of the 47 Ronin?
The 47 Ronin had a master called Lord Asano, and Asano commited a forbidden act and he took his own life. The Samurai became Ronin (Samurai without a master) and then they launched a surprise attack on Lord Kira who had provoked the act on their master. Lord Kira was killed and because they killed him, duty now demanded that they take their own lives, and they did.
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