Animal Biology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Spiny skin
Reptiles are
Chordata subphylums...
Have a backbone
great apes (old)
tympanum are in...
What are chelicerae?
(“few bristles”) Deposit feedersMove via hydrostatic skeletonReproduction is sexual with internal fertilization (hermaphroditic)
Jawless fishes
the vertebrates were
sessile form of cnidarians
Dihybrid cross is?
2 traits.
Segmental ganglia?
thorax and abdomen
Where is estrogen produced?
Radial Symmetry
A circular Body Plan
Outer layer of body wall
strong connective tissue that supports tthe body and is softer and more flexible than bone
Subphylum of the centipede, millipede, and insects
Phylum Platyhelminthes: Common name
Snakes evoved from?
reptiles with limbs
Sometimes mutations result in?
new alleles.
What connects capillaries and veins?
this structure is formed during gastrulation which become the gut
By which method do sponges feed?
Tube-like extension from the bell, with the mouth on the end
appendages that scorpions and spiders use to capture and handle their prey are called
signal that carries information and can be detected
In Crustacea.. the satellite covering over sephlathorax, that protects the gills
body temperature determined by the environment
Resemblance may occur bc organisms share a common ancestroy, this is called?
What are ectoparasites during their entire life history?
Most polychaeta are marine or fresh?
Swelling of eyes from over-production of thyroid hormone?
refers to the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end ("brain")
Annalids and Mollusks both have a ___________ larva.
Class Scyphozoa
Solitary large medusae; polyps reduced or absent in life cycle
colonial protists
Modern organisms are thought to resemble these earlier animals
nerve net
loosely organized network of nerve cells that together allow cnidarians to detect stiimuli (jellyfish)
section of the digestive system that extends from the mouth (flatworms)
hyperosmotic fluid
less dilute, more osmotic pressure, water loss. little urine, solutes excreted. EX: saltwater fish have salt glands to get rid of salt (so do seagulls)
What takes in other organisms?
cytopharynx (cell mouth)
How many biogeographic regions of the world do scientists recognize?
Dominant alleles:
hide the expression of another allele
What muscle forces water into the food?
Class amphibia evolved from ?
lobe finned fishes
In digenetic flukes, the intermediate host is always a?
mollusk (snail)
There are 2 barriers surrounding plasma membrane of egg cell, the head of sperm releases what to attack it?
hydrolytic enzymes
What in saliva breaks down starchy foods?
the tendency of the living body to maintain its internal environment (blood temp, body fluids) at a relatively constant physical and chemical state in the face of constant external change
- implies existance of control systems to moderate changes
A living fossil in the great barrier reef
animal whose anus is formed from the blastopore (starting at echinoderms)
Phylum Cnidaria: Examples
Jelly fish, sea anemones, coral
the inward movement of a portion of the wall of a blastula in the formation of a gastrula.
What forms sheaths around nerve cells?
glial cells
DNA and RNA are large molecules made of subunits called?
1/1000 female. have extra X chrome, so 3X. tall, skinny and motor skills delayed.
What type of disease transmitted by ticks cause a bulls eye rash?
lymes diesease
How is the trichina worm acquired?
inadequately cooked pork
Name 3 vertebrate respitory structures?
skin, gills and lungs
THe gonadotrophin, luteinizing hormore (LH) is produced where?
the anterior pituitary gland
Larva with a ring of cilia around its middle
this organism has one pair of legs per segment and eat other animals
Vertebrates six commom characteristics
1. internal skeleton2. backbone3. two paris of appendages4. closed circulatory sys.5. heart with two or more chambers6. large central cavity containing vital organs
A chromatid is a copy of a chromosome produced by?
spermatogenesis and oogenesis produce?
mature sperm and ovum or egg.
Some peole think that the green gland is the brain of a crayfish but its actually?
excretory organ
Phylum echinodermata includes what 4 classes?
asteroidea, ophiuroidea, echinoidea, holothuroidea
What results in the absence of gene flow bw populations of subpopulations?
reproductive isolation
Body is DIVIDED externally and ?
Compartmentalized internally (internal arrangement of coelomic spaces and muscles)
Some hormones are amines which are?
dirivatives of the thyroid
What stimulates growth of bone and muschle, promotes protein synthesis, affects lipid and carb metabolism and increases cell division?
Growth Hormone GH
Choanoflagellates are closely related to animals
1) choanoflagelletes cells are similar to collar cells in sponges
2) collar cells found in animals, but not in choanoflagelletes protist plants
3) DNA Sequencing data shar high sequence similarity for specific signalling and adhesion
Jacobs syndrome
1/1000 male. 1X and 2Y. said to cause behavorial problems and some mental and fertility problems. no other distinguishing characteristics.
What are chemoreceptors used for?
feeding, mate location, egg laying sites and detecting certain chemicals in environment
Have eggs but eggs arent?
shelled. so need a moist environmnet
This type of selection involves circumstances selecting against individuals of a intermediate phenotype and produces distinct subpopulations?
Disruptive or diversifying selection. ex. sexual selection-structures built for combat bw males for mates like horns. (Type 1 and type 2 males of the plainfin midshipman)
Filter feeding is a form of?
suspension feeding. filter feeders have devices that strain food from water (gill raker or balleen)
what is brandykinin and how does it effect immune response? 5 things
signaling molecule that...
1) initiates a pain response
2) warns local cells of injury with prostaglandin
3) activates mast cells which activates the inflammatory response by releasing hystamine which opens capillaries so defense cells can be released
4) platelets clot blood to  reduce loss
5) repair cells heal area
What types of cells are bacteria?
Prokaryotic. humans have mutualistic bacteria in our systems that are prokaryotic like strep, flu etc.
Each gene associated with a chromosome codes for?
a specific characteristic or trait.
What are features leading to arthropod success? (4)
Metamerism and jointed appendages, Chitinous exoskelton, Hemocoel and Metamorphosis
Some shards have pharyngeal modifications for?
filter feeding but most sharks are predators
The larvae stage is infective, how does it get in host?
penetrates skin, gets into circulation, navigates to lungs etc, swallowed and attaches to SMALL intestine.
What do u need potassium for?
to generate and conduct nerve impulses
What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
open: contains an open tubular heart
closed contains a closed heart system using blood
Where is the site of protein synthesis?
ribosomes. genetic code is translated into proteins at ribosomes in cytoplasm.
A shark intestine has something called a spiral valve which?
delays passage of material through small intestine and allows for absorption of nutrients
What is the deadend host?
humans. bc someone would have to eat us to get is
What 4 types of teeth do heterodonts have?
incisors, canines, premolars and molars
How does the spinal cord send and receive messages?
receives from periphary via dorsal sensory roots and sends to periphary via ventral motor roots
mucus on amphibians, waxy coating on spiders, and reptilian scales
Evaporation of water can be limited by
Why is tRNA important in the translation process?
it brings the different amino acids coded for by the mRNA into alignment so that a polypeptide can be made.
But most feed on fish, kertinized tongue allows lamprety to?
attach to prey and rip away flesh.
Type of speciation where one species splits into 2 or more without geographic separation?
sympatric. ex. polyploid (extra set of chromos) plant forms new species bc can't successfully interbreed. Cichlid fish and finches.
Na/K pump at resting membrane potential
1) maintains flow of Na+ inward and K+ outward
2) at rest Na+ flow completely blocked whereas some K+ gates remain open
3) results in negative ions remaining in cells have resting potential of -70mV
What is infective a cyst of a trophozoite?
cyst. those w/out immunity have the trophozoite.
Why are they a single class now?
Both use clitellum which is used for cocoon formation around the body
What 3 ways can humans acquire toxoplasmosis?
eating raw or rare sheep or pork, cat feces (ones old, young, chronic illness) or inutero.
an alternate form of a gene that occur at the same locus of a chromosome is?
an alleles. mutations are a source of alleles and a source of variation which isn't always a bad thing.
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